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This Division of the county is by far the largest and most populous,
extending along the coast for forty miles. It is divided into north and
south for Parliamentary purposes. It is watered by the rivers Waveney,
Yare, and Bure, diversified by numerous broads or inland lakes at
Wroxliam, SurHngham, Filby, Hickhng, Ormesby, and Rollesby. The
chief roads are from Yarmouth to Acle, Blofield, and Norwich ; also from
Yarmouth to Ormesby, Rollesby, and Martham, and from Norwich to
Aylsham and Cromer. Nearly all the towns and villages in East Norfolk
are of Anglo-Saxon origin, and most of them are built near rivers for the
convenience of water transit. On the east coast Yarmouth stands at the
mouth of the river Yare, from which the town takes its name. Norwich,
which is a city and county of itself occupying a large area, stands on
each side of the river Wensum above its confluence with the Yare ; north-
ward Aylsham and Coltishall are situated near the Bure which flows
from Aylsham through a flat district into the Yare at Yarmouth. The
Waveney passes the town of Diss, winds along between the counties of
Norfolk and Suffolk, and joins the Yare at Reedham.

The Eastern Division of Norfolk includes the rural and picturesque
Hundred of Blofield, near Norwich ; the highly-cultivated Hundreds of
Tuustead, Happing, and Walsham ; and the marshy Hundreds of East
and West Flegg, near the sea coast, the town of Yarmouth, and City of
Norwich.



A DESCRIPTION OF NORFOLK. 183



THE HUNDRED OF RLOFIELD



Is bounded on the north-east by the Hnndred of Walsham, on the north-
west by Taverham, and on the south by the Eiver Yare, which parts it
from the Hundreds of Henstead and Clavering. The length of this
Hundred, from the north-east to the south-east, where it is bounded by
the Yare, is twelve miles, and its breadth about four miles.

Blofield Hundred contains the following villages in the direction from
Norwich eastward : Thorpe, Post wick, Plumstead (Great and Little),
Blofield, Bradeston, Brundall, Burli'ngham North and South, Bnrlingham
St. Andrew, Buckenham, Cantley, Freethorpe, Hasingham, Limpenhoe,
Lingwood, Southwood, Witton, and Strumpshaw.

THORPE bishop's (sT. ANDREW),

A parish chiefly in the Hundred of Blofield, two miles east from Norwich,
is veiy pleasantly situated in the vale of the Yare. The parish comprises
2592a. 2r. Up., of which 1520 acres are arable, 831 meadow, pasture,
and common, 174 woodland, and 67 roads and waste. The village is
delightfully situated on the acclivities of a hill, at the base of which flows
the Eivers Wensum and Yare, which uniting their streams within this
parish, flow on to Yarmouth. The living is a rectory ; the tithes have
been commuted for a rent-charge of £612, and the glebe comprises
twenty-six acres. The County Lunatic Asylum stands in this parish.

POSTWICK (all saints),

A parish in the Hundred of Blofield, four miles east from Norwich^ is
situated on the road from the city to Yarmouth, near the River Yare.
The parish comprises about 1400 acres, of which 400 are marsh. The
village stances in a picturesque dell, which expands into the vale of the
Yare. The living is a rectory ; patron, the Earl of Roseberry. The
tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £475 ; the glebe com-
pT'ises forty-six acres, valued at £92 per annum. About eleven acres
of land, of Avhich five were allotted for inclosure, are appropriated for the
benefit of the poor.

BLOFIELD (sT. ANDREW)

Is a parish seven miles east of Norwich, situated on the road to Yarmouth.
This parish comprises about, 2 2 52 acres and 1100 inhabitants. The li^ang
is a rectory; net income £896 ; patrons. Master and Fellows of Gonville
and Cains College, Cambridge. The glebe consists of about 62 acres, with
a handsome parsonage house. The Church is in the later style, with a
lofty square embattled tower, surmounted at each angle with a figure of
one of the Evangelists. The nave is lighted by clerestory wuidows, and



184 HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

separated from tlie chancel by the remains of a carved screen^ embellished
with paintings of the Apostles. The Independents have a Chapel here.
The village contains several well-built houses and pleasant gardens ; also
a few good cottages.

STRUMPSHAW (ST. PETERJ^

A parish near the village of Blofield^ and in the Hundred of Blofield, and
bounded on the south by the River Tare. It comprises 1391a. Or. 2Qv.,
of which 851 acres are arable, 502 pasture, and the remainder water and
roads. The village is seated on an eminence ; and there is a windmill
standing on the highest ground in East Norfolk, and forming a con-
spicuous landmark. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of
Bradeston united ; net income, £474 ; the glebe contains about sixty-four
acres, and there is a good parsonage house. The Church contains portions
of the early and later styles of English architecture, with a lofty tower.
The rent of ten acres of land is distributed in fuel to the poor.

BRADESTON (ST. MICHAEL)

Is a parish half-a-mile distant from Blofield, in the Hundred of Blofield.
The parish comprises about 700 acres, of which 376 acres are arable and
139 marsh land, and is bounded on the south by the Yare, from the valleys
of which the land rises in gentle acclivities ; the soil varies from a fine
brick earth to a light sand. The view from the higher land over the vale
of the Yare is much admired. The living is a discharged rectory, united
to that of Strumpshaw. The Church, which is chiefly in the perpendicular
style, consists of a nave and chancel. The ruins of another church,
dedicated to St. Clement, were demolished fifty years ago.

BURLINGHAM (ST. ANDREW),

A parish in the Hundred of Blofield, situated on the road from Norwich
to Yarmouth, near Acle. The parish comprises 743 acres, of which 528
are arable and 214 pasture and plantation. The living is a discharged
rectory, with that of Burlingham St. Edmund annexed. The tithes have
been commuted for a rent-charge of £29G 15s. ; and there is a good
glebe-house, with about eleven acres of land, valued at £18 per annum.
The Church has a square tower, and contains tlie remains of a carved
screen, with representations of the Apostles.

RUCKENHAM EERRY (ST. NICHOLAS),

A parish in the Hundred of Blofield, nine miles (east) from Norwich.
This parish comprises 908a. 1r. 14i'., of which 133 are wood and water,
and the remainder arable and pasture in equal proportions. The village



A DESCRIPTION OF NORFOLK. 185

is pleasantly situated on tlie Eivcr Yare, over wliicli there is a ferry. The
living- is a discharged rectory, with that of Hassingham consolidated ;
patron^ Sir W. B. Proctor Beauchamp, Bart. The tithes have been com-
muted for a rent-charge of £130, and the glebe comprises thirty-seven
acres, valued at £44 per annum. The Church presents different styles of
architecture, and consists of a nave, chancel, and ancient tower. Here is
a farm-house built out of the remains of an old manor-house.

CANTLEY (ST. MARGARET),

A parish in the Hundred of Blofield, near the River Yare. This parish
comprises 1850a. Or. 26p., of which 877 acres are arable, and 900 pasture,
heath, and wood. The village contains very few houses or inhabitants.
The living is a rectory : patron, W. A. Gilbert, Esq. The tithes have
been commuted for a rent charge of £300 ; there is a good glebe house,
with forty-three acres of land, valued at £36 per annum. The Church
is chiefly in the later style, and has a square tower. The entrance to
the Church is throug'h a Norman doorway. The poor have the benefit
of nineteen acres of land allotted at the enclosure. Their cottages are
of the meanest description.

THE HUNDRED OF WALSHAM

Is bounded on the south-east by the Eiver Yare ; and on the south and
west by the Hundreds of Blofield and Taverhani. It is of an irregular
figure, and spreads fifteen miles north-west from the confluence of the
Rivers Yare and Bure near Yarmouth, varying from two to eight miles
in breadth. A great portion of the soil is low marshy land, and was
often liable to inundation, especially in the vale of the Bure, which
extends the whole length of the Hundred, but the marshes have been
well drained within the last century. Walsham Hundred comprises the
parishes of Acle, Beighton, Halvergate, Hemblingtou, Moulton, Reedham,
Runworth with Panxworth, Tunstall, Upton with Fishley, Walsham St.
Mary and St. Lawrence, Wickhampton, and Woodbastwick. Reedham
is supposed to have derived its name from the great quantity of reeds
growing in the marshes, and is noticed as being one of the seats of the
East-Anglian Kings. There is a railway station at the junction of the
branch line to Lowestoft, which port is twelve miles distnnt.

acle

Is a large parish, situated on the high road from Norwich to Yarmouth,
and comprises 31G4 acres, a large proportion of which is grazing land,
reclaimed from marshy ground ; the uplands consist of a fine loamy soil,
and are very fertile. The village is situated on a gentle slope, rising from



18§ HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

the banks of the river Bure^ over which is a stone bridge of three arches
and of great elevation, called Weybridge. River navigation is afforded
by the Bure, Yare, and Waveney to all the towns near tliem. The
living is a rectory ; patron, Lord Calthorpe. The tithes have been com-
muted for £720 ; there are twenty acres of glebe, and a good rectory
house. The Church is n handsome structure, in the decorated style.

WALSHAM (south).

In the Hundred of Walsham, three miles (north-west by west) from Acle,
comprising the parishes of St. Lawrence and St. Mary.

.This district, which is bounded on the north by the river Bure, was
anciently of more importance than at present, and during the prosperity
of the Abbey of St. Benedict, on the opposite side of the river, the toAvn
was of much greater extent ; but after the dissolution of that establish-
ment it fell into decay, and has subsequently degenerated into a mere
village. The parish of St. Lawrence comprises 1805a. Or. 29p., and that of
St. Mary 1250a. Or. 30p. The living of St. Lawrence is a rectory, valued in
the King's books at £136 8s. ; patrons. President and Fellows of Queen's
College, Cambridge ; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of
£509 Gs., of which £22 6s. are payable to the Bishop of Ely, and
£486 10s. to the rector; the glebe comprises fifty-seven and a-half acres,
valued at £115, and the parsonage house has been greatly improved. The
living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, valued in the King's books
at £5, and in the patronage of the Trustees of the Old Men's Hospital at
Norwich, who are impropriators. The great tithes have been commuted for
a rent-charge of £270, and the vicarial for £159 16s. ; the glebe comprises
thirty-six acres, with a small house ; and there are also rent-charges of
£11 OS. and £24 15s., payable to the Vicar of Upton, and the Rector of
Burlingham St. Andrew's. The Church of St. Lawrence, which was in
the same churchyard as that of St. Mary's, and which had been repaired
at an expense of £850 in 1811, was destroyed by an accidental fire in
1 827; the chancel was repaired and enlarged in 1 832, and opened for divine
service, but the lofty tower and nave are in ruins. The Church of St. Mary
is a handsome structure, in the decorated and later English style, with a
square embattled tower ; the nave is separated fi'om the chancel by the
remains of a nicely-carved screen, and is lighted by a range of clerestory
windows; there is a neat monument to William Jary, Esq. A school is
supported by the rector and his family. Richard Harrold in 1718 be-
queathed property, now let for about £20 per annum, for apprenticing
children ; and £3 1- a-year, the rental of some waste land, awarded under
an Enclosure Act in the 41st of George HI., is expended among
the poor.



A DESCRIPTION OP NORFOLK. 187

TITNSTEAD HUNDRED

Is bounded on the north by the German Ocean, on the east by Happing-,
on the south by Walshara, on the west by South Erpingham. It extends
about thirteen miles northward from the sea coast to the river Euro,
averaging from five to six miles in width. It is generally a well-cultivated
district of rich loamy land, highly productive in wheat and barley, and
broken into a pleasing variety of hills, vales, and plains, interspersed with
tracts of fertile marshes, and watered by several broads and rivulets. It
contains twenty-six parishes, with an aggregate population of 1 0,325, and
:j4,987 acres.

The parishes are Ashmanhaugh, Bacton, Barton Turf, Beeston St.
Lawrence, Bradfield, Crostwight, Dilham, Ediugthorpe, Febningham,
Honing, Horning, Hoveton St. John, Hoveton St. Peter, Irstead,
Neatishead, Paston, Ridlington, Sco^ Rustou, Sloley, Smallburgh, Swafield,
Tunstead, North Walsham, Westwick, Witton, Worstead.



Is a fertile and richly- wooded parish within three miles of North Walsham,
and comprises 1500 acres of land. It includes the beautiful and extensive
park of Westwick House, the seat of I. B. Petre, Esq. The hoiise is a
handsome white mansion erected by John Berney, Esq., in the reign of
Queen Anne. It is considered one of the most delightful seats in the
county, standing on the northern declivi1;y of a picturesque valley, sur-
rounded by ornamental woods and plantations, extending in sylvan
undulations down to the margin of a rivulet which is expanded into a lake
of thirty acres, from which an aqueduct has been cut to another lake near
the house. The late John Berney, Esq., made a carriage drive of five
miles through a plantation of five hundred acres, for planting which he
received a medal from the Society of Arts. At a short distance from the
house there is a look-out structure ninety feet high, with an octagonal
apartment at the summit, commanding on every side a remarkably fine
prospect, terminated on the north and east by a large extent of sea coast.
The turnpike road from Norwich to North Walsham runs for more than
two miles through the park, at the entrance to which is a handsome lodge.
The Church (St. Botolph) is a fine building, comprising nave -svith aisles,
chancel, south porch, and lofty tower with one bell. It stands in the
valley on the south side of the park, and its pinnacled tower forms a
picturesque object.

NORTH WALSHAM (ST. MARy),

A market town and parish in the Hundred of Tunstead, fifteen miles
(north-north-east) from Norwich, and 124 (north-east-by-north) from



188 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

London. In the year 1600, nearly the whole of this town was
destroyed by fire, which, although it continued but three hours,
consumed property to the value of £20,000. It is situated on an eminence
on the road from Cromer to Norwich, and consists of three streets
diverging from a central area, in which stands the Church ; it is paved
and lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water. A
neat Theatre was erected, and was open for performance once in two
years. A canal passes through the parish, a short distance north-east of
the town, in its course from Antingham, and the River Ant is navigable
to Yarmouth. The market, which is chiefly for corn, is on Thursday, for
cattle and horses ; and Statute Fairs for hiring servants take place on the
two Thursdays before Old Michaelmas day. The Market Cross, erected
by Bishop Thirlby in the reign of Edward YI., was repaired after the
great fire in 1600, by Bishop Redman. Two Courts Baron occur annually,
one of the Bishop of Norwich and the other of Lord Suffield ; and the
magistrates hold Petty Sessions every Thursday. The parish comprises
4172a. Or. 37p., of which about 400 acres are pasture and garden ground,
150 woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable, with the excep-
tion of 200 acres not yet brought into cultivation. The living is a
vicarage, with the rectory of Antingham St. Margaret annexed, valued in
the King^s books at £8 ; net income, £336 ; patron and appropriator, the
Bishop ; the glebe comprises two acres, with a house. The Church is a
spacious and elegant structure, chiefly in the later English style. On the
south side of the chancel are three sedilia of stone, the piscina of elegant
design ; the tower, which was 147 feet high, fell down in the year 1724,
and is in ruins ; in the chancel is a mural monument to the memory of
Sir William Fasten, Knt., a native of the town, and founder of the
Grammar School ; it was erected during his life, and is surmounted by u
recumbent statue in armour. There are places of worship for Wesleyans,
the Society of Friends, Independents, and Primitive Methodists. The
Free Grammar School was founded in 1606 by Sir William, for the
education of forty sons of residents in either of the Hundreds of North
or South Erpingham, Happing, Tunstead, and Flegg, and endowed by
him Avith the rents of certain estates at Horsey and Walcot, to the
nmount of £250 per annum ; the school contains n good library,
bequeathed by the Rev. Richard Berney in 1787; and a monthly
lecturer receives £12 12s. per annum out of the funds of the charity.
Archbishop Tenison, Bishop Headly, and Admiral Lord Nelson received
the rudiments of their education in the institution. A National School is
supported, and about £30 per annum, the rent of an allotment of waste
land, is expended among the poor. About a mile south of the town is a
stone ci'oss, erected to commemorate a victory obtained in 1382, by



A DESCKirTION OF NORFOLK. 189

Spcucer_, Bishop of Norwich^ over some rebels^ headed by a dyer named
Litester.

J3ACT0N,

A parish on the sea coast, five miles from North Walsham, comprises
1561' acres ui" land and 18G inhabitants, residing chioHy in the hamlets ol
Bacton, Bacton Green, Keswick, and Bromhohn, distant about half-a-mile
from each other. Tlie Church (St. Andrew) stands on a summit above
the village of Bacton, half-a-mile from the sea, and is a fine edifice, com-
prising nave, chancel, south porch, and square tower, with five bells. The
ruins of Bromhohn Priory are near the west end of Keswick. The Priory
was founded in 1113 by William de Glanville for Cluniac monks. It
became very famous, for there was preserved the most precious of relics,
a cross made of a portion, as once believed, of the very cross of Calvary.
No wonder that it possessed miraculous powers. According to Capgrave,
it possessed such virtues that nineteen blind persons Avere restored to
sight, and thirty-nine persons were raised from the dead by it. Believers
at a distance invoked it. " Helpe holy cross of Bromhohn,^' cried the
miller's wife^ awaking in sudden fright, as we read in Chaucer. Piers
Plowman, with quaint humor, sings —

And bid the Eood of Bromliolm
Bryug me out of Dette.

At the dissolution, this Priory and its adjacent estate were granted to
Thomas Wodehouse, whose descendants have ever since possessed the
property.

At the end of a long Avail, we come to a gateway, a great pointed
arch, which has a porter's lodge on each side, and through it we pass to
the ruins of Bromhohn Priory. Within is a farmyard ; and there is the
Chapel and the east window, a grand, obtuse, empty arch. A narrow-
pointed window, with the mouldings still in place, appears in each side
wall and recesses to match. The charm of the old gray stones is enhanced
by the masses of ivy that cling thereon, forming great curtains with frieze
and cornice ; and in the north-east corner rises a thick stem that looks
like a beautifully-twisted column. The refectory is similarly adorned ;
but there is a want of harmony between these combinations of masonry
and foliage, and stacks of old timber leaning against the walls, and carts
and waggons, and big hay ricks, and beds of nettles. The two great
barns still stand to testify that goodly harvests were reaped in the olden
time from the Priory fields. And the gatehouse remains, showing-
Norman and pointed arches, with good capitals to the shafts and deep
window recesses all lapsed into base uses — a shelter for rubbish and



190



HISTOEY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.



lumber. The roof was blown off by a Whitsuntide gale, and has not been
replaced. It is apparent that what is bad now may become worse from
want of care. Surely something should be done to preserve such relics
of antiquity, for worse than flame, or steel, or ages slow, are the destroy-
ing hands of brutal, ignorant rustics.

HAPPING HUNDEED

Stretches about eleven miles along the sea shore from Winterton Ness to
Walcott, and is bounded on the south by the West Flegg and Walsham
Hundreds, and on the West by the Tunstead Hundred. The villages are
mostly surrounded by low marshes, intersected by numerous broads or
lakes, connected by rivulets and streams flowing southward in two
channels to the Bure and the Thurne, and opening a direct navigation to
Yarmouth for boats of fourteen tons from every part of the Hundred,
which includes 20,780 acres, with a population of G99G in 1861. Happing
includes the parishes of Brumstead, Catfield, Happisburgh, Hempstead
with Eccles, Hickling, Horsey-next-the-Sea, Ingham, Lessingham, Lud-
ham. Palling, Potter Heigham, Ptuston (East), Stalham, Sutton, Walcott,
Waxham.

INGHAM (holy TEINITY),

A parish in the Hundred of Happing, containing about 50U inhabitants.
A large stock fair is held here on Trinity Monday. The living is a dis-
charged perpetual curacy, net income 180 ; patron, Bishop of Norwich.
The appropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £150.
The Church is in the decorated style with a lofty tower. Judging from
the remains of a grand west window, of a carved stone screen, of venerable
stalls and old fall 'seats, and the traces of noble brasses, and the stately
tombs of Oliver de Ingham and other knights, this was at one time
a proud edifice. The tombs are very interesting specimens of mediteval
sculpture, Avith statuettes in niches along the aisle.

Annexed to the Church there was a college or priory of the order of
the Holy Trinity, for the redemption of Christians held captive by the
Turks. It was founded in 1360 by Sir Miles Stapleton, of Bedale in
Yorkshire, who became lord of this place by marriage with Joanna, daugh-
ter and sole heiress of Sir Oliver de Ingham, a valiant knight and
favourite of Edward III. Sir Miles rebuilt the Church and procured it
to be made collegiate for a prior, sacrist, and sLx canons, whose revenue at
the dissolution was £71 2s. 7d., and then the site of the Priory, with thu
impropriate rectory, came to the Bishopric of Noi-wich in exchange for
other estates.



A DESCKIPTION OF NOllFOLK. 191

LUDHAM (ST. CATHERIKE),

A parish in the Hundred of Happing-, is thirteen miles (north-east l)y
east) from Norwich. This place, after the dissolution of the Abbey of
St. Bonnet at the Holme, to which the manor belonged, was given by
Henry, VIII, to the Bishops of Norwich, when the King took possession of
all their property. They converted the Grange into an episcopal resi-
dence. During the prelacy of Bishop Jegon, an accidental fire, which
l)roke out on August lOtli, 1611, destroyed the greater part of the house,
with many valuable writings and books belonging to the see. The palace
was restored by Bishop Harsnett, who built a Chapel of brick, which
after the desertion of the place as an episcopal residence was converted
into a granary, and the rest of the edifice into a farm-house, now called
Ludliam Hall. The village is large and well built, and had formerly a
market and a fair, granted to Bishop Redman in the reign of Elizabeth ;
the market is discontinued, but the fair is still held on the Thursday and
Friday after Trinity. The parish, which is near the rivers Bure and
Thurne, comprises oOOO acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, the
Bishop being patron and appropriator. The appropriate tithes have been
commuted for a rent -charge of £640, and the vicarial for one of £300.
The Church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a
square embattled tower. About £100, arising from land given to the
poor after the enclosure, are annually distributed among them. Near
Ludham, on a low meadow, once known as Cowholm, in 1020^ King
Canute erected a Benedictine Abbey, which, from the name of the place,
became known as iSt. Bennet's-at-Holme. Then followed the common
history : seizure by the Normans, and treacherous surrender, then great
increase of power and wealth, until in the height of prosperity it held
more lands than could be seen from the tower, and became one of the
stateliest of the Abbeys of East Anglia. The only remains of it are
a gate-house of brick and stone, with corner turrets, traversed by a



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