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Tuesday in July.

The several orders in the difierent Colleges are as follow : — A Head
of a College or House, who is generally a Doctor in Divinity ; Fellows,
who generally are Doctors in Divinity, Civil Law, or Physic ; Bachelors
in Divinity; Masters or Bachelors of Arts. The total number of the Fellow-
ships is 408. Noblemen Graduates, Doctors in the several faculties,
Bachelors in Divinity (who have been Masters of Arts), and Masters of
Arts, who are not on the foundation, but whose names are kept on the
boards for the purpose of being members of the Senate. Graduates who
are neither members of the Senate nor in statu pu^pillari, are Bachelors
in Divinity denominated four-and-twenty men, or ten year men ; they
are allowed by the 9th statute of Queen Ehzabeth, which permits persons
who are admitted to any College twenty-fom* years of age and upwards
to take the degree of Bachelors in Divinity, when their names have
remained on the boards ten years. Bachelors in Civil Law and in Physic,
who sometimes keep their names upon the boards until they become
Doctors. Bachelors of Arts, who are in statu pupUlari, and pay for
tuition whether resident or not, and generally keep their names on
the boards, either to show their desire to become candidates for
Fellowships, or members of the Senate. Fellow Commoners, who are
generally the younger sons of the nobility, or young men of fortune, and



A DESCRiniON OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 121

have the privilege of dining at the Fellows' table ; they are here
equivalent to gentlemen commoners at Oxford. Pensioners and Scholars,
who pay for their respective commons, rooms, &c._, but the latter are on
the foundation, and, from the enjoyment of scholarships, read the graces
in Hall, the lessons in Chapel, &c. The number of scholarships and
exhibitions in the University is upwards of 700. Sizars are generally
men of inferior fortune, who usually have their commons free, and
receive various emoluments.

The terms required by the statutes to be kept for the several
degrees are as follow : — A Bachelor of Arts must reside the greater part
of twelve several terms, the first and last excepted. A Master of Arts must
be a Bachelor of three years' standing. A Bachelor in Divinity must be
a Master of Arts of seven years' standing. A Bachelor in Divinity
(ten-year man) is allowed, by the 9th statute of Queen Elizabeth, to
take the degree of B.D. at the end of ten years, without having
taken any other. A Doctor in Divinity must be a Bachelor in Divinity
of five years', or a Master of Arts of twelve years' standing. A Bachelor
in Civil Law must be of six years' standing complete, and must reside
the greater part of nine several terms. A Bachelor of Arts of four
years' standing may be admitted to this degree. A Doctor in Civil Law
must be of five years' standing from the degree of D.C.L., or Master of
Arts of seven years' standing. A Bachelor in Physic must reside the
greater part of nine several terms, and may be admitted any time
in his sixth year. A Doctor in Physic is bound by the same regulations
as a Doctor in Civil Law. A Licentiate in Physic is required to be M.A.
or M.B. of two years standing. A Bachelor in Music must enter his
name at some College, and compose and perform a solemn piece of music
as an exercise before the University. A Doctor in Music is generally a
Bachelor in Music, and his exercise is the same. The ordinary course
of study preparatory to the degree of Bachelor of Arts may be con-
sidered under the three heads of Natural Philosophy, Theology, and
Moral Philosophy and the Belles Lettres. On these subjects, besides
the public lectures delivered by the several Professors, the students
attend the lectures of the tutors of their respective Colleges. In
addition to a constant attendance on lectures, the undergraduates are ex-
amined in their respective Colleges, yearly or half yearly, on those sub-
jects which have engaged their studies ; and according to the manner in
which they acquit themselves in these examinations, their names are
arranged in classes, and those who obtain the honour of a place in the
first class receive prizes of books, difiering in value, according to their
respective merits. By this course the students are prepared for those
public examinations and exercises which the University requires of all



122 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

candidates for degrees. The first of these takes place in the second Lent
Term after the commencement of academical residence^ at the general
public examination held annually in the Senate House^ in the last week of
that term, and continues four days. Two classes, each arranged alphabeti-
cally, are formed out of those examined, the first consisting of those who
have passed their examination with credit, and the second of those to
whom the examiners have only not refused their certificate of approval.
Those who are not approved by the examiners are required to attend the
examination of the following year, and so on ; and no degree of B.A.,
M.B., or B.C.L. is granted unless a certificate be presented to the Caput
that the candidate for such degree has passed to the satisfaction of the
examiners some one of these examinations. The student having passed
this preparatory step, has next to perform the exercises required by the
statutes for the degree which he has in view.

The principal public buildings belonging to the University are the
Senate House, and the Public Schools and Library ; the former of these
forms the north, and the latter the west side of a grand quadrangle, which
has Great St. Mary^s Church on the east, and King^s College Chapel on
the south. The Senate House is an elegant building of Portland stone,
erected from a design by Sir James Burrough, at the expense of the
University, aided by an extensive subscription. The foundation was laid
in 1722, but it was not entirely completed until 1766; the exterior is of
the Corinthian order, and the interior of the Doric, capable of accommo-
dating 1000 persons ; near the centre of one side of the room is a marble
statue of George I., by Rysbrach, executed at the expense of Lord
Viscount Towushend ; and opposite to it is that of George II., by Wilton,
executed in 1766 at the expense of the Duke of Newcastle, then Chan-
cellor of the University ; at the east end, on one side of the entrance, is
a statue of the Duke of Somerset, by Rysbrach ; and on the other that
of William Pitt, by Nollekins, erected by a subscription among the
members of the University, amounting to upwards of £7000. The Public
Schools, in which disputations are held and exercises performed, were
commenced on their present site in 1443, at the expense of the University,
aided by liberal benefactions ; they form three sides of a small court, the
Philosophy School being on the west, the Divinity School on the north,
and the schools for Civil Law and Physic on the south ; on the east is a
lecture room for the Professors, fitted up in 1795; connected with the
north end of the Philosophy School is an apartment containing the
valuable mineralogical collection presented to the University by Dr.
Woodward in 1727. The Public Library occupies the whole quadrangle
of apartments over the schools, and consists of four large and commodious
rooms, containing upwards of 100,000 volumes. At the commencement it



A DESCRIPTION OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 123

occupied only the apartment on the east side, but was afterwards extended
to the north side also ; its most important acquisition was in the early
part of the last century, when George I., having purchased of the exe-
cutors of Dr. Moore, Bishop of Ely, that prelate's collection of books,
amounting to upwards of 30,000 volumes, for £6000, gave them to this
University, at the same time contributing the sum of £2000 towards fitting
up rooms for their reception. The upper part of a mutilated colossal
statue from the temple of Ceres at Eleusis, the gift of Messrs. Clarke and
Cripps, of Jesus College, by whom it was brought to England, is placed
in the vestibule. The rents of the University's estate at Ovington, in the
county of Norfolk, are appropriated for the purchase of books for the
Hbrary, that estate having been bought with money given to the University
in 1666, by Tobias Eustat, Esq., to be so applied. William Worts, M.A.,
Fellow of Cains College, bequeathed the annual surplus of the produce
of his estate at Landbeach, in this county, to be applied to the use of the
pubhc hbrary. A quarterly contribution of one shilling and sixpence
from each member of the University, excepting sizars, is also made
towards its support. This is one of the eleven libraries entitled by Act
of Parliament to a copy of every new pubhcation. The superintendence of
the University press is committed by the Senate to syndics, who meet to
transact business in the parlour of the printing office, and cannot act unless
five are present, the Yice-Chancellor being one. Eichard, Viscount Fitz-
william, formerly of Trinity Hall, who died in 1816, bequeathed to the
University his splendid collection of books, paintings, drawings, en-
gravings, &c., together with £100,000 South Sea Annuities, for the
erection of a Museum to contain them. The collection has since been
augmented by many valuable donations of paintings, prints, books, &c.
The building was commenced in 1838, from the designs of Mr. G. Basevi,
and forms nearly a square of 160 feet ; the principal or east front is a rich
composition, with fourteen columns of the Corinthian order, surmounted
by a pediment. The ground floor contains three rooms for hbraries,
extending along the west front, and communicating with two others, one
to the south for medals and that to the north for terra cottas, &c. The
upper hall is 70 feet by 46 feet, and contains casts from the antique^
&c. There are also three picture galleries, the floors of which, and also
those of the libraries, are of Dutch oak.

The Botanical Garden occupies between three and four acres on the
south-east side of the town, conveniently disposed and well-watered;
this piece of ground, with a large old buildmg that formerly belonged to
the Augustine friars, was purchased for £1600 by the late Eichard Walker,
Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College. The old building having been sold,
a new one has been erected for the use of the lecturers in chymistry and



•l24 HISTORY OF EASTERif ENGLANb.

botany. The garden is under the government of the Vice -Chancellor,
the Provost of King's College, the Masters of Trinity and St. John's Col-
leges, and the Professor of Physic.

The Anatomical School, situated near Catherine Hall, contains a large
collection of rare and valuable preparations, including the museum of
the late Professor, Sir B. Harwood, and a set of models beautifully
wrought in wax, recently imported from Naples ; it| is a small building
conveniently fitted u^p, with a theatre for the lectures on anatomy and
medicine, which are delivered in Lent term. Measures for the establish-
ment of the Observatory were first adopted in 1820, when a sum of £6000
was subscribed by the members of the University, to which £5000 were
added out of the public chest by a grace of the Senate. The building
was commenced in the year 1822, and completed at an expense of
£18,115 ; it stands on an eminence, about a mile from the College walks,
on the road to Madingley, and is in the Grecian style ; the centre, sur-
mounted by a dome, is appropriated to astronomical purposes, and the
wings for the residence of the observers. The superintendence is vested
in the Plumian Professor, under whose direction are placed two assistants,
who must be graduates of the University, and are elected for three years,
being capable of re-election at the expiration of that term.

The Philosophical Society was instituted November 15th, 1819, for
the purpose of promoting scientific inquiries, and of facilitating the com-
munication of facts connected with the advancement of philosophy and
natural history ; it consists of Fellows and honorary members, the for-
mer being elected from such persons only as are graduates of the Univer-
sity, and no graduate or member of the University can be admitted an
honorary member ; attached to the Society is a reading-room, supplied
with the principal literary and scientific journals, and the daily newspapers.

The University comprises seventeen Colleges, namely, St. Peter's,
Clare Hall, Pembroke, Gonville, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi, King's,
Queen's, Catherine Hall, Jesus', Christ's, St. John's, Magdalene, Trinity,
Emanuel, Sidney, and Downing ; which were all founded at difierent
times after the twelfth century. An account of them is given in our
historical narrative in the order of time ; also of the eminent members
of each College. The principal buildings of the town belong to the
University, and the most admired are King's, Trinity, St. John's, and
Jesus colleges.

NEWMARKET.

A market-town, and the head of a union, comprising the parish of
St. Mary, in the Hundred of Lackford, West Division of the county of
Suffolk, and the parish of All Saints, in the Hundred of Chcveley, county



A DESCRIPTION OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE . 125

of Cambridge^ and sixty-one miles (north-north-east) from London,
and thii'teen miles (north-east-by-east) from Cambridgeshire. The
earliest account of this town has reference to the year 1227, when it
is supposed to have derived its name from a market then recently
established, which is said to have been removed hither on account
of the plague raging at Exning, a village about two miles distant,
where was probably the parochial church ; and in the time of Edward
III. it gave name to Thomas Merks, or de novo Mercatu, Bishop of
Carlisle, who was probably a native of the place. A house, called the
King^s house, was originally built here by James I., for the purpose of
enjoying the diversion of hunting; and the subsequent reputation of the
town for horse-racing seems to have arisen from the spirit and swiftness
of some Spanish horses, which, having been wrecked with the vessels of
the Armada, were thrown ashore on the coast of Galloway, and brought
hither. Its celebrity greatly increased in the reign of Charles II., who
re-built the King^s house, which had fallen into decay during the Civil
War, and frequently honoured the races with his presence. On the 22nd
of March, 1683, being the time of the races, the King, Queen, and Duke
of York were present, but a sudden conflagration compelled them to
return hastily to London, to which event some writers have attributed the
defeat of the Rye-house Plot. By this disaster a great part of the town
was destroyed, and the damage was estimated at £20,000. A second fire
happened about the beginning of the last century. At the close of the
Civil War, Charles I. was removed, on the 9th of June, 1047, from the
house of Lady Cutts, of Childerley, to Newmarket, where he remained
about ten days. The town consists principally of one street, the north side
of which is in the county of Suffolk, and the south in that of Cambridge.
The houses are modern and well built. Coffee-houses, billiard-rooms,
and others, furnish appropriate accommodotion for all meetings pre-
liminary to the races. The race-course and training grounds are the
finest in the kingdom ; the former is on a grassy heath near the town,
and in the county of Cambridge, extending in length four miles. The
training ground is more than a mile-and-a-half long, on a very o-entle
acclivity, admirably adapted to keep the horses in wind. The new rooms
for the use of the Jockey Club are in the centre of the town. The races
are held seven times in the year, and are distinguished as the Craven
Meeting, commencing on the Monday in Easter week ; the first and
second Spring Meetings, the former on the Monday fortnight following,
and the latter a fortnight afterwards ; the July Meeting ; the first and
second October Meetings ; and the third October or Houghton Meetino-^
the first of these commencing on the first Monday preceding the first
Thursday in that month. The great races are those in Easter week and



126 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

October. The training of race-horses is a source of extensive profit, several
of them, among which are some of the finest horses in the world, being
constantly exported at exceedingly high prices. About four hundred
are here during the greater part of the year, and it is computed that the
weekly consumption of oats, in the town alone, amounts to the amazing
quantity of five hundred quarters.

The Queen gives two plates annually. Millions of money have been
lost and won at these race meetings by betting, and hundreds of turfites
make betting a regular profession or trade by which they live. The
palace erected by King James has been sold, and part of it converted into
shops. The additional structure by King Charles is standing, and part
of it was the residence of the late Duke of York during the meetings, and
is now occupied by the Duke of Rutland ; the remainder, with its exten-
sive stables, is held under the authority of the Crown.

The Market, which was granted or confirmed in 1227, is held on Tues-
day, and there are Fairs on Whit Tuesday, and November 8th, the latter
being extensively supplied with cattle, horses, corn, butter, cheese, hops,
etc. The county magistrates hold Petty Sessions here every Tuesday, and
a Court Leet is held occasionally.

The parishes of St. Mary and All Saints are in the Archdeaconry of
Sudbury, and diocese of Norwich ; the former is a discharged rectory, con-
solidated with the vicarage of Wood Ditton, in the patronage of the Duke
of Rutland. The Church is a handsome structure, with a fine tower and
spire. The latter is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 royal bounty,
and in the patronage of the Bishop of Norwich. There is a place of wor-
ship for Independents. Free schools are supported by a donation of £50
per annum, which is equally divided, after the deduction of fees of the
Exchequer, between the master and the mistress, for which they are re-
quired to teach twenty-one boys and twenty-one girls. A National School
having been established some years since, the twenty-one boys on Queen
Anne's foundation are instructed there as free scholars ; the remainder,
being about one hundred and ten, are paid for by the subscribers ; the
girls, instructed by the schoolmistress, are provided with cloaks and bon-
nets. About a mile and a-half from the town is a remarkable excavation
called the " Devil's Dyke," extending nearly in a straight hue for seven
miles, and being in some places above a hundred feet in width. This
work, unquestionably of very remote antiquity, has been attributed to the
Britons anterior to the time of Caesar, and by some to Uffa, the first king
of the East Angles ; but notwithstanding that much pains have been
taken in the search, no authentic account has ever yet appeared of this
remarkable monument of human industry and perseverance. It serves
for the boundary between the dioceses of Norwich and Ely.



A DESCRIPTION OP CAMBRIDaESHIRE, 127

Several Eoman coins were found near Newmarket Heath in the year
1760^ and in 1836 three urns of Eoman workmanship, containing the
ashes of the dead^ were discovered.

LINTON (ST. MAKY.)

A market town and parish of Chilford, County of Cambridge, distant
48 miles (north by east) from London, This town, which is situated on
the road from Cambridge to Colchester, has been much improved of late
years. The Market, granted in 1245 to William de Lay, is on Thursday,
and there is a Fair on July 30th for sheep. An Act for enclosing waste
lands was passed in 1838. Courts Leet are held occasionally by the
lords of the manors. The Kving is a discharged vicarage ; patron. Bishop
of Ely ; the appropriate tithes, belonging to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge,
have been commuted for a rent charge of £780, and the vicarial for £260 ;
the appropriate glebe comprises eighty -four acres, valued at £75, and the
vicarial, niue years, valued at £8 per annum. The Church has a fine
embattled tower, and a gallery has been lately built, containing one hun-
dred and twenty free sittings. There is a place of worship for Indepen-
dents. The Poor Law Union of Linton comprises twenty-two parishes
or villages, twenty of which are in the county of Cambridge, and two in
that of Essex, and contains a population of 12,958; the Union Workhouse
cost £6500, and is capable of accommodating two hundred paupers.

WATERBEACH

Is a large ill-built straggling town, about seventy miles distant from
London. It lies in the Hundred of North Stow, and deanery of Chester-
ton, and is a place of some antiquity. Denny Abbey stood in the parish
of Waterbeach. It was originally a cell of Benedictine monks, and after-
wards an important convent for nuns. Passing from the Benedictines to
the Templars, on the dissolution of that order, it came into the hands of
Mary de St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke. That lady converted it in
1338 into an Abbey for manoresses, and under the King^s license brought
there a number of nuns who had been previously located in an Abbey
founded by the Lady Dionysi de Mountchensi, A.D. 1293. There were
twenty-five nuns in this Abbey at the time of the dissolution. On the site
of the old Abbey a dwelling-house has been built, and the Abbey demesne
is converted into a farm, one of the largest in the county. Many of the
houses in Waterbeach are of recent erection, and there is a great contrast
between them and the old houses, the latter being built without any
attempt at regularity or arrangement.. There is nothing in the town to
interest a visitor.

As the traveller approaches the city of Ely, he obtains a fine view of



128 HISTOEY OP EASTEEN ENGLAND.

its magnificent cathedral^ whicli is a splendid object in itself, and is ren-
dered still more imposing from its fine situation, on a lofty hill, wliose
sides are clothed vnth verdure and covered with trees. The country in
the immediate neighbourhood of Ely assumes an appearance of rural rich-
ness, being highly cultivated and extremely productive.

THE CITY OP ELY.

Ely is a city and the head of a Union, in the Isle of Ely, County of
Cambridge, 67 miles (north by east) from London. This place, which is
the capital of an extensive district in the Fens, is supposed to have derived
its name Eleg either from the British Hehjg, a willow, or from Elge, an
eel, for which fish it was remarkable. The city is situated on elevated
ground, nearly at the southern extremity of the Isle and the River Ouse,
which is navigable from Lynn for barges. It consists of a long street,
with smaller streets diverging from it, both in the lower and upper parts
of the town, in the centre of which is a spacious Market Place.

The ground in the vicinity, though flat and low, is extremely fertile,
producing excellent herbage, and a considerable portion of it is cultivated
by market gardeners, who supply the neighbouring towns with vegetables.
From the great improvement in the drainage of the Fens, the air of the
city of Ely, and indeed of the whole Isle, has become as salubrious as in
any part of the county. There is a good market on Thursday weekly,
and the Fairs are on Ascension Day and October 29th, for horses, cattle,
hops, and Cottenham cheese, and last for eight days each. Of late years,
the appearance of the town has been much improved by new buildings,
and it is well paved and lighted with gas.

The city, exclusively of the liberty of the College, which is extra
parochial, comprises the parishes of St. Mary and the Holy Trinity, and
both benefices are in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter. The
Church of St. Mary is an interesting structure, partly Norman and partly
in the early English style of architecture, with a handsome tower sur-
mounted by a spire. The Church of the Holy Trinity was formerly the
Lady Chapel of the Cathedral, now fitted up for the parishioners. The
King's Grammar School was founded in 1541 by Henry VIII. on the
establishment of the Cathedral, and it is under the Dean and Chapter,
who appoint the master.

The town of Ely, like some others in the Eastern Counties, arose round
a Monastery. Ethelreda, daughter of Anna, King of the East Angles,
founded a Monastery here in 673 for monks and nuns, dedicating the
building to the Virgin Mary ; and though married to Egfred, King of
Northumberland, she devoted herself to a monastic hfe, and became the
chief Abbess. A great part of the Monastery was destroyed by the



A DESCEIPTION OF CAMBEIDGESHIBl!. 129

Danes in 870, but it was partially restored by some of the monks wlio



Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 15 of 70)