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tailed stickleback from the stomach of a spoonbill, and, in referrino- to Dr.
Gray, I find he considers it only one of the many varieties of the common
three-spined species ; and in dissecting a heron I also found some speci-


mens of the ten-spined stickleback, including one with nine spines only.
This specimen greatly differed from the others ; first, in the number of
spines ; secondly, by having the throat and under parts of a deep black
instead of white minutely spotted with black, as in the ten-spined ; and,
thirdly, by being much stouter built in proportion to its length. This, if
fully investigated, might prove a distinct species. My specimen was,
unfortunately, too far advanced in decomposition for preservation.

In August, 1866, a very large specimen (apparently the largest on
record) of the broad-nosed eel was taken in the River Bure, at Horning.
It weighed 7^ lbs., and measured 3 feet 8 inches in length and 10 inches
in girth.

The total number of species in my catalogue is 123, which is, I think, a
fair proportion of the total number of the British species known, especially
considering the narrow limits within which the working out of their
knowledge has been confined, leaving a reasonable hope that when this
subject is more fully investigated we shall be enabled to make several
further additions to our Norfolk list.


The rivers of the two counties are generally full of small fish, and
angling is a popular sport. The Waveney, which divides Suffolk from
Norfolk, is a river of considerable length, and its waters in the upper
course are singularly transparent. It produces eels of a delicate flavour,
with pike, perch, and roach in abundance. Smelts are taken in the
season, and occasionally a salmon strays up the stream. The perch are
unrivalled for the brilHancy of their colours, and sometimes attain a
considerable weight. Sturgeons seven feet in length have been captured;
and large lamphreys are frequently caught. The Waveney, after a long
winding course between the two counties, flows into the Yare at Reedham.

The Yare, up the stream to Norwich, produces several kinds of small
fish, more especially bream, plaice, perch, and roach. Reedham, Cantley,
Coldham Hall and Buckenham, are favourite fishing stations in the sum-
mer season. Nine stone of fish have been caught at Buckenham by one
angler in a day.

" A day with not too bright a beam,

A warm but not a scoi-ching sun,
A southern gale to cool the stream,

And half the fisher's work is done."

Coldham Hall is a favourite resort of anglers from all parts of the country.



(JplSSEX is bounded on tlie north by Suffolk and part of Cambridgesliire,
( i^! on tlie south by the Eiver Thames, on the west by Middlesex and
Hertfordshire, and on the east by the German Ocean, to which its coast line
presents many deep and winding- indentations, in and near the estuaries
of the Thames, the Crouch, the Blackwater, the Colne, and the Stour,
with many small islands. The eastern parts of the county are generally
level, but the other portions are picturesquely undulated, and present a
varied and pleasing succession of fine rural landscapes.

Essex forms part of that wide tract of country on the eastern side of
England, which is the largest space of level ground in the whole island ;
but it has many gentle hills and dales, and towards the north-west, whence
most of its rivers proceed, the country rises, and presents a continued
inequality of surface. The most level tracts in the county are those of
the southern and eastern hundreds. Extensive salt marshes border most
of the coast, and are mostly protected by embankments or sea walls. The
banks of the Thames are low and marshy.

Geologists have distinguished the eastern district, which includes Essex,
as that on which the superior strata rest on chalk. The London Clay
extends nearly all over Essex, and has been pierced in many places and
found to be of great thickness. This formation chiefly, and sometimes
wholly, consists of bluish or blackish clay, in general very toiTgli, and
containing nearly horizontal layers of ovate or flattish masses of argilla-
ceous limestone called vSeptaria, from having been apparently traversed by
cracks, now partially or wholly filled up with calcareous spar or sulphate
of barytes. Amongst the super-strata, besides the London Clay and
vegetable mould, are found brickearth, sand, crag, pipe clay, and the
plastic clay formation. The alternation of fresh- water formations with
those of marine origin, establish a complete and highly important
analogy between the French and English series. The crag is a stratum
of sand and gravel ; and the north-east coast is covered with this upper
marine formation, which, with the enclosed organic remains, often
exhibits impregnation with iron. The various formations contain quan-
tities of organic remains, both vegetable and animal, showing that at one
period the flora and fauna of the eastern district were very different
to the present flora and fauna. Marine remains are found in great variety



near the coast on tlio nortliern part of Essex. Remains of the larger
Mammalia, the Mammoth, the Rhinoceros, and various species of deer,
are found in the crag deposits at Walton-on-the-Naze, where many of
the fossils agree with those in the upper marine formation of the Paris

According to the Roman authors, the Trinobantes were the aborigines
of the territory now called Essex, but few remains of that people have
been traced. There is extant a list of kings or chiefs of the Trinobantes
before and after the Roman invasion, of whom Httle is on record of histo-
rical importance. In the reign of Augustus (b.c. 31) a king of that
people lived, who appeared, from the number of coins dug up with
his name inscribed, to have had a considerable acquaintance with
Grecian and Roman art. He was named Cunuboline, or Cunubelinus,
and sometimes Cunbelinus, and had his royal seat at Camulodunum,
so called fi-om a temple of Mars, there worshipped under the name of

The first Roman camp and colony in this island appears to have been
established at Camulodunmn, on the site where Colchester now stands in
Essex. The ruins of the Roman camp may be traced all round the town.
If any antiquary should have any doubt on the subject, it must be dispelled
by inspecting the Roman remains or relics deposited in the Castle Museum;
the group of cinerary urns, with a fine gladiatorial vase, found by Mr.
Taylor at the West Lodge ; the imperial coins found in the neighborhood ;
and, above all, by the researches of Dr. Duncan, who has traced the cloaca
of one of the Roman villas, who has identified the sites of the Roman
cemeteries, traced their roads, piled up their coins, and pointed their
footsteps everywhere in and around the town in a manner which j)roves
beyond question that this must have been the great seat of the imperial
power in England. The ancient walls, of which some interesting relics
yet remain, though in many parts crumbled into ruins, were no doubt
planned and built by the Roman conqueror when he had decided on
settling in this part of the country. The foundations seemed to have been
preserved, and they enclose a space of 118 acres, representing the extent
of the city of Camulodunum.

There are also Roman remains at Leyton, Wanstead, Great Burstead,
Tolleshunt Knights, West Mersea, Harwich, and other places; and
tumuli, or barrows, at Lexden, Bures and Montem, West Mersea, and
Wigborough. The remarkably large tumuli called Bartlow Hills are in
this county, though taking their name from the neighboring village of
Bartlow in the county of Cambridge. On the exploration of these mounds
between 1832 and 1840, all the remains discovered were evidently of
Roman origin, and from their funereal character prove that they were


raised in memory of warriors bmnecl beneath, whicli fact is corroborated
by the remains of a Roman encampment near the spot.

It is generally acknowledged that at an early period this island was
intersected in various directions by British trackways, which were after-
wards improved by the Romans. The four principal Roman roads which
traversed England were Watling Street, extending from the Kentish
Coast to London, York, Carlisle, &c. ; Ermyn Street, Avhich extended from
London to Lincoln, and the Humber ; the Fosse Way, which passed from
Bath to Lincoln and Newark ; Icknield Street, which extended from
London, through Essex via Stratford, Romford, Ingatestone, Chelmsford,
and Colchester, to Caistor in Norfolk.

Two Roman roads branched from Colchester, one through Dunmow to
St, Albans and Cambridge, and the other crossing, the Stour to Combre-
tonium. Another Roman road passed from London through Ley ton,
Hornsey Lane, Bishop Stortford, Chesterford, into Cambridgeshire.
Iciana is supposed by Horsley to be Chesterford. Dr. Gale says Saffron
Walden is seated on two military ways running north and east. Many
Roman antiquities have been found at Chesterford, and the military way
at Gogmagog Hills points to that place. At Kinghill near Audley End
is a Roman camp near a road, which is traced to Chesterford.

The road which passed from Colchester to St. Alban^s (Verulanium)
may be traced through Stanway, Coggeshall, Braintree, Dunmow, and
Stortford. A military way has been traced from Colchester to Colne,
Sible-Hedingham, Yeldham, Ridgewell, and Haverhill. The foundations of
a Roman villa were found at Ringwell in 1794. At Colchester, there is a
profusion of Roman bricks, and other antiquities, and many urns, coins,
tesselated pavements, &c., have been found near Billericay and in many
other pairts of Essex.

From the Itinerary of Antoninus five principal stations appear to have
been either formed or occupied by the 'Romans in Essex. These were
Durolitum, Ceesarormagus, Canonum, Camulodunum, and Ad Ansum, all
seated on the road which formed the fifth Iter from London to Venta
Icenorum in Norfolk. The sites of most of them are subjects of dispute
among antiquaries, but they generally agree that Camulodunum, the
principal station, was at Colchester, and that it had been previously the
capital of the Trinobantes.

When the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes came from the regions on either side
of the Elbe nearly fourteen centuries ago, our island was imperfectly
governed. The inhabitants, now deserted by their Roman conquerors,
were in no condition to offer any lengthened resistance. The military
chieftains who came over rewarded their followers with land, a portion
called a mark being given to each clan or kinsfolk ; and it is believed that


tlie cliief towns of many of these marks are traceable at tlie present day
in their names, which denote the kin or family to whom the land was
given. Hence the names of Mailing, Steyning, Booking, Ealing, Hailing,
Epping, Gidding, Eeading, which names are believed to denote the marks
or land, or kinships. The relation between the chief and the follower was
very intimate among the Teutons of old. The leaders of the emigration
to Britain had each his band of devoted liegemen, who would be sure to
vie with each other in deeds of perilous daring, and to whom, when the
enemy was subdued, the chief apportioned rewards in land or booty. The
marks or land of the kinships Moelo, Stcena, Boca, and the like are
believed to have in this way received the names of Mailing, Steyning,
Booking, &c. Many other names which do not end in " ing,^^ such as
Endington, the ton or clearing of the kindred of Enteu Arlington, the
homestead of the Arlings. The towns of Essex, and indeed of all Eastern
England, are all of Anglo-Saxon origin, as proved by their names, some-
times taken from rivers on which the places are situated — as Colchester,
from the River Colne ; Chelmsford, from the River Chelmer. Many
places were named from meadows and marshes where rushes grew — as
Rushall, Rushbrooke, Rushbury, Rushford. Other places were named
from fens — as Fen Ditton, Fen Stanton, Fensbury (now Finsbury) in
London. Some places were named from meres or small lakes — as
Hazlemere, Livermere, Mereston ; others from fords over rivers — as
Deptford (Deepford), Thetford, Larlingford.

Essex being almost wholly an agricultural county, the greater number
of the inhabitants reside in villages.

The face of the county is generally very beautiful ; it is well enclosed,
and for the most part presents good verdant pastures ; the hills, none of
which rise to great heights, are cultivated to the tops, and there is
abundance of trees, especially oak and chestnut. The proportion of waste
land is smaller than in any other county in England. The forests do not
amount to more than 14,000 acres, which are not all uncultivated. These
forests belong to the Crown, though the inhabitants of many surrounding
parishes have the right of pasturing their cattle in them.

The Sovereign has the right of keeping deer in all the enclosed woods,
and the occupiers of land in the various parishes included within the ancient
boundaries of the forests have a right to feed horses and cows, but not
cattle. The numerous common rights have led to considerable devasta-
tion of the timber in those forests, and occasioned no small injury to the
property of the Crown ; but plans have been adopted for preserving the
trees and converting a part into a nursery for growing timber for the
Royal Navy. In ancient times, it would appear that the whole county was
forestal; and the following rhyming charter of Edward the Confessor,


relating- to a remotei- part of it, is said to be taken from the Forest Rolls
of Essex : —

" Ic Edward Kounig,

Have giveu of my forest the keeping,

Of tlie Hundred of Chelmer and dancing,

To Eandolph, piper king, and his kindling,

Wyth heose and hyude, doe and bock,

Hare and foxe, cut and brocke,

Wylde foAvel Avith his flock,

Partrich, fesant hen and fesant cock.

Wyth green and wylde stob and stock.

To keepers and to yenien by all her might,

Both by day and eke by night.

And hounds for to hold

(rood and swift and bold ;

Four greyhounds and six racches

For hare and foxe and wilde cattes.

And therefore iche made him my broke,

Witness the bishop Wolston

And brooke ylced many on

And Swein of Essex our brother

And taken him many other.

And our Steward Howelm

That by sought me for him."

Edward the Confessor is also said to have had a park at Havering,
enclosing- it from the forest. Tendring Hundred was disafforested by
Stephen ; all that part of the forest which lay to the north of the high-
way from Stortford to Colchester met with the same treatment at the
hands of John ; and Henry III. allowed the making of another park at
Heydon Mount, at the same time giving John de Lexington leave to hunt
in what was still the Forest of Essex. Then came another large enclosure
for the great people at Heydon Gurnon, but the Mountfitchets of Havering
seem to have been hereditary grand wardens of Epping Forest so far back
as King Stephen. Then it passed to the de Clares ; from them, diminished
to the wardenship of Epping Forest, to the Earls of Oxford ; but Henry
YIII. took so kindly to it that the earl of the period surrendered his
wardenship to the king for the time, in order that the royal hunter might
have it all his own way. Elizabeth was like-minded with her father about
it, and hunted in it constantly. King James gave it back to the Oxfords ;
they conveyed it to tho Exeters ; one of those earls in turn to the Earl o
Lindsay, from whom it passed to Sir R. Child, and descended through the
families of Tylney and of Long to the Earls of Mornington, with whose
representative it must now be, if the office still exists.

From several perambulations made in the loth century, it appears that
the greater part of Essex was at that time one continuous forest.
Several districts were disafforested at different periods. The forests


of Eppiug and Hainault (sometimes called Waltliam Forest) still retain
about 10,000 acres of old woods and large tracts of open commons in
which the timber has been mostly grubbed up. Though the natural woods
have been rapidly disappearing during the last hundred years, the wood-
lands of Essex are still extensive, and would supply a vast quantity of
well-grown straight timber if the trees were suffered to remain till grown
to their full size. Though but few new plantations of wood have been
made during the present century, solely with the view of future profit,
there are in all parts of the county abundance of clumps and belts of fir
and forest trees for the decoration of gentlemen's seats, which are
numerous in the county.

The district now known as Epping Forest lies to the north and north-
east of London, and comprises a series of woodland ranges which may be
said to begin at Leytonstone, seven miles from London, and end at
Epping, eight miles further on ; a tract on an average of three or four
miles wide, the wood being thickest about Loughton or Buckhurst Hill.

The county comprises about 420 parishes, twenty market towns, and
more than 1,000 villages and hamlets, altogether inhabited by a popula-
tion of 404,851 people, chiefly engaged in agriculture. The county was
formerly an important seat of the woollen manufacture, and it still has a
portion of the silk trade, and has near London some extensive chemical
works, iron foundries, machine and engineering works, gun-powder mills,
&c. Many of the people on the sea-coast and on the banks of the Thames,
the Colne, and other rivers and creeks, derive employment from the
valuable oyster and other fisheries.

The principal corn and cattle markets are held at Colchester, Chelms-
ford, Braintree, Saffron Walden, Dunmow, and Eomford. Colchester,
the largest town and borough in Essex, has about 24,000 inhabitants ;
but the most populous part of the county is near London, in Stratford,
West Ham, and Plumstow. Southend, Harwich, and Walton-on-the-Naze,
are the principal bathing-places in Essex; and its principal ports are
Colchester, Manningtree, Harwich, Mjildon, Burnham, Purfleet, and the
London Victoria Docks.

As early as 1804, a number of Flemings, who had emigrated from
Bruges, landed at Harwich, and established their craft at Booking and
Shalford in Essex, from whence they spread to Braintree, Halstead,
Coggeshall, Dedhara, and East Bergholt. These foreigners were an
industrious race of people, and being well-skilled in the making of cloth, as
well as in agricultural pursuits, they proved a valuable acquisition to the
country. Before this, our wool had been bought up by the Dutch and Flemish
traders, who supplied us with cloth ; but these settlers soon consumed the
growth of this district, and required large supplies from other counties.



Since the passing of tlie Reform Act in 1832,, the county has been
divided into the northern and southern districts, each sending two repre-
sentatives to Parliament. Six other members are sent to the House of
Commons from this county by the three small boroughs of Colchester,
Maldon, and Harwich. The polling places comprise all the principal
market towns in the county. The number of electors registered for the
county in 1847 was 10,858 — viz., 5,644 in the northern and 5,214 in the
southern division. The county at one period returned ten Conservatives
to Parliament, and their return was celebrated by a grand banquet at
Chelmsford in September, 1841.


Essex is in the province of Canterbury, and in the diocese of Rochester,
except the ten parishes of Barking, Chingford, East and "West Ham, Great
and Little Ilford, Leyton, Walthamstow, Wanstead, and Woodford, which
are in the diocese of London. Until a few years since, the whole county
was in the diocese of London. The change was effected by the
Ecclesiastical Commissioners of England appointed and incorporated by
an Act of Parliament passed in the 6th and 7th of William IV. to carry
into effect the reports of the Commissioners appointed to consider the
state of the Estp.blished Churches of England and Wales. They obtained
in 1836 the sanction of his Majesty in Council to certain schemes and
decrees, of which the following is the substance : — That all parishes
which are locally situated in one diocese, and are under the jurisdiction of
anothei', be made subject to that See within which they are locally
situated ; that certain new dioceses should be created ; that such appor-
tionment or exchange of ecclesiastical patronage should be made among
the archbishops and bishops as should be consistent v>^ith the relative
magnitude and importa^nce of their Sees, so as to leave an average yearly
income of £15,000 to the Archbishop of Canterbury, £10,000 to the
Archbishop of York, £10,000 to the Bishop of London, £8,000 to the
Bishop of Durham, £7,000 to the Bishop of Winchester, £5,000 to the
Bishops of Ely, Worcester, and Bath and Wells respectively, £5,200
to the Bishop of St. Asaph and Bangor; and that out of the funds
arising from the said diocese over and above the said incomes, the Com-
missioners should grant such stipends to the other bishops as should
make their average annual incomes not less than £4,000, nor more than
£5,000. The Commissioners are also empowered to create new district
parishes, and to augment all poor church livings to the value of £150
each per annum, out of the funds falling into their hands from the rich
bishoprics and benefices. xVbout 1845, they purchased a large and elegant


mansion at Daubuiy^ wliich is now the palace of the Bishop o£ Rochester^
whose former residence was at Bromley^ in Kent. His diocese now comprises
a large part of Hertfordshire^ as well as nearly all Essex, and forty-seven
parishes in Kent. The Essex portion of the diocese of Rochester comprises
more than 420 parishes, chapelries, and new ecclesiastical districts, nearly
equally divided in the two Archdeaconries of Colchester and Essex.

The County of Essex, with an area of 1,060,549 acres, contained in
1861 a population of 404,851 persons, including 203,143 males and
201,708 females, showing an increase in 60 years of 177,169 persons.
The towns containing over 2,000 inhabitants in 1861 were — Colchester,
23,809; Chelmsford, 6,033; Harwich, 5,070; Maldon, 6,261 ; Saffron
Walden, 5,454 ; Barking, 5,076 ; Braintree, 4,305 ; Brentwood, 2,811 ;
Coggeshall, 3,166; Halstead, 5,707; Romford, 4,361; Stratford, 15,994;
Waltham Abbey, 2,873. All these towns arose in the Anglo-Saxon
period, long before the Xorman Conquest.


Though many noble families have estates in Essex, but few of them
now reside in the county. Of those who do reside may be mentioned
Lord Braybrooke, of Audley End ; Viscount Maynard, of Euston Hall ;
Lord Petre, of Thorndon Hall; and Lord Rayleigh, of Terling Place.
The county, however, has many handsome seats of wealthy Commoners,
and a long list of Baronets, among whom are Sir J. P. Wood, LL.D.,
Bart., of Rivenhall Place; Sir J. T. Ibbetson-Selwiu, of Down Hall,
near Harlow; Sir W. B. Smith, of Hill Hall; Sir C. C. Smith,
of Suttons; Sir B. J. H. Soame, of Heydon Hall; Sir R. A.
AUeyn, of Mesner Hall; Sir C. W. C. De Crespegny, of Wivenhoe
Hall ; Sir B. Hartwell, of Dale Hall ; Sir B. P. Henniker, of Newton
Hall ; Sir T. Barrett Lennard, of Bell House.


The county of Essex is divided into twenty hundreds for the purposes
of civil government. Surveying them from cast to west, they may be
named in the following order: — 1, Tendiing; 2, Lexden, 3, Winstree;
4, Thurstable ; 5, Dengie ; 6, Rochford, all eastern near the sea, and
the rivers Thames, Crouch, Blackwater, and Stour; 7, Chelmsford
8, Witham (Midland); 9, Hinckford; 10, Freshwell ; 11, Uttlesford
12, Clavering; 13, Harlow; 14, Duumow (all north); 15, Ongar
16, Waltham (west); 17, Becontree ; 18, Barstable; 19, Chafford
20, Havering all south near the River Thames.



Is a pleasant and fertile district^ forming a little peninsula, separated from
Suffolk on the north by the estuary of the Stour, bounded on the east and
south-east by the German Ocean, and washed on the south and west by the
waters of the Colne and its estuary, by which it is separated from Lexden
Hundred and Colchester. It is nearly circular, being about fifteen miles

Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 5 of 70)