Copyright
A. D Bayne.

Royal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) online

. (page 19 of 70)
Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 19 of 70)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


manor house of Kenninghall, called East Hall. This manor, which was in
the hands of the Crown at the time of Edward the Confessor, was granted
by King William I. to William de Albini, and East Hall remained the
manor house, through all its changes, until it was pulled down by the
third Duke of Norfolk, who built a much larger house, called the new
palace, a little to the north-east. The new house, built about 1525, was
settled on the Princess Mary when the estate of the Duke of Norfolk by
his attainder was seized by the King.

It was here that Queen Mary occasionally resided, and from here she
asserted her title to the Crown. This magnificent palace contained apart-
ments for the Duke and Duchess of Norfolk, the Earl and Countess



156 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

Surrey, the Children, the Master of the Children, the Duchess of Rich-
mond, the Lord Thomas Howard, Mr. and Mrs. Holland, Mr. Adryan
(physician of the household). Sir John Colborne, the Children of the
Chapel, the Almoners, the Master of the Horse, Controller, &c. It was
pulled down in 1645. Numerous remains of the ornamental brickwork
are to be seen in the houses of the neighbouring villages.

QUIDENHAM ST. ANDREW,

A parish in the Hundred of Guiltcross, two miles (east by north) from East
Harling, containing about 80 inhabitants. The living is a discharged
rectory ; net income, £636 ; patron, the Earl of Albemarle. There is a
glebe of 55 acres, with a house. The Church, which is an ancient struc-
ture, is the burial place of the Keppel family, one of whom was the cele-
brated Admiral Keppel, ancestor of the present Earl of Albemarle, who
has a seat here, situated in a small picturesque park.

Quidenham Church is a good specimen of Norman work. The lower
part of the tower and the tower arch, the north door of the nave, and
probably the north wall, were built in the early part of the twelfth cen-
tury ; all the walls of the rest of the edifice and the arches of the nave,
at the beginning of the thirteenth century ; and the chancel and east
windows of the aisle, about the middle or in the latter part of the thir-
teenth century. Visitors are gratified at viewing the handsome doorway
in the north side, the plain Norman arch in the belfry, the remains of
v/indows in the lower part of the Norman tower, the fine specimens of
flint design work in the buttresses, and part of an oak screen, which now
shuts off on the north side what is supposed to have been a dormitory.

WAYLAND HUNDRED

Was anciently called Waneland, from the oozy nature of the soil, which is
now well drained and cultivated, most of the commons having been
enclosed during this century. It is about eight miles in length, and from
four to eight in width. It is bounded on the south by Shropham, on the
north by Greenhoe, on the east by Mitford, and on the west by Grimshoe.
Wayland comprises 33,147 acres, and sixteen parishes with a popula-
tion of 7,783.

The parishes in this Hundred are Ashill, Breckles, Carbrooke, Caston,
Griston, Litlc Ellingham, Merton, Ovington, Rockland St. Peter, Saham
Toney, Scoulton, Stow Bedon, Thompson, Thrixton, Tottington, and
Watton.

WATTON ST. MARY

Is a market town, distant ninety-four miles (north-north-east) from London.



A 13ESCraPTI0N OF NORFOLK. 157

This place is of considerable antiquity, and appears to have had the grant
of a market prior to 1204, which during that year was suspended by writ
of inquiry, bijt soon after restored to Oliver de Vaux, lord of the manor.
In 1603 an accidental fire destroyed a great part of the town, with pro-
perty to the amount of £10,000. The town is situated nearly in the
centre of the Hundred, on the verge of that part of Norfolk called
Filand or " the open country," and consists principally of one spacious
street. There is some trade here, arising from the situation of the place
on a public thoroughfare. The Market is on Wednesday, and chiefly for
corn; the ancient Fairs are on July 10th, October 11th, and November
8th for cattle; and others of more modern date are on the second
Wednesday in July, and the first Wednesday after Old Michaelmas-day for
sheep. A Manorial Court is held annually, and a Court of Petty
Sessions for the Hundred on the first Wednesday of the month. The
parish comprises 1807a. 3k. 34r., of which 1167 are arable, 503 meadow
and pasture, and 85 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage. The
Church was originally erected in the reign of Henry I. ; the present
structure is of later date in the Early English style, with a circular tower,
surmounted by a spire. There are Chapels for Independents, Baptists,
and Methodists ; and a National School.

MEKTON (ST. PETER)

Is a parish in the Hundred of Wayland two and a-half miles from
Watton. The parish comprises 1361a. Ik. 20p., of which 738 acres
are arable, 491 pasture, and 86 woodland. The Hall is the seat
of Lord Walsingham, and is a handsome mansion in the Eliza-
bethan style, containing many stately apartments, some of which are
hung with ancient tapestry in good preservation. The Park is richly
wooded, and much of the timber is of ancient and luxuriant growth.
The Church, situated in the Park, is an ancient structure, with a round
tower ; the chancel contains several brasses and monuments of the family
of the De Greys.

SOUTH GREEN HOE.

This Hundred is about twelve miles in length and nine in breadth,
bounded on the north by Freebridge Lynn and Launditch, on the east
by Mitford and Wayland, on the south by Grimshoe, and on the west by
Clackclose. The whole district has generally a light sandy soil, except
on the eastern side, where it has a rich loam, and its highly cultivated
fields are watered by a rivulet flowing southward to the Wissey or Stoke
river. Area, 62,601 acres ; population, 10,756. Parishes : Bodney,
Bradenham (East), Bradenham (West), Caldecot, Cockley Cley, Cressing-



158 HISTOEY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

ham (Great), Cressing-liaiu (Little), Didliugton, Fouldeu, Gooclerstone,
Hilborough, Holme Hale, Houghton on the Hill, Langford, Narborough,
Narford, Necton, Newton, Oxborough, Pickenham (North), Pickenham
(South), Sporlc with Palgrave, Swaffham.

SWAFEHAM (ST. FETEK AND ST. FAUL)

A parish and market town in the Hundred of south Greenhoe, 05 miles
(north-north-east) from London. This ancient town is situated on an
eminence commandmg an extensive view of the surrounding countr3^
It consists of four principal and several other streets, lighted with gas
at night. The houses are well built, and the inhabitants are supplied with
water from wells. A charter was granted by King John for a Market
and two annual Fairs. The Market is on Saturday ; and Fairs are held on
May 12th for sheep, July 21st and November 3rd for sheep and cattle.
This is the chief town for the Western Division, and the election for
members of the Division is held at the Shirehall. The parish compiises
75G3a. 3k. 28p., of which 4524 are arable, 2853 pasture, 55 woodland,
and 131 roads, &c. The living is a vicarage, with the rectory of Threxton
annexed ; appropriators. Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The great
tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £1125, and the vicarial
for £533 10s. ; the appropriate glebe contains 110 acres, and the vicarial
53. The Church is approached by a fine avenue of lime trees, is a spacious
cruciform structure in the later English style, with a stately embattled
tower, crowned with turrets, and surmounted by a well-proportioned spire.
T^he nave is separated from the aisles by lofty ranges of slender clustered
columns, supporting the roof, which is richly ornamented with figures of
angels, carved in chesnut wood. There was anciently a Free Chapel,
dedicated to St. Mary, and about half-a-mile distant in a hamlet, formerly
called Guthluc's Stow, now called Goodluck's Close, stood another Chapel
dedicated to St. Guthluc. There are Chapels for Baptists and Wcsleyans.
The Free School here was founded in 1724, by Nicholas Hamond, Esq.,
who bequeathed £500 for erecting a School-house, and £500 for the
instruction of twenty boys. A National School, built in 1838, is
supported by subscription.

FOREHOE HUNDRED

Is twelve miles in length, and from six to eight in breadth, bounded on the
west by Wayland and Mitford, on the east by Humbleyard, and on the
north by Eynesford. It is divided from the latter by the River Wensuni,
and is intersected by the Yare, and several smaller streams. Forehoe has
its name from four hills, where the Hundred Court was formerly held. It
is an extensive district of fertile and highly -improved laud, nearly all the



A DESCllirTIOK Oi-' NOlU-'OLK. 159

commons having boon enclosed during the last and present century. The
Hundred includes twenty-four parishes^ covering 39,863 acres. Popula-
tion, 1-1,146.

The parishes are Barnham Broom, Barford, Bawburgh, Bowthorpe,
Brandon Parva, Carlton Forehoc, Colton, Costesscy or Cossey, Caston,
Crownthorpe, Deopliam, Easton, Hackford, Hingham, Honinghani,
Kimberley, Marlingford, Morley St. Botolph, Morley St. Peter, Runhall,
Welborne, Wicklewood, Wramplingham, and Wymondham.

WYMONDHAM (Oii WINmiAM ST. MAKY THE VIRGIN),

A parish in the Incorporation and Hundred of Forehoe, nine miles (west-
south-west) from Norwich, and 100 (north-east by north) from London,
comprising the market town of Wymondham, which forms the iii-soken,
and the divisions of Downham, Market Street, Silfield, Serton^ Town-
green, and Wattlefield, that constitute the out-soken.

This town, which derives its name from the Saxon Wiiide Mundo Ham,
signifying " a pleasant village on a mount,'^ is indebted for its importance
to the foundation of a priory of Black Monks^ at first a cell to the Abbey
of St. Alban's, founded by William d'Albini, or Daubeny, in 1130.

Henry I. endowed the monastery with lands, and with the privilege of
ai)propriating all wrecks between Eccles, Happisburgh, and Tunstcad, and
with an annual rent in kind of 2000 eels from the village of Hilgay.
About 1448, it was elevated to the rank of an Abbey, and continued to
flourish till the dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £72 5s. 4d,,
and granted by Henry VIII. to the Earl of Surrey ; there are some slight
remains of the Church and conventual buildings ; and some years since
two leaden coffins were found near the site of the chancel of the Abbey,
one supposed to contain the remains of the founder's lady, and which
was deposited in the branch Church. The two Ketts, who disturbed the
county in the reign of Edward VL, were natives of this place, and used
to assemble their followers under an oak, of which part yet remains in
the vicinity of the town. In the reign of IMary, Richard Crasfield and
Francis Knight were burnt at the stake in the town for heresy. In
1615, 300 houses and property to the amount of £40,000 were destroyed
by fire; and in 1631 the plague raged with great fury among the inhabi-
tants. The town, which is situated on the road from Norwich through
Thetford to London^ is of considerable extent, and consists chiefly of five
streets, diverging from the Market Place, and containing many ancient
and several well-built modern houses. Of late years it has been greatly
improved, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water. The manu-
facture of wooden spindles, spoons, and other articles of turnery ware
was formerly carried on to a very great extent, but is now .^liiiost extinct



160 flISTOKY Of EASTERN ENGLAND.

being superseded by the weaving of bombazine^ crape, and other articles
introduced many years since, and in the manufacture of which 120U
persons were employed ; there is also an extensive brewery and malting
establishment. The Market, granted by charter of King John in 120o,
is on Friday; there are Fairs on Februar}^ 14th, May 17th, and September
7th, principally for cattle, horses, and pedlery; and Statute Fairs for hiring
sei'vants are held occasionally ; when these days happen on the Saturday,
the Fairs are held on the following Monday, so as not to interfere with the
Noi-wich Market. In the Market Place is an ancient Cross, erected in
1016, and covered with an octagonal roof supported on wooden pillars at
the angles. A Court Leet takes place annually for the appointment of
Constables. Manorial Courts occm* as occasion requires, and Petty Sessions
on the third Tuesday m the inonth ; the inhabitants are exempt from
serving on juries at Assizes and Sessions. The House of Correction, for
females only, contains three wards, with day rooms, and two airing yards.
The parish comprises by measurement 10,559 acres, chiefly arable; the
surface is varied, and the scenery in some parts pleasingly picturesque.
Stanfield Hall, a handsome Elizabethan mansion, surrounded with a moat ;
Burfield Hall and Wattlefield House are in the parish. The living is a
discharged vicarage, valued in the King's books at £10 14s. 4id., patron
and appropriator, Bishop of Ely ; the great tithes have been commuted
for a rent-charge of £2192 12s. Od,, and the vicarial for £799. The
Church, which comprises the nave of the Abbey Church, is a handsome
structure in various styles ; the interior contains many interesting and
elegant details, among which are some richly-decorated Norman arches ;
the roof is elaborately groined, and ornamented with sculptured figures
of angels and various devices. On the south side of the chancel, which
has been formed out of the nave to supply the place of the ancient choir,
is a splendid monument to the late Abbot of the Monastery ; one of the
windows in the north aisle was embellished in 1840 with paintings of the
Nativity, Crucifixion, and Ascension of our Saviour, and with a figure of
the Virgin and Infant, in modern stained glass ; the font is richly
sculptured ; and there are several neat monuments. There are places
of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and
Wcsleyans. A Free Grammar School was founded in the reign of Eliza-
beth, and endowed with a moiety of the property belonging to guilds in
the town, producing £100 per annum, which are paid to the master, who
has also a house left by Robert Day, in 1673 ; a Scholarship in Corpus
Christi, Cambridge, was attached to it in 1574, by Archbishop Parker ;
another in 1580, by John Parker, Esq.; and in 1659 a share in an ex-
hibition for scholarships to the same College was given by Edward
Colman, Esq. The School is kept in an ancient Chapel dedicated to



A DESCRIPTION OP NORFOLK. 161

Thomas a Becket. A School for Girls is partly supported by endowment.
The late Rev. William Papillion, in 1834, built a school room for two
hundred children of both sexes, and also gave twenty acres of land for
their endowment and for the support of an evening lectureship"; the land
yields £60 per annum. The Rev. John Hendry, in 1722, bequeathed
£400 to be vested in the 'purchase of land, and the rental to be given
to the vicar for an afternoon sermon in the Church every Sunday ; also
a rent -charge of £3 10s. for a sermon every Friday in Lent; also a
small estate for the use of the Charity Schools ; and on the inclosuro of
the parish in 1806, about forty acres of land were allotted to the poor
for fuel,

KIMBERLEY,

A small village near Wymondham, is part of the estate of the Earl of
Kimberley, son of the late Lord Wodehouse, descendant of a very ancient
family in Norfolk. The first seat here belonged to the FastolfF family,
and stood on the west side of the village until Sir John Wodehouse, who
married the heiress of Sir John FastolfF, demolished it and erected a
moated hall with a tower at the west end of the Park. The mansion
became dilapidated in the seventeenth century, and at the beginning of
the eighteenth century Sir John Wodehouse built the present house, which
stands on the east side of the Park in the parish of Wymondham, and was
afterwards enlarged and beautified by Sir Armine Wodehouse, who added
four towers at the angles. It is a large and handsome brick mansion,
with many convenient rooms and some fine paintings, one of which is a
portrait of Vandyck, painted by himself when young. The Park is richly
ornamented with wood and water, and stocked with deer. The rivulet on
the west side of the Hall divides the parishes, and is expanded into a lake
surrounding a wood of venerable oaks, below which the serpentine stream
bounds a fine lawn.

HINGHAM (ST. ANDREW's),

A parish in the hundred of Forehoe, ninety-eight miles (north-east by
north) fi'om London. This place is situated near the source of the River
Yare, and was formerly a market town. The market has fallen into disuse
in consequence of its being on the same day as the Market of Norwicli.
The Fairs are held on March 7th, Whit Tuesday, and October 2nd ; the
first is chiefly for horses, and the last for different kinds of live
stock. General Courts Baron and Customary Courts for the Manors of
Hingham, Hingham Gurney, and Hingham Rectory are held on the 25th
of October. The parish comprises 3783 acres. The living is a
rectory ; net income £920 ; patron. Earl of Kimberley. The Church is a



162 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

fine structure, with a handsome tower of flint and stone, formerly sur-
mounted by a lofty spire.

MITFORD HUNDRED

Is the most central division of Norfolk, extending about ten miles in length
and six in breadth ; bounded on the north by Eynesford, on the east by
Forehoe, on the north by Wayland, and on the west by Launditch. It
formerly abounded in extensive commons, nearly the whole of which have
been enclosed during this century. At the Domesday survey it belonged to
the Monastery founded in the Isle of Ely by EtheKreda, a Princess of
East Angha, from which it passed to the See of Ely, with which it re-
mained till granted to the Crown in the reign of Elizabeth. Area, 33,572
acres, divided into eighteen parishes, with a population of 11,485. This
Hundred includes the parishes of Cranworth, East Dereham (part). East
Tuddenham, Garvestone, Hardingham, Hockering, Letton, Mattishall,
Mattishall Burgh, North Tuddenham, Reymerstone, Shipdham, South
Burgh^ Thuxton, Westfield, Whinbergh, Woodrising, Yaxham.

DEREHAM, EAST (ST. NICHOLAS),

A market town and parish, in the Union of Mitford and Launditch,
Hundred of Mitford, Western Division of the County of Norfolk, sixteen
miles (west-north-west) from Norwich, and one hundred and one (north-
east by north) from London. This place, anciently called Deerham, from
the number of deer by which it was frequented, and distinguished by its
adjunct from a village of the same name, is of very remote antiquity.
During the Heptarchy, Withburga, youngest daughter of Anna, King of
the East Angles, fouudcd a Monastery here, of which she became prioress,
and which establishment was subject to the Abbey founded by Ethelfi'eda,
daughter of King Anna, in the Isle of Ely. Withburga was buried in
the Churchyard, and her remains in 798 were removed into the
Conventual Church, whence, after the destruction of the Monastery by the
Danes, they were in 974 translated to Ely, where they were enshrined,
with those of her sisters, in the Cathedral Church of that city. A spring,
to which miraculous cures were attributed, is said to have risen up in that
part of the Churchyard where she was first interred, which in 1752 was
converted into a bath, and in 1793 enclosed in a brick building by
subscription. In 1581 the town suffered severely from fire, and in 1G79
the greater part of it was by a similar calamity reduced to ashes. It is
pleasantly situated, nearly in the centre of the county, and was formerly
the meanest town in Norfolk ; but within the present century it has been so
materially improved, by widening and levelling the streets, as to render it
a handsome town. The houses are in general neatly built, and of modern



A DESCEIPTION OF NORFOLK. 163

apjDearauce, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with excellent water.
The town is lighted with gas_, for which purpose works were constructed
in 1836. The Theatre, a small but neat building of brick, was used
every alternate year by a regular company of performers. A Book Club,
estabhshed under good regulations, is patronized by the most respectable
inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood ; and on the site of the ancient
market cross a handsome Assembly Room has been erected by subscription.
The trade formerly carried on in worsted is now discontinued. There are
two iron-foundries and two breweries in the town, and a large brewery
and malting establishment at South Green. The Market is on Friday, for
corn, general provisions, cattle, and pigs, for which last and for corn it is
the most considerable mart in the county. The trade of the town has
greatly increased since the opening of the railway. A new Corn
Hall has been built, and the market is well attended by corn merchants.
The Fairs are on the Thursday aud Friday before Old Midsummer-day,
and on the Thursday and Friday before Old Michaelmas -day, for
cattle, sheep, and toys. The County Magistrates . for the Division
hold Petty Sessions every alternate week ; and Courts Baron and Courts
Leet are held by the Lord of the Manor of Bast Dereham, of the Queen,
annually.

The parish with the Hamlet of Dillington, comprises 5222a. 3e. 21p.,
of which 3544 acres are arable, 625 meadow and pasture, 190 wood-
land, and 150 common, the last being appropriated for fuel, &c. ;
in the immediate vicinity of the town are various orchards and gar-
dens. The land is rich, and the surface is interspersed with several
picturesque hamlets, and numerous handsome mansions. One of the
Manors annexed to the Crown, and called " Bast Dereham of the Queen,^'
took its appellation from the circumstance of Queen Elizabeth having
obtained it from the Bisho]3 of Ely, whom she threatened to " unfrock •"
if he refused to give it in exchange for another estate. Quebec House,
three-quarters of a mile north of the town, is a spacious and handsome
mansion with a beautiful park and pleasure grounds. The living is a
rectory and a vicarage, with Hoe annexed ; the rectory is a sinecure,
valued in the King's books at £41 3s. lid., and held on lease from the
Crown; and the vicarage is valued at £17 3s. 4d., and in the patronage
of the Rector. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for a rent charge
of £413 6s. 8d. ; and the rectorial for £826 13s. 4d. ; the vicar's glebe
consists of 43^ acres and a good house, and the rectorial two and a-quarter
acres, with a rectorial manor. The Church, formerly the Conventual Church
of the Monastery of St. Withburga, and made parochial in 798, is a spa-
cious cruciform structure, partly in the Norman and partly in the Enghsh
style, with a tower rising from the intersection, and open for a con-



164 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

siderable height to the interior of the Church ; connected with the
transepts are the Chapels of the Holy Cross (over which was the treasury
of St. Withburga), St. Mary, and St. Edmund, and on the south side of
the chancel arc three stone stalls, with a double piscina of elegant design;
the font, supported on an octangular pedestal, is beautifully sculptured
with representations of the four Evangelists, eight of the Apostles, the
Crucifixion, and the seven Sacraments of the Romish Church ; and on the
south transept is an antique oak chest, richly carved, taken from Bucken-
ham Castle. Among the monuments is a white marble tablet to the
memory of Cowper the poet, who resided in this place for the last nine
years of his life, and was interred in the north transept of the Church ;
and in the same tomb are deposited the remains of his two friends, Mrs.
Unwin and Miss Perowne. The bells, which from their weight were
supposd to endanger the tower of the Church, were removed into a massive
tower, built for their reception in the reign of Henry VII., on a site
detached from the rest of the building.

There are places of worship for Particular Baptists, Independents, and
Wesleyans. A National School for three hundred children was built
in 1 840, by subscription, on a site given by the Crown ; the cost was
about £1000. A British and Foreign School was built, chiefly at the
expense of W. W. Lee- Warner, Esq., in 1841. Several charitable
bequests, amounting to about £170 per annum, are distributed amongst
the poor.

The infamous Bishop Bonner was rector of the parish from 1534
to ].540; and Lady Fenn, well known under the name of Mrs.
Lovechild, &c., as the authoress of various works for children, died
here in 1813.

LAUNDITCH HUNDRED

Is about twelve miles in length and breadth, bounded on the north by
Gallow, on the east by Eyncsford, on the south by Mitford, and on the



Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 19 of 70)