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occasional residence of our kings. When it ceased to be so occupied, the
buildings, which were extensive, fell into decay. During the Civil War
it was mad© a garrison for the Parliament, Cambridge being head-
quarters. In 1660, the county was in possession of it, subject to a fee
farm rent ; and the Quarter Sessions were held in it from that time till
after the building of the Shirehall. The remains of the ancient building,
consisting of a gate-house, which was long used as a prison, were lately
. demolished to aiford space for the erection of a new County Court.

Amongst eminent natives of Cambridge were Sir John Cheke, tutor,
and afterwards Secretary of State to Edward VI. ; Dr. Thirllbye, first and
only Bishop of Norwich and Ely ; Bishop Jeremy Taylor ; Dr. Goldis-
bourne, Bishop of Gloucester ; Dr. Townson, Bishop of Salisbury ; Dr.
Love, Dean of Ely; Thomas Bennett, who suffered martyrdom at Exeter
in 1530 ; and Eichard Cumberland, the dramatist. Prince Adolphus
Frederick, fifth and youngest son of King George III., was created Duke
of Cambridge, November 27th, 1801.

Cambridge is famous for its University, of which the following account
is abridged from a topographical dictionary by Samuel Lewis : —

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY.

The origin of the University is enveloped in great obscurity ; it is, how-
ever, probable that Cambridge first became a seat of learning in the seventh
century, when, as Bede in his Ecclesiastical History informs us, Segebert,
King of the East Angles, with the assistance of Bishop Felix, constituted
within his dominions a school in imitation of some that he had seen in
France, and this is thought to have been established here. It is certain
that at a very early period the town was the resort of numerous students,
who at first resided in private apartments, and afterwards in inns, where
they lived in community under a principal at their own charge. Several
of these houses were at length deserted, and fell into decay ; others were
purchased in succession by patrons of literature, and, obtaining incorpora-
tion with rights of mortmain, received permanent rich endowments. It
is believed that a regular system of academical education was first intro-
duced in 1109, when the Abbot of Crowland having sent some monks,
well versed in philosophy and other sciences, to his manor of Cottenham,
they proceeded to the neighbouring town of Cambridge, whither a great
number of scholars repaired to their lectures, which were arranged after
the manner of the University of Orleans. The first charter known to
have been granted to the University is that in the tenth of Henry III.,
conferring the privilege of appointing certain officei's called taxors



A DESCRIPTION 0¥ CAMBEIDGESHIEE. 113

to regulate the rate of lodgings for students^ which had been raised
exorbitantly by the townsmen. This was about fifty years before the
foundation of Peter House, the first endowed College. In 1249, the dis-
cord between the scholars and the townsmen had arrived at such a pitch
as to require the interference of the civil power; and in 1261, dissensions
arose in the University between the northern and southern men, which
were attended with such serious consequences, that a great number of
scholars, in order to pursue their studies without interruption, withdrew to
Northampton, where a University was established and continued four
years. In 1270, Prince Edward came to Cambridge, and caused an
agreement to be drawn up, by virtue of which certain persons were ap-
pointed by the town and the University to preserve the peace between the
students and the inhabitants. In 1333, Edward III. granted some im-
portant privileges to the University, making its authority paramount to
that of the borough, and ordaining that the Mayor, Bailifis, and Aldermen
should swear to maintain its rights and privileges. These eminent favours
caused the townsmen to be more than ever jealous of its authority ; their
discontents broke out into open violence in the succeeding reign, when,
taking advantage of the temporary success of the rebels of Kent and
Essex in 1381, the principal townsmen, at the head of a tumultuous
assemblage, plundered Benedict College, and compelled the Chancellor
and other members of the University to renounce their chartered privi-
leges, and to promise submission to the usurped authority of the
bm'gesses. These lawless proceedings were terminated by the arrival
of the Bishop of Norwich with an armed force ; and the King soon after
punished the burgesses by depriving them of their charter, and bestowing
all the privileges which they had enjoyed upon the University, together
with a grant that no action should be brought against any scholar or
scholar's servant, by a townsman, m any other than the Chancellor's
court. In 1480, Pope Martin V. decided, from the testimony of ancient
evidence, that the members of the University were exclusively possessed
of all ecclesiastical and spiritual jurisdiction over their own scholars.
Bichard II. restored to the burgesses their charter, with such an abridge-
ment of their privileges as rendered them more subordinate to the
University than they previously had been.

On the first symptoms of an approaching war between King Charles and
the Parliament, the University stood forward to demonstrate its loyalty by
tendering the College plate to be melted for his Majesty's use. In 1643,
the Earl of Manchester, at that time Chancellor of the University, came
to Cambridge, and after a general visitation of the Colleges, expelled all
the members that were known to be zealously attached to the King and to
the Church discipline. In March, 1647, Sir Thomas Fairfax visited the



114 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

University, and was received with all tlie honours of royalty at Trinity
College j on the 11th of June he kept a public fast at the place.
Queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge on August 5th, 1564, and stayed
five days, during which she resided at the Provost^s lodge. King's College,
and was entertained with plays, orations, and academical exercises. On
the 7th of March, 1615, James I., with his son Henry Prince of Wales,
was here, and was lodged at Trinity College, which has ever since, on the
occasion of royal visits, been the residence of the Sovereign. King James
honoured the University with another visit in 1625 ; and Charles I. and
the Queen were there in 1632, when they were entertained with dramatic
exhibitions. It has also been visited by Charles II., October 14th, 1671,
and September 27th, 1681 ; by William III., October 4th, 1689 ; by
Queen Anne and the Prince of Denmark, April 16th, 1705 ; by George
I., October 6th, 1717 ; and by George II., in April, 1728. On all these
occasions the royal guests were entertained by the University in the hall
of Trinity College ; and it was customary for the Corporation of the town
to present them with fifty broad pieces of gold. The University of Cam-
bridge is a society of students in all the liberal arts and sciences, incor-
porated in the 13th of Elizabeth, by the name of the " Chancellor,
Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge." It is formed by
the union of seventeen Colleges, or societies, devoted to the pursuit of
learning and knowledge and for the better service of the Church and State.
Each College is a body corporate, and bound by its own statutes, but is
likewise controlled by the paramount laws of the University. The pre-
sent University statutes were given by Queen Elizabeth, and, with former
privileges, were sanctioned by Parliament. Each of the seventeen de-
partments, or Colleges, in this literary republic, furnishes members both
for the executive and the legislative branch of its government ; the place of
assembly is the Senate House. All persons who are Masters of Art, or
Doctors in one of the three faculties, viz., divinity, civil laws, and physic,
having their names upon the College boards, holding any University office,
or being resident in the town, have votes in the assembly. The Senate
is divided into two classes or houses ; and according to this arrangement
they are denominated Eegents, or Non-Regents, with a view to some
particular offices allotted by the statutes to the junior division. Masters
of Art of less than five years standing, and Doctors of less than two,
compose the Regent or Upper House, or, as it is otherwise called, the
" White Hood House," from its members wearing hoods lined with white
silk. All the rest constitute the Non-Regent or Lower House, otherwise
called the " Black Hood House," its members wearing black silk hoods.
But Doctors of more than two years' standing, and the Public Orator of the
University, may vote in either house according to their pleasure. Besides.



A DESCRIPTION OP CAMBEIDGESHIEE. 115

the two houses, there is a Council called the Caput, chosen upon October
12th, by which every University grace must be approved before it can
be introduced to the Senate. This Council consists of a Vice- Chancellor
a Doctor in each of the three faculties, and two Masters of Arts, the last
representing the Kegent and Non-Eegent houses. No degree is ever
conferred without a grace for that purpose; after the grace has passed, the
Vice-Chancellor is at liberty to confer the degree. The University
confers no degree whatever, unless the candidate has previously sub-
scribed a declaration that he is honct fide a member of the Church of
England as by law established. For all other degrees, except those of
B.A., M.B., and B.C.L., it is necessary that persons should subscribe to
the 36th Canon of the Church of England, inserted in the Registrar's
book. The executive branch of the University government is com-
mitted to the following officers : — A Chancellor, who is the head of the
whole University, and presides over all cases relative to that body ; his
office is biennial, or tenable for such a length of time beyond two
years as the tacit consent of the University chooses to allow. A High
Steward is elected by a grace of the Senate, who has special power to
try scholars impeached of felony within the limits of the University (the
jurisdiction of which extends a mile each way from any part of the
suburbs), and to hold a Court Leet, according to the established charter
and custom ; he has power by letters patent to appoint a deputy.

A Vice-Chancellor is elected on November 4th by the Senate ; his
office, in the absence of the Chancellor, embraces the government of the
University, according to the statutes; he acts as a Magistrate both for the
University and the County, and must, by an order made in 1587, be the
head of some CoUege.

A Commissary is appointed by letters patent under the signature and
seal of the Chancellor ; he holds a Court of Record for all privileged per-
sons, and scholars under the degree of M.A.

A Public Orator is elected by the Senate, and is the oracle of that body
on all public occasions ; he writes, reads, and records the letters to and
from the Senate, and presents to all honorary degrees with an appropriate
speech. This is esteemed one of the most honourable offices in the gift
of the University. The Assessor is an officer specially appointed, by the
grace of the Senate, to assist the Vice-Chancellor in his Court, in causis
forensibus et domesticis.
. Two Proctors, who are peace officers, are elected annually on October
10th, by the Regents only, and are chosen from the different Colleges in rota-,
tion, according to a fixed cycle. A Librarian, Library Keeper, and Assis-
tant Library Keeper, are chosen by the Senate, to whom the management
of the University Library is confided.



116 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

A Registrar^ elected also by the Senate^ is obliged, either by himself
or deputy, to attend all congregations, to give requisite directions for the
due form of such graces as are to be propounded, and to receive them
when passed into both houses.

Two Taxors are elected on October 1 0th by the Regents only, who must
be Masters of Arts, and are Regents by virtue of their office ; they are
appointed to regulate the markets, and to lay the abuses thereof before
the Commissary. Two Scrutators are chosen at the same time by the
Non-Regents only ; they are ex-officio Non-Regents, and attend all congre-
gations, read the graces in the lower house, gather the votes, and pro-
nounce the assent and dissent. Two Moderators, nominated by the Proc-
tors, and appointed by a grace of the Senate, officiate in the absence of
the Proctors. Two Pro-Proctors are appointed to assist the Proctors in
that part of their duty which relates to the preservation of the public
morals. This office was instituted by a grace of the Senate, April
29th, 1818, and Bachelors in Divinity, as well as Masters of Arts, are
eligible.

The Classical Examiners are nominated by the several Colleges, accord-
ing to the cycle of Proctors, and the election takes place at the first con-
gregation after October 4th. There are three Esquire Bedells, whose
duty is to attend the Yice-Chancellor. The University Printer, the
Library Keeper and Under-Library Keeper, and the School Keeper are
elected by the body at large. The Yeoman Bedell is appointed by letters
patent under the signature and seal of the Chancellor. The University
Marshal is appointed by letters patent under the signature and seal of the
Vice- Chancellor. The Syndics are members of the Senate chosen to transact
all special affairs relating to the University. The Professors have stipends
allowed from various sources : some from the University chest, and others
from Her Majesty's Government, or from estates left for the purpose.

Lady Margaret's Professorship of Divinity was founded in 1502, by
Margaret Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry YII., the election to
be every two years.

The Regius Professorship of Divinity was founded by Henry VIII. in
1540 ; the candidates must be either Bachelors or Doctors in Di\anity.
The Regius Professorship of Civil Law was also founded by Henry VIII.
in 1540; the professor is appointed by the Queen, and continues in office
during her Majesty's pleasure.

The Regius Professorship of Physic, founded at the same time, may be
held for life. The appointment is by the Queen.

The Regius Professorship of Hebrew was. founded also at the same time.
A candidate must not be under the standing of M.A. or B.D,, but Doctors
of all faculties are excluded.



A DESCRIPTIOK OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE, 11?

A Professorship of Arabic was founded by Sir Thomas Adams^ Bart.,
in 1632. The Lord Ahnoner^s Reader and Professorship of Arabic is in
the gift of the Lord Ahnoner, and the stipend is paid out of the almony
bounty.

The Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics was founded in 1663^ by
Henry Lucas, Esq., M.P. for the University. A candidate must be a
Master of Arts at least, and well skilled in mathematical science.

The Professorship of Casuistry was founded in 1683, by John Knight-
bridge, D.D., Fellow of St. Peter's. A candidate must be a Bachelor or
Doctor in Divinity, and not less than forty years of age.

The Professorship of Music was founded by the University in 1684.
The Professorship of Chemistry was founded by the University, in 1702.
The Professorship of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy was
founded in 1704, by Dr. Plume, Archdeacon of Rochester. The Profes-
sorship of Anatomy was founded by the University in 1707.

The Professorship of Modern History was founded by George I. in
1724. The Professor is appointed by the Queen, and holds the office
during Her Majesty's pleasure. He must be either a Master of Arts,
or Bachelor in Civil Law, of a superior degree.

The Professorship of Botany was founded by the University in 1 724,
and has since been made a patent office. The Professorship of Geology
was founded by Dr. Woodward, in 1727. Only unmarried men are
eligible. The Professorship of Astronomy and Geometry was founded by
Thomas Lowndes, Esq., in 1749. The Norrisian Professorship of Divinity
was founded by John Norris, Esq., of Whitton, in the county of Norfolk,
in 1768. The Professor cannot continue in office longer than five years,
but may be re-elected. He may be a member of either University, may
be lay or clerical, but cannot be elected under his thirtieth, nor re-elected
after his sixtieth year. The Professorship of Natural and Experimental
Philosophy was founded in 1783, by the Rev. Richard Jackson, M.A. A
member of Trinity College is to be preferred, and next a candidate from
the counties of Stafford, Warwick, Derby, or Chester.

The Downing Professorship of the Laws of England, and the Downing
Professorship of Medicine, were founded in pursuance of the "tt^ll of Sir
George Downing, Bart., K.B., in 1800.

The Professorship of Mineralogy was founded by the University m
1808, and afterwards endowed by Her Majesty's Government.

The title of Professor of Political Economy was conferred by a grace
of the Senate in May, 1828, on George Pryme, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of
Trinity College, and is to be a permanent professorship. Lady Margaret's
Preachership was founded in 1 503 ; Doctors, Inceptors, and Bachelors of
Divinity are alone eligible, one of Christ's College being preferred. The



118 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

Bamaby Lecturesliips, four in number,, viz., in matliematics, philosophy,
rhetoric, and logic, are so called from the election taking place on St.
Barnabas' day, June 11th; the mathematical lecture was founded at a very
early period by the University, and the other three were endowed in
1524, by Sir Kobert Eede, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common
Pleas in the reign of Henry YIII.

The Sadlerian Lectureships in Algebra, 17 in number, were founded by
Lady Sadler, and the lectures commenced in 1710; the lecturers were
required to be Bachelors of Arts at least; the lectureships are tenable only
for ten years, and no one can be elected unless previously examined and
approved by the Mathematical Professor.

The Kev. John Hulse, who was educated at St. John's College, and
died in 1 789, bequeathed his estates in Cheshire to the University for the
advancement and reward of religious learning. The purposes to which he
appropriated the income are, first, the maintenance of two scholars at St.
John's College ; secondly, to recompense the exertions of the Hulsean
prizemen ; thirdly, to found and support the office of Christian Advocate ;
and fourthly, that of the Hulsean Lecturer or Christian Preacher. The
Christian Advocate must be a learned and ingenious person, of the degree
of Master of Arts, or of Bachelor or Doctor of Divinity, of thirty years of
age, and resident in the University ; he has to compose yearly, while in
office, some answer in English to objections brought against the Christian
rehgion, or the religion of Nature, by notorious infidels. The office of the
Hulsean Lecturer, or Christian Preacher, is annual ; but the same in-
dividual may, under certain circumstances, be re-elected for any number
of successive years not exceeding six; the preacher is afterwards ineHgible
to the office of Christian Advocate ; his duty is to preach and print twenty
sermons in each year, the subject of them being to show the evidences of
revealed religion, or to explain some of the most obscure parts of the Holy
Scriptures. William Worts, M.A., of Caius College, formerly one of the
Esquire Bedells of the University, gave two pensions of £100 per annum
each to two junior Bachelors of Arts, who are required to visit foreign
countries, to take different routes, and to write during their travels
two Latin letters each, descriptive of customs, curiosities, &c. The
annuity is continued for three years, that being the period they are
required to be absent.

The prizes for the encouragement of literature, the competition for
which is open to the University at large, amount to nearly £1200 in value,
three-fourths of which are given for the classics and English composition,
and the remainder for mathematics. The amount of the annual prizes in
the different Colleges is upwards of £300, two-thirds of whieh are given
for the encouragement of classical literature. Two gold medals, value



A DESCEiPTION OP CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 119

£15 15s. Od. each, are given annually by the Chancellor to two commen-
cing Bachelors of Art, who having obtained senior optimes at least, show
the greatest proficiency in classical learning. These prizes were estab-
lished in 1751 by the Duke of Newcastle, then Chancellor of the
University.

The University scholarships are as follow : — John Lord Craven founded
two classical scholarships, tenable for fourteen years, of £25 per annum
each; by a decree of the Court of Chancery, in 1819, the income of the
scholars has been augmented to £50, and three additional scholarships
founded, which are tenable for seven years only. William Battle, M.D.,
left an estate producing £18 per annum, to endow a scholarship similar to
the preceding. Sir William Browne, Knt., M.D., left a rent charge of £21
for endowing a scholarship tenable for seven years. The Rev. J. Davies
D.D., Provost of Eton College, bequeathed in July, 1804, the sum of
£1000 Three per Cents, to found a scholarship similar to Lord Craven's, for
the greatest proficient in classical learning. The Rev. William Bell,
D.D., late Fellow of Magdalene College, in 1810, transferred £15,200 Three
per Cents, to found eight new scholarships for sons or orphans of clergy-
men of the Church of England whose circumstances prevent them bear-
ing the whole expense of sending them to the University. By a grace of
the Senate, December 9th, 1813, it was directed that the sum of £1000
given by the subscribers to Mr. Pitt's statue, for the purpose of founding
the Pitt Scholarship, and afterwards augmented by a donation of £500 from
the Pitt Club, should be placed in the public funds until the syndics were
able to vest it in land, the clear annual income to be paid to the Pitt
scholar. The Rev. Robert Tyrwhitt, M.A., Fellow of Jesus College, who
died in 1817, bequeathed £4000 Navy Five per Cents, for the encourage-
ment of Hebrew learning; and in the following year the Senate decreed
the foundation of three Hebrew scholarships, which number, in 1826, was
increased to six, a scholar of the first class receiving an annual stipend of
£30, and one of the second class a stipend of £20, for three years. The
annual income of the University chest is about £16,000, including about
£3000 of floating capital ; this arises from stock in the funds, manors,
lands, houses, fees for degrees. Government annuity (for the surrender of
the privilege of printing almanacs), profits of the printing-oflSce, etc. The
annual expenditure is about £12,000, disbursed to the various officers,
the professors, the library and schools, the University press, and in taxes,
donations to charities, &c. The whole is managed by the Yice-ChanceUor
for the year, and the accounts are examined by three auditors, appointed
annually by the Senate.

There are two courts of law in the University — the Consistory Court of
the Chancellor, and the Consistory Court of the Commissary. In the for-



120 ;. HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

mer^ the Chancellor or Vice- Chancel) or, assisted by some of the heads of
the Colleges, and one Doctor, or more, of the civil law, administers justice
in all personal pleas and actions arising within the limits of the Univer-
sity wherein a member of the University is a party, which, excepting
only such as concern mayhem and felony, are to be here solely heard and
decided ; the proceedings are according to the course of the civil law.
From the judgment of this Court, an appeal lies to the Senate. In the
Commissary's Court, the Commissary, by authority under the seal of the
Chancellor, sits both in the University and at Midsummer and Stourbridge
fairs, to proceed in all cases, excepting those of mayhem and felony,
wherein one of the parties is a member of the University, excepting that
within the University all causes and suits to which one of the Proctors or
Taxors, or a Master of Arts, or any one of superior degree, is a party, are
reserved to the sole jurisdiction of the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor; the
manner of proceeding is the same as in the Chancellor's Court, to which
an appeal lies, and thence to the Senate. The terms, three in number,
are fixed: — October or Michaelmas term begins on October 10th, and
ends on December 16th ; Lent or January term begins on January
13th, and ends on the Friday before Palm Sunday ; and Easter or
Midsummer term begins on the 11th day after Easter-day, and ends on
the Friday after Commencement day, which last is always on the first



Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 14 of 70)