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tenths to the repairs of the Church, and the residue to the poor. A
Union Workhouse for Plomesgate Hundred has lately been erected here ;
the Union comprises forty parishes or places. The extensive engineering
and iron works of Messrs. Whitmore and Binyon give employment to a
considerable number of the inhabitants.


This is an ancient market-town in the Hundred of Loes, Eastern
Division of Suffolk, eighty-seven miles (north-east) from London. The
town may have taken its name from the river Fromus, now called the Ore,
which had its rise at Tannington, and flowed through Saxted to this place.
It is pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence in the very centre of the
parish, the soil of which is of first-rate quality. Within the limits
of the parish there are forty-three titheablo farms, exclusive of minor
occupations, where the occupiers as tenants do not acquire a qualification
to serve on juries by assessment of a certain amount to the poor-rate.

The town rose round an ancient fortress in the Anglo-Saxon period,
for it is recorded that Redwald, the third King of the East Angles,
resided in a Castle here ; but that structure was long since demolished.
At what time the present Castle was built is uncertain, but it was probably
rebuilt in the Norman period ; and the Norman Kings kept sole possession
of it. Henry I. having usurped the throne in 1100, found that Roger
Bigod, who had survived the two former monarchs, was devoted to his
cause, and rewarded him with the Castle and lordship of Framlingham.
He died in 1107, and was buried in the Priory of Black Canons at Thetford.

In 1248, Henry III. made this place his residence for some time; and
Henry, Prince of Wales, son of Henry IV., to whom the Castle was
granted by his father, held his court in 1404 and 1405. Edward VL held


his first Court in this Castle ; and after his decease, Mary retired to it in
1553j where she was joined by the inhabitants of Suffolk and the adjacent
counties, who, to the number of 13,000, accompanied her to London to
take possession of the Crown, The Castle was a spacious and noble
structure, the surrounding walls including an irregular quadrilateral area
of nearly an acre and a-half ; they were forty-four feet in height, and
eight feet in thickness, defended by thirteen square towers of considerably
greater elevation, of which one eastward and another westward were
watch towers. The whole was surrounded by a double moat, the inner
moat being crossed by a drawbridge. The outer walls are in a tolerably
perfect state, and in front of the gateway -tower are the arms of Howard
Moubray Brothertou, etc., quartered in one shield. The site was purchased
from the Howard family by Sir Robert Hitcham, who gave it to Pembroke
College, Cambridge, with the advowson of the Church. The building
has been fitted up for public meetings, assemblies, and other uses ; it
contains a spacious room seventy -two feet in length. The town is
pleasantly situated on a hill, near the source of the river Ore, which rises
to the north of the Castle, and falls into the sea at Orford. It contains
many well-built houses, and is amply supplied with water. The parish
comprises 4657 acres ; the soil is generally fertile, producing good crops
of corn ; and the inhabitants are mostly engaged in farming pursuits.
The living is a rectory, with that of Saxted annexed ; patrons. Master
and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. The Church is a stately
structure, partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style,
with a lofty, square embattled tower strengthened with buttresses ; the
chancel is superior in style to the rest of the edifice. The nave is lighted
by a range of clerestory windows, and the roof is supported by oct-
angular pillars ; that of the chancel by clustered columns of graceful

(By Bernard Barton.)

Fallen as thou art, dismantled pile !

From thy once palmy state,
Thy ruins may outlast a wliile

Splendours of later date.
Still stand thy hattlemented towers.

Firm as in bygone years ;
As if, -v^dthin, yet ruled the powers

Of England's haughtiest peers.

Since thou by kings and nobles proud

"Wert first upreared and swayed.
Piles grand as thou their heads have bowed

In dark oblivion's shade ;


Aud glittering stmctures^ richly dight

Have long since thy decline
Crumbled away and left no site

Their memory to enshrine.

But thou, at least to distant view,

Still bear'st a gallant form,
Thy canopy — heavens vault of l^luo ;

i)v crest— the lowering storm.
iStill upon moat and mere below

Thine ivied towers look down,
And far their giant shadows throw

With feudal grandeur's frown."

And though thy star for aye be set.

Thy glory past and gone ;
Fancy might deem thine inmate yet


( )r Howard brave, Avho fought and died

On Bosworth's bloody field ;
Or Bigot Mary — who the tide

Of martyr blood unseal'd !

Such were thy inmates ! — Who are left,

As dwellers in thy hold 'I
The abject, and the hope-bereft,

The helpless, poor, aud old !
Yet, haply, amongst these may be

Some of the world unknown,
Who hold a higher hope in fear,

Than Mary on her throne !


lu 1862^ the country was full of the idea of memorials of the late
Prince Albert^ and the people of every county were eager to perpetuate
the memory of so great and good a man. In Suffolk a county meeting
was called, and £6000 subscribed on the spot. Soon after, the subscrip-
tions amounted to more than £13,000, for the erection of a Middle-class
School and College. The Lord Lieutenant, who was identified with,
every movement for the good of the county, lent the weight of his
influence^ and the nobility and gentry rallied round him, and the list of
contributions soon swelled to large proportions. An Act of Parliament
was obtained for a grant of land near Framlingham as a site for the
Middle-class School. The building was erected and opened in 1865. It
is a red-brick structure in the Gothic style, of a collegiate character, and
is of considerable extent, covering an area of 240 feet by 230 feet, con-
taining accommodation for head master, four under masters, and three
hundred boys. The general elevation presents a central block of buildings,


with a clock tower ; and tlierQ is a statue of Priuce Albert in a canopied
niche over the entrance. The statue is by Durham, presented by Mr.
Thomas Lucas, at a cost of £1000. On each side of the central building
the college extends 120 feet, being three stories in height, containing
the apartments of the undergi-aduates and the boys.

Helmingham Hall is but a short distance fi'om Framlingham, and may
be classed among the most interesting in the county. The park contains
about 500 acres, and is largely stocked with deer. An avenue arched by
magnificent trees conducts to the house, approached by a bridge thrown
across a moat which surrounds the building. The hall and several of the
apartments are adorned with portraits of the ancient family of the Telle -
maclies. Among them are some fine paintings by Lily, Kneller, and
Reynolds. Helmingham Church stands on the south side of the park.
The tower was built in 1487, as appears by the copy of an agreement now
in the Church chest.

Easton Park, not far distant, is the residence of the Duke of Hamilton.

Earl Soliam Lodge, four miles west of the town, belongs to Mrs.

Parham Nev/ Hall, within two miles of the town, belongs to F. Cor-
rance, Esq., the Old Hall to Mr. Gray.


A market town and parish, and the head of a Union in the Hundred of
Loes, Easteru Division of the County of Suffolk, seven and a-half miles
(east-north-east) from Ipswich, and seventy-six and a-half' (north-east by
east) from London.

This town is of considerable antiquity, for in the time of Edward the
Confessor the Prior and Convent of Ely had possessions here, and their
successors still hold the Manor of Kingston, The name is thought to be
a corruption of Wodenbrigge, from the Saxon god Woden. Towards
the close of the twelfth century, a Priory of Augustine Canons was
founded here by Emaldus Rufus and others, and dedicated to the Virgin
Mary, the revenue of which at the dissolution was valued at £50 3s. 5d. ;
a house built on the site by one of "the Seckfords, now in the possession
of the Carthew family, still retains the name of the Abbey. Upwards of
327 persons died of the plague here in 1666, and were buried, according
to tradition, at Bearman's Hill, in the vicinity, The town is pleasantly
situated on the north side of the river Deben, on the direct road from
London to Yarmouth, and occupies the slope of a hdl, surrounded by
beautiful walks. It consists of two principal streets, a spacious square
called Market Hill, and several narrow streets and lanes ; and is paved,
lighted, and amply supplied with water. The atmosphere is highly salu-


bi-ious, and the general appearance of the place neat and respectable.
From the summit oi" the hill is a commanding view of the river to its
influx into the sea. In 1813, a small theatre was built, and concerts are
held occasionally. There were formerly barracks to the north-west of the
town, with accommodation for 750 cavalry and 4,1 G5 infantry, but they
have been pulled down. The trade principally consists in the exportation
of corn, flour, and malt ; and in the importation of coal, timber, foreign
wine, spirits, porter, grocery, drapery, and ironmongery. The shipping
of late years has greatly increased ; the number of vessels of above fifty
tons registered at the port is twenty-seven, and their aggregate burden
4,030 tons. Vessels sail weekly to London, and many others are employed
in trading with Newcastle, Hull, and the Continent ; one or two sail direct
to Liverpool, from which place they bring back salt ; and there is a small
trade to the Baltic for timber. A manufactory of salt, of peculiarly fine
quality, was formerly carried on ; and there was a brisk business in ship-
building; but both have declined. The Deben, near its mouth, forms the
haven of Woodbi'idge, from which it is navigable for vessels of 120 tons
burden to the town ; and on its banks are two excellent quays. The
market is on Wednesday, for corn, cattle, and provisions ; and fan's occur
on April 5th and October 23rd. The Sessions Hall, under which is the
corn market, in the centre of the Market Hill, erected in 1587 by Thomas
Seckford, Esq., has recently undergone some extensive repairs, and is a
handsome and lofty edifice of brick. On an adjacent eminence is the
Bridewell, re-built in 1804.

The parish comprises upwards of 1,200 acres. Tlie living is a per-
petual curacy, to which the impropriate rectory was annexed in 1(367 by
Mrs. Dorothy Seckford ; patron and incumbent, Eev. T. W. Salmon, whose
tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £329. The Church was
built by John Lord Seagrave, in the reign of Edward III., and the tower
and north portico in that of Henry VI. ; on the north side of the chancel
is an elegant private chapel, erected in the time of Elizabeth by Thomas
Seckford, Esq., in which, over the family vault, is a tomb, probably to his
memory ; the north portico is adorned with sculpture in relief, repre-
senting the conflict of St. Michael and the Dragon. The tower is stately
and magnificent, and, like the Church, is constructed of dark flint inter-
mixed with freestone, and towards the upper part formed into elegant
devices ; the summit is crowned with battlements, having finials at the
angles, Avhich are surmounted by vanes, and decorated in the intervals
with badges of the four Evangelists. There are places of worship for
Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. The
Free Grammar School in Webb-street was founded in ] 662 by Mrs.
Dorothy Seckford, and was incorporated in 1861 with a new Grammar


School, called tlie Seckford Grammar School, and is endowed with
property producing about £37 per annum ; and a National and Lan-
castrian School are partly supported by subscription. Almshouses were
erected in 1587, by Thomas Seckford, Esq., Master of the Court of
Requests, for the residence of thirteen unmarried men, with another
house for three women to attend them as nurses, and endowed with an
estate in the parish of Clerkenwell, London, which in 1767 produced
an income of £568 per annum ; but more than £20,000 having been
expended on it, such is the improving state of the property, that the
rental is expected eventually to yield between £5000 and £6000 ; new
and handsome houses have been erected. There are besides, different
benefactions, amounting to about £150 a year, for the benefit of the poor.
The Poor Law Union of Woodbridge comprises forty-six parishes or

Various relics of antiquity, especially fragments of warlike instruments,
have been occasionally found in the vicinity. Christopher Saxton, the
publisher of the first county maps, was a native of this place, and servant
to Thomas Seckford, Esq., mentioned above, who resided in a mansion at
Great Bealings, about a mile and a-lialf distant, and under whose patron-
age the plans were published in 1779, and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth.

From the Church tower at Woodbridge we can see a landscape in which
grain and greenwood abound ; and the Deben flowing-, like all the
streams of this eastern coast, between flat marshy banks to the sea,
which rounds off the horizon with a stripe of blue. And immediately
below lies the small quiet town, which has that pleasing rural look im-
parted by numerous trees and gardens among the houses. Hereabouts
was the country of the Quaker poet Bernard Barton, who often expressed
good thoughts in pleasing rhymes. He described many scenes in
Suffolk in his various poems. He never wrote a line ^"^ which dying, he
could wish to blot." On the adjacent heaths of Eoxhall and Martlesham,
said to be the scenes of battles between the Danes and East Anglians,
there are immense mounds of earth, marking the burial grounds of the

Even as they fell in tiles they lay,
Like the mower's grass at the close qi' the day,
When his work is done on tlie levelled plain,
Such was the fall of the foremost slain.

Seckford Hall is about midway between Bealings and Woodbridge ; it
is an ancient Elizabethan structure and the residence of the Seckford
family, who so largely endowed the town of Woodbridge. Orwell Park
is the property of George Tomlin, Esq., M.P.

Having described the towns on the coast and along the railway near the


coast, we shall return to Ipswich, and thence proceed along the Midland
line, with stations at Bramford, Claydon, Needliam Market, Stowmarket,
Haughley Junction, Finningham, MeUis for Eye, and Diss.


A parish in the Eastern Division of Suffolk, three and a-quarter miles
from Ipswich. The canal from Ipswich to Stowmarket crosses this
parish. The living is a vicarage with Burstall united, net income £79 ;
patron and appropriators. Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The Church
is dedicated to St. Mary. Proceeding along the Eastei'n Union line, the
first object of interest on the left is the Chauntry, the seat of Sir Fitzroy
Kelly ; and on the right. Boss Hall, the residence of Colonel Capel ;
further on to the left is Manor House, the seat of Colonel Phillips, all
the above in the parish of Sproughton. Again on the right is Hill House,
the residence of W. H. Mills, Esq. ; and Bramford Lodge, in the occupa-
tion of J. Wainwright, Esq.

Near to these are the Red House, the residence of J. Leggatt, Esq.,
and Mill Bank Cottage, that of E. Hitchcock, Esq. Further on. White
House is the residence of Mr. Leveritt, Lovetoft's Hall, that of R. R.
Wood, Esq. ; Bramford Hall, lately unoccupied ; the Grove, the residence
of R. W. M^^mford, Esq.


A chapelry (formerly a market town) in the parish of Barking Union and
Hundred of Basmere and Claydon, Eastern Division of the County of
Suffolk, 'eight and a-half miles (north-west by north) from Ipswich, and
seventy-four (north-east) from London. The town is situated on low
ground near the navigable river Gipping and on the road to Ipswich and
Bury St. Edmund's ; it is tolerably well built, and the inhabitants are
supplied with water from springs ; the surrounding country is pleasant
and abounds with agreeable walks ; and near the town is a lake, about
nine acres in extent, called Bosmere, which gives name to the Hundred.
The manufacture of glue is carried on, and there are several flock mills.
The Stowmarket and Ipswich navigation passes along the north-east
boundary of the chapelry, and is crossed by a bridge leading from the
town to Stonham, and the Stour is navigable to Ipswich. The market
formerly held here was removed to Stowmarket, in consequence of the
plague having raged here for three years. The living is a perpetual
curacy, in the Archdeaconry of Suffolk and Diocese of Norwich ; endowed
with £600 royal bounty and £800 Parliamentary grant, and in the pat-
ronage of the rector of Barking. The inhabitants from time immemorial
have had the right of electing a lecturer. The Church, dedicated to St.


Jolin the Baptist, is an ancient edifice, built about 1450, in the later
English style, with a belfry of wood. There are places of worship for
the Society of Friends and Independents. The Free Grammar School
was founded pursuant to the will of Francis Theobald, Esq., dated January
10th, 1632, who endowed it with property now producing £65 per annum.
Poor children from Needham Market, Barking, and Damsden are in-
structed. An almshouse, comprising two tenements, was founded by some
person unknown, for the benefit of poor widows and widowers, and en-
dowed with land ; eight poor women reside in it. A house of recoveiy
was erected in 1744, by Ambrose Crowley, Esq., for persons attacked
with small-pox ; and there island producing about £50 per annum for
distribution among the poor.

Malting is carried on here to a large extent, and there is a manufactory
of crown glue, which is sent to all parts of the world.

Needham Market is on the Eastern Union section of the Great Eastern
Railway Company's lines, and a handsome and convenient station in the
Elizabethan style of architecture stands at a short distance from the prin-
cipal street. A handsome Town Hall and Police Station were built here in
1865, and a Public Library and Reading-room, which was established in
1850, has its room in this building.

From the railway may be seen Shrubland Park, the seat of Sir G. N.
Brooke Middleton, Bart. The mansion is a prominent object to travellers.

Bosmere Hall is in the occupation of the Rev. H. D. Curry; near it is a
large mere stocked with fish.

Barking Hall, near the station, is in the occupation of the Right Hon.
the Earl of Ashburnham.


A market town and parish in the Hundred of Stow, twelve miles (north-
north-west) from Ipswich, and, by way of that town, eighty-one (north-
east) from London, but only seventy-five through Sudbury.

This town is very ancient, and at the time of the Norman survey was
called Thorna, or Thorne-market, the former term being derived from the
Saxon divinity Thor, and ea, water, alluding to the adjoining river. It
was afterwards called Stowmarket, from its being the market for the
Hundred of Stow. Two churches are mentioned in Domesday book as
existing here. The place, which is the most central in the county, is
situated at the confluence of three rivulets, which form the river Gipping,
on the road from Ipswich to Bury and Cambridge, and consists of several
streets, which are for the most part regularly built, and lighted with gas.
Many of the houses are handsome, and the inhabitants are well supplied
with water.


The commercial inberests of the town are essentially promoted by its
locality^ and have been much improved by making the Gipping navigable
to Ipswich, which was effected under an Act obtained in 1790. The
railway, too, has also been a great benefit to the town. From the basin
extends a pleasant walk, about a mile in length, passing through the
extensive hop plantations in the neighbourhood. The trade consists chiefly
in the making of malt, for which there are more than twenty houses, and
which is rapidly increasing ; and corn, malt, and flour to a great extent
are exported to Hull, London, Liverpool, and other places. A brewery is
established, and there are small manufacturies for rope, twine, and sack-
ing; a patent saw mill, and three ironfoundries, one of which is also used
for making agricultural implements. By means of the navigation to
Ipswich, grain and malt are conveyed thither, and the returns consist of
timber, deals, coal, iron, salt, oil-cake, and slate, for the supply of the
central parts of the county.

The market is on Thursday, for corn, cattle, and provisions. A building
for a Corn Exchange and Reading-room, which is also used on public
occasions, has of late years been erected at an expense of £3000, raised
by shares of £25 each. A fair is held on August 12th, chiefly for lambs,
and on July 10th is a pleasure fair. The county meetings are held in the
town ; and the magistrates hold a Petty Session every alternate Monday.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Stow-Upland annexed,
valued in the King^s books at £16 15s.; patron, incumbent, and impro-
priator, the Rev. A. G. Harper, Hollingsworth. The great titbes have
been commuted for a rent-charge of £89, and the vicarial for one of £185.
There is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains six acres, valued at £20
per annum. In the grounds is a fine mulberry tree, planted by the poet
Milton while on a visit to Dr. Young, the vicar. The Church was rebuilt
about the year 1300 by the Abbey of St. Osyth, Essex, which then held
the advowson. It is a spacious and handsome structure in the centre of
the town, partly in the decorated and partly in the later English style,
and consists of a nave, chancel, and side aisles, with a square embattled
tower, surmounted by a slender wooden spire of tasteful appearance,
120 feet in height, which was erected from the proceeds of a legacy left
in the reign of Anne. At the east end of the south aisle is the Tyrell
Chapel, separated by a handsome screen, and containing several in-
teresting monuments to that family. The edifice was enlarged and
repaired in 1838, and contains 1400 sittings, of which 800 are free. There
are places of worship for Baptists and Independents ; and a National School
is supported by subscription. There are several benevolent institutions
for the relief of the poor, who also receive about £260 per annum from
bequests made at diffei-ent periods. The Poor Law Union of Stow com-


prises thirty-four parishes or places. Abbot's Hall_, the seat of J. Eust,
Esq., was so called fi'om having formerly belonged to the Abbey of St.
Osyth_, in the County of Essex.

Stowmarket is a thriving busy town^ and the amount of business tran-
sacted here is very considerable, far beyond what any visitor passing
through the place might expect. The railway, by facilitating the transit
of goods, has rendered great service to the town. There are maltstries
so extensive, that the quantity of malt made in the town is third on the
list of malting places in England. Messrs. Prentice have established
artificial manure works of great extent. There are several large steam
flour mills, also paper mills for producing paper from straw. Messrs.
Woods, Cocksedge, and Warner carry on extensive works for the manu-
facture of agricultural implements, which are sent to all parts of the

A chapelry in the parish of Stowmarket, four miles (north-north-east)
from the town, takes its name from the river Gipping. It was the_
property of the late Charles Tyrell, Esq., whose ancestor. Sir Walter
Tyrell, Knight, held the Lordship at the time of the Domesday survey.
The living is a donative in the patronage of Mr. Tyrell. The C hapel,
situated near the Hall, is a handsome structure in the later English style,
with a square embattled tower, and was built by Sir James Tyrell in the
fifteenth century. There is a school partly supported by Mrs. Tyrell.
The late owner of the estate having been a public man, a politician and

Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 40 of 70)