A. D Bayne.

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The introduction of sewing machines has greatly increased the manufacture.
Thousands of pairs of boots are produced daily by machines driven by
steam-power. Uppers and soles are cut out by machines, and when fitted,
uppers are attached to a pair of soles in one minute ; sixty pairs are
finished off" in one hour, or 600 pairs in one day by one pair of hands and
a machine. The most improved machines are used, and some new inven-
tions are applied by which the work is done more perfectly than it can be
by hand. Steam power has been applied to all the machines. The result
has been not to diminish but to increase the number of hands -, but the
wages are very low. The trade attracts poor people from the country, and
its tendency is to increase their number in the city,


Situated on the south bank of the river, are the most extensive in the
city, or indeed in the Eastern Counties, for the production of mustard,
starch, blue, paper, and flour. Messrs. J. J. Colman and Co. employ
about 1200 men and boys in various departments, and the engines that
drive the machinery are above 1000 horse power. The works cover five
acres of ground, and are traversed by railways in every direction. There
are separate mills for the manufacture of mustard, starch, blue, paper, and
flour, with hands skilled in each kind of work, and a manager in each
department. Water is supplied from an Artesian well, 1000 feet in
depth, all over the works. Immense quantities of goods are produced,


and about 100 tons weekly are sent away "by railway to all parts of the
country. By the use of machinery of the most improved construction,
and by selecting seed of the finest quality, the firm produces mustard un-
rivalled for purity and flavour. This mustard obtained the only prize medals
awarded for the article at the London Exhibition in 18G2, and Dublin
18G5, and the only silver medal at Paris in 1868. The same firni
also obtained medals for starch at the London Exhibitions in 1851 and
1862; Dublin, 1865; York, 1866; and Paris, 1868.


Messrs. Hills and Underwood have extensive works at the bottom of the
Prince of Wales' Eoad for the production of vinegar, which is allowed to
be of the finest quality, and is sent wholesale all over the country. The
two floors of the granary are each fifty feet square, aiid always contain
several thousand quarters of malt from which the vinegar is brewed. The
premises have been lately much extended, and new buildings for offices
and receiving rooms have been erected on the north side of the road.
There is a handsome entrance to the new oflfices and warehouse, with an
iron palisading in front. Mr. Bunn, Pottergate Street, was the architect,


There are several large breweries in Norwich, which together produce
500,000 barrels of beer yearly. The largest is that of Steward and
Patteson in Pockthorpe ; the next that of Messrs. Bullard and Sons in St.
Miles'. Lately the firm greatly extended the premises by taking in
nearly all one side of Upper Westwick Street, which they widened, making
a great improvement. The Old Brewery in King Street passed into the
hands of Messrs. J. B. and H. Morgan in 1845. Since then they have
greatly enlarged their premises and increased their business. Messrs.
Youngs, Crawsliay, and Co., have also extended their brew^ery in the same


Norwich has become noted for metal manufactures, especially in iron
and the production of steam engines ; also of machines and implements
for agricultural and horticultural purposes. By the use of these imple-
ments, the produce of the land has been much increased. The chief
manufacturers are Mr. Smithdale, King Street, of engines ; Messrs.
Holmes and Sons, Castle Hill, and Messrs. Riches and Watts, Duke
Street, of agricultural implements ; Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and
Barnards, and Messrs. W. S. Boulton and Co., of horticultural implements,
iron chairs, tables, conservatories, &c.


Mr, Thomas Smitlidale lias a very large establishment at St. Anne's
Staithe, near King Street, on the site of an ancient monastery, remains of
which still exist near the river. In his large foundry castings are mado
up to ten tons, and the workshops contain heavy machinery. Mr. Smitlidale
builds engines from three-horse to a hundred-horse power, and also
constructs hydraulic presses, cranes, crabs, mill works, planing, shaping,
and drilling machines, witli boilers of all sizes.

Messrs. Holmes and Sons, engineers, &c., greatly extended their
premises in 1862 on the east side of the Castle Hill. They built a large
show room opposite the Castle, and there they exhibit engines and
machines of every description. They have by their energy and in-
defatigable perseverance placed themselves in a position of enviable
prosperity, and gained many prizes at agricultural exhibitions for their
machines and collections of implements. They have received about a
hundred awards for superiority in their steam engines, thrashing ma-
chines, seed shellers, corn, seed, and manure drills, distributors, and saw

Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, andBarnards (Norfolk Iron Works, St. Miles')
are engineers and galvanizers, manufacturers of machine-made galvan-
ized wire netting for game, poultry, sheep, and aviaries, lawn mowers,
strained wire fencing, &c., wholesale and for exportation. These extensive
works cover an area of one acre. Entering by Coslany Street, the new
counting-house is joined on the right by a fine suite of offices, and on
the left by the smith's shop, which is backed by fire-proof workshops
seventy-five feet in length and five stories in height. The large foundry is
at the east end of the works. About 400 men and boys are employed
here. Messsrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards are manufacturers of
wrought iron park gates, park and garden chairs and stools, iron bed-
steads, patent self-rolling mangles, patent turnip and root-pulping
machines, patent root graters and turnip cutters, and a variety of other
machines, cooking ranges, &c. The ranges are an improvement on
those known as kitcheners, and possess the advantages of baking bread
and pastry in the bottom shelf of the oven, which cannot be done by any
other kind. Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnards have built new pre-
mises in the Market Place which are quite an ornament to the city. The
new building comprises four storeys above the basement. The elevation
presents a red brick rusticated front, surmounted with red brick cornices.
All the numerous windows have moulded brick architraves. Those on
the second floor have ornamental iron balconets, while running before
those on the first floor is a handsome ornamental iron balcony, supported
by moulded stone corbels. At each end of the shop front are massive red
granite pilasters. The front is supported by iron columns, and has a


handsome wrought iron cornice. The premises are very commodious, and
include extensive show-rooms.

The works of W. S. Boulton and Co., in Rose Lane, have been long
estabhshed and lately greatly extended to afford flicilities for an in-
creasing business. In addition to the manufacture of wire, game, and
other netting, of which largo quantities are prodaced, we may mention
lawn mowers, garden implements of every sort, garden chairs, croquet
awnings ; all kinds of iron and wire fencing, gates, hot air and hot water
apparatus, &c. This firm has introduced manufactures hardly known
before in Norfolk ; including the construction of conservatories, green-
houses, forcing pits, plant preservers, ground vineries, melon frames, &c.
Two new workshops have been lately erected specially for this branch of the
business^ the following being the dimensions : — One 110 feet in length,
thirty feet in width, with three floors. This is filled with improved wood-
working machinery, such as saw benches, planing, moulding, morticing",
and shaping machines, &c. The second workshop, used for the construc-
tion of horticultural buildings, is 120 feet in length, and forty-one feet in
width, with four floors. The foundry and galvanizing trades are carried
on here in all their branches. In 1869 this firm gained six prizes for hor-
ticultural appliances at the Great International Exhibition at Hamburg,
and also nt Altona, in Sleswick Holstein.


Norwich merchants carry on an extensive wholesale trade in corn, flour,
malt, hops, wool, coals, iron, timber, upholstery, provisions, and in all sorts
of grocery and drapery goods. The merchants here supply retailers as
advantageously as any London house. The quantity of goods brought
into the city by river, roads, and railways, exceeds 300,000 tons, which
goods are of course sold and distributed all over the Eastern Counties.
There are several wine and spirit merchants in the city, who are large
importers : Messrs. Bolingbroke and Woodrow, of the Wine Compan}^,
St. Giles' Street ; Messrs. Barwell and Sons, St. Stephen's Street ; Messrs.
Norgate and Son, St. Stephen's Street; Mr. Morley and Mr. J. Chamberliu,
Post Ofilce Street, all of whom hold large stocks of wines and spirits.

The railways have aflbrded facilities for the carrying trade of the city.
The goods traffic from all places to Norwich for the year ending July,
1867, was 22,661 tons at Victoria Station, 30,000 tons at Thorpe Station,
and 17,616 tons at Trowse ; total 70,277 tons. The coal traffic in addition
from all parts to Norwich was 25,349 tons at Victoria Station, 17,000
tons at Thorpe, and 10,706 tons at Trowse; total, 59,055 tons. The
goods sent away from all three railway stations at Norwich amounted to


80,968 tons. In the same year the traffic at Trowse included, mward,
57,058 cattle, 7G,154 sheep, and 9855 pigs; outward, 35,083 cattle, 59,063
sheep, and 12,403 pigs. In 1870, the number inward greatly increased.
Norwich, as compared with Yarmouth, produces the greater traffic
on the railways. In the year ending July, 1867, the goods traffic from all
places to Yarmouth was 25,123 tons at both stations. The goods sent
from both stations to all places was 32,081 tons. The fish traffic was
immense in addition. In the same year, the goods traffic from all places
to Lowestoft was 11,513 tons, and coals 2179 tons. Goods sent from
Lowestoft by railway to all places, 9069 tons; coals, 13,979 tons; and
fish, 15,966 tons; total, 39,034 tons.


The navigation of the Wensum and the Yare affords great facilities to
the trade of Norwich, and was much improved by a canal cut across the
marshes from Reedham to Lowestoft. The general navigation from the
city to Yarmouth and Ijowestoft is by wherries, which are pecuhar to the
rivers of Norfolk and Suffolk, and those used on the Yare carry from
fifteen to sixty tons, and draw fi'om three to four feet of water. By these
wherries large quantities of coals, stone, timber, iron, marl, corn, malt,
flour, and other heavy goods are conveyed to and from the city. The
river has been deepened for a great part of its course to Yarmouth, 4ind
might be much more improved.

The river Wensum rises near Rudham, in West Norfolk, and winding
through that division of the county for thirty miles, passes through Nor-
wich and flows into the Yare below the city. Within the historic period
n broad arm of the sea flowed up the valley of the Yare, covered all the
In.nd, now green meadows, between AVhitlingham and Thorpe, and indeed
the waters flowed over a great part of the ground on the north side of the
city. After the tenth century the waters gradually receded, leaving only
the present stream. The river, on lea\'ing the city, enters the beautifnl
vale of Thorpe, one of the most delightful suburbs in the Eastern Counties.
On the high grounds along the north side of the river there are many
gai'dens and handsome residences of the city gentry. Being only two
miles from Norwich, it has become of late the i^etreat of the city gentry,
many of whom have erected handsome houses and laid out spacious
gardens. Indeed it is a village the situation of which would admit of
being oniamented with the finest gardens in England. Quitting Whit-
lingham the river Yare winds onward between green meadows to
Bramerton, where a rural retreat called Wood's End is the resort of
nleasure-seekers in the summer months. From the high ground at
Bramerton the traveller may behold n wide and far-extended valley, as yet


ill-drained and ill-cultivated^ but presenting green meadows, woody
Lanks, villages, churches, and mansions of the gentry. In days before
man appeared on the scene this tranquil valley was covered by a broad
arm of the sea ; but those days have long since passed away, and a
thousand years ago the tempestuous waters subsided into the present
peaceful river, now abounding with a variety of the finny tribe.

Leaving Bramerton, the river winds along rolling onward deep and
strong to Coldham Hall, near Surlingham, where another rural retreat
attracts the disciples of old Izaak A¥alton from all parts of the country to
carry on their gentle sport. Many anglers lodge at Coldham Hall for
weeks together for the salve of fishing. Here grand angling matches
have been held, as this is a good place for the sport, the river abounding
with bream, roach, perch, and other varieties of the finny tribes.

The stream becomes broader as it flows on to Buckenham Ferry. Thi;i
place is celebrated for the excellence of the fish caught in the river.
Langley Park is about three miles from this place, on the south side of
the river. The mansion is a beautiful structure, the seat of Sir Thomas P.
Beauchamp, Bart.

Two miles from the Ferry at Claxton are the ruins of the Castle built
by the famous William D'Albini, surnamed the " Strong Hand " from the
tradition of his having slain a lion. The building Avas situated on a hill,
and consisted of a keep, two circular towers, a grand entrance tower, a
barbican, and embattled walls, and was surrounded by a deep moat.
Nothing now remains but the ruins of a gateway and the Iceep.

Passing Buckenham Ferry the river flows onward to Cantley, another
noted fishing-place ; and thence to Reedham, where it receives the waters
of the Waveney near Burgh Castle, the famous Roman station. The river
rushes into the salt waters of the sea at Breydon, a broad expanse of sea
water flowing up from the harbour at Yarmouth. The Tare is navigable
for small sea-borne vessels for the whole length of its course, thirty-six
miles, from Norwich to Yarmouth.

The Wcnsum and the Yare converge at Trowse a little below Norwich ;
and are joined by the Waveney below Reedham, and by the Bure which
flows into the harbour at Yarmouth. There is little doubt that there was
formerly a great estuary at Yarmouth, but the water has been confined by
the sands which formed the Denes along the coast into the narrow
channel which flowed through Gorleston. In former times, the Waveney
flowed through Mutford lock, a dam erected under the advice of some
Dutch engineers in order to prevent the iuciirsions of the sea. However
this may be, it is certain that the whole flow of the river between Norwich
and Yarmouth is maintained by a fall of four or five inches. This fact
is attended with o-reat advantage to the eastern district.



Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 31 of 70)