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gateway. He was afterwards reconciled to the bishop by the command
of King Henry IV., who in Parliament held February 9th, 1400, declared
that the proceedings of the knight against -the bishop were good, and
originated in great zeal, and as the latter was of royal lineage, he com-
manded them to shake hands and kiss each other in token of friendship,
which they did.

TilE FAMILY OF DE LUCY AT DISS.

This ancient frmily resided near Diss, in the reign of Henry I., who
granted the manor of Diss to Sir Richard de Lucy, a Norman knight of
great renown in those days for his services in the French wars. This
knight was governor of Falaise, in Normandy, in the third year of King
Stephen, and he manfully defended the place against Jeffrey, Earl of
Anjou, who had besieged it. He did much to promote an agreement
between that King and Henry III., and he had charge of the Tower
of London and Castle of Winchester, on condition of his delivering them
up on the death of Stephen, which he did, and he was made Chief Justice
of England.

Robert Lucy, of Diss, was knighted in 1274, and had a great part of
his possessions in Norfolk in his own hands before that date. In 1293
he was summoned to attend King Edward I. at Gascoign in order to
recover his inheritance from the French King ; and to that place he
went in the retinue of Edmund Earl of Lancaster. In 1296 he was in
the Welsh expedition, and in 1299 in the Scotch wars. He was the first
of the family that styled himself Lord of Wodeham in Essex, where he
had a mansion, surrounded by a fine park. He obtained a charter of



EASTERN ENGLAND IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTUKY. 571

confirmation for a fair every year at his manor of Diss, upon the eve day
and morrow after the feast of St. Simon and Jude, and three days follow-
ing. He was one of the Parliamentary barons who sealed the letter to
the Pope in 1301, denying that the kingdom of Scotland was his fee, or
that he had any jurisdiction in temporal affairs. In 1309 this knight
founded a friary at Colchester, and he retired there to spend the rest of
his days. He married two wives, by one of whom lie had a son, who
succeeded him.

Robert Fitz Walter, Lord of Wodeham, married in his father's lifetime
to Joan, daughter of John de Botetourt, in 1304, by whom he had no issue.
Afterwards to Joan, one of the daughters of John de Moulton, of Egre-
mont, who survived him, and had for her dowry an assignation of the
manors of Henham in Essex, Diss and Heminhale in Norfolk. This
Robert Fitz Walter was in the expedition into Scotland in 132G, and he
died in the following year, leaving a son and heir, then under age. From
him the noble family of the Fitz Walters descended.

John Fitz Walter inherited the family estates in Essex and Norfolk, and
in 1359 he was in the French wars, being one of those engaged to accom-
pany Sir Walter Manning in the skirmish at the barriers of Paris, and he
was then knighted. He married Eleanoi-, daughter of Henry Lord Percy,
was summoned to Parliament from the fifteenth to the thirty-fourth of
Edward HI., and died in 1360 leaving a son and heir under age. Walter
Fitz Walter gave proof of his age in 1362 and inherited the family estates.
In the forty-fourth of Edward III. he was in the expedition made into
Gascoign, and there reputed one of the most expert soldiers in the whole
realm, but being taken prisoner in those wars he was forced to mortgage
his castle and lordship of Egrement for £1000 towards raising the fine for
his ransom. In 1372 a French invasion being feared, having raised what
force he could for the defence of Essex, he was commanded to go into
Norfolk for the safety of that county. In 1379 he procured the King's
Charter for a weekly market every Friday at his lordship of Hemenhale
in Norfolk, and a fair yearly on the eve day and morrow after the Feast of
St. Andrew the Apostle. Soon after, in 1381, he did great service against
the rebels, under Jack Straw, by • suppressing those who tried to make
liead there. Many other noble exploits of this warrior may be read in the
first vohmie of Dugdale (Baron fol. 222). He was a lieutenant to Thomas
Duke of Gloucester, Constable of England, in the great cause between
the Lords Lovell and Morley for the Arms of Baniel in the Court of
Chivalry in the years 138-i and 1386, and he died in Spain in 1886.

Robert Fitz Walter, his eldest son, lived to be of age, though he died
before his father, and he married Phillippa, daughter of John de Mohun,
lord of Dunster, who, after the death of this Robert, married again to



572 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

Edward Plantagenet, Duke of York^ who held Diss manor, hundred, and
market, together with Hemenhale, till he was killed, and after his death
she held them till 1403, when she died.

Sir Walter Fitz Walter, second son and heir, succeeded to the inheri-
tance, and married Joan, daughter of Sir John Devereux, Knt., who
died in 1408. She soon after married to Hugh Burnel, who had by
her two sons, Humphry and Walter, and one daughter named Eleanor.
Humphry, Lord Fitz Walter, his eldest son, was under age at his
father's death, and was a ward of King Henry V., who granted the
custody of him to John de Beaufort, Earl of Somerset. The earl
dying soon after, left him to his executor, Henry Beaufort, Bishop of
Winchester, but the ward dying before he came of age, was never
in possession of the inheritance, which went to his brother, Walter
Fitz Walter, who was under age, and had not possession of his estate
till 1428, at which time he had livery thereof, but not of Diss and
Hemenhale till 1431, when Phillippa died, who had held them all this
time in dower. Then he settled them in trust in his feoffees, Eichard
Barnard and Simon Cistern, Eector of Berningham, who presented here
jointly with him. This Walter was one of the most active men in the
French wars in the time of that victorious Prince, Henry V., who in the
eighth year of his reign, for the great services of this Walter, gave to
him and his heirs male land in the duchy of Normandy, which reverted to
the Crown from the failure of heirs male. He was then a very young
man, not being of full age till 1422. He died in 1432, and was buried in
Dunmow Priory. Elizabeth, his wife, who survived him, held in dower
Hemenhale and Diss manors, with the Hundred of Diss, in Norfolk, with
other manors in Suffolk and Essex. She afterwards married to William
Massey, by whom she had two daughters, and died in June, 1463, leaving
her daughter Anne, wife of Thomas Katcliffe, Esq., who had no issue; and
Ehzabeth married to his brother, John Ratchffe, Lord Fitz Walter. This
John Ratcliffe was soon after summoned to Parliament as Lord Fitz
Walter, and, in right of his wife, enjoyed all the honours and possessions
of that noble family. He enjoyed till 1493, when he was attainted of
treason, and, being apprehended abroad, was brought into England, with
several other knights, among whom was Sir Robert Ratcliffe, who was
beheaded, but the Lord Fitz Walter was pardoned. After that he went
to Calais, and being suspected of supporting Perkyn Warbeck, the pre-
tender to the Crown, he was apprehended and beheaded, because he
attempted to escape.

Henry VII., at the time of his attainder, seized upon all his revenues,
and among them the manor of Diss hundred and advowson, with other
manors, which remained in the Crown till Henry VIII. restored them to



EASTERN ENGLAND IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 573

Robert Katcliffe, sou of the said Joliu, who was in great favour wth that
King.

THE FAMILY OF DE TONY.

Roger de Tony was the first of his family who settled at Saham Tony,
in the Hundred of Wayland, in Norfolk, in the year 1197. King John, in
the first year of his reign, granted to him and his heirs the lordship of
Saham Tony, with the Hundreds of Way land and Grimshoe in Norfolk.
He was descended in a direct line from Roger de Tony, standard-bearer
of Normandy, whose son Ralph came over with the Conqueror, and for
his services had nineteen lordships in Norfolk, He was succeeded by
Roger de Tony his son, who became the ancestor of all the Tonys in
Saham Tony. Ralph de Tony, the next heir, joined the barons against
King John, but was after that in the King's favour. In 1239, being
signed with the cross like other nobles, he travelled to the Holy Land
and died on the sea. His Avidow Petronell had the manor of Saham Tony
for life. She married AVilliam de St. Omer who was lord in her right,
and in 1275 was Justice Itinerant in Cambridgeshire. Her son Roger de
Tony died in 1276, so that he never was lord, and at her death the manor
went to her grandson Ralph de Tony, who died in 1293.

Robert de Tony was the next heir, and in 1298 he obtained the renewal
of a charter for a weekly market at his manor of Saham Tony, and two
fairs yearly, one on the day and morrow of the Feast of St. Martin the
Bishop and five days following, and another on the eve and morrow after
the Feast of St. George the Martyr and five days following. He was one
of the barons who subscribed the letter sent to Pope Boniface on Februaiy
12th, 1300, concerning the subjection of the kingdom of Scotland to that
of England, with which the Pope then pretended to intermeddle. This
Robert Tony died in 1309.

THE TRUSBUTT FAMILY, SOUTH RUNCTON.

The Trusbutts were an ancient family located at South Ruuctou, in the
Hundred of Clackclose, in Norfolk. Richard Trusbutt lived in the reign
of Henry III., and his son John in that of Edward I. In the second of
Henry VI., Lawrence Trusbutt, of Shouldham, purchased an estate at
South Runcton, and his descendants lived there a long time. The Trus-
butts were a family of good account, for we find that Agatha Trusbutt
was wife of William de Albini, Earl of Sussex and Lord of Castle Rising.
She paid King John in his chamber at Lynn 100 marks of silver as a fine
for her husband being in arms against that King only eight days before
the King's death.



CHAPTEE XII



EASTEEN ENGLAND IN THE
FOUETEENTH CENTUEY.

HIS period includes the reigu of the three last Plantagenet Kings,



\^^ Edward II., Edward III., and Richard II. It was a period of
continual wars with Scotland and France, in which wars many noblemen
in the Eastern Counties were engaged. It was also a period of civil wars,
which spread desolation over the country, but it soon recovered its former
prosperity. This was in a great measure owing to the vast influx of
foreign artisans, who were induced to come over the sea to England and
introduce new branches of industry.

KEIGN OP EDWARD II., 1307 to 1327.

Edward II. began his reign on July 7th, 1307, when Walter de Norwich,
son of Jeffery de Norwich, was so much in favour as to be one of the
Barons of the Exchequer in 1311, and in 1314 was summoned to Parlia-
ment as a Parliamentary Baron, and afterwards made Treasurer of the
Exchequer, which office he held for many years. He obtained liberty for
free warren in all his demesne lands, and a fair to his manor of Ling in
Norfolk, on the eve and day of St. Margaret (July 20th), and two days
following. He enjoyed the royal favour till his death.

Edward II. married Isabella, daughter of Philip IV., King of France,
in the thirteenth year of her age in 1318. She afterwards became one of
the most infamous Queen Consorts ever known in this country. Her
children by the King were Edward, who succeeded him, John, Earl of
Cornwall, and Joan, who married David (son of Robert Bruce), the
famous King of Scotland. King Edward II. appears to have been
ignorant of the intrigues of his French wife, who imposed upon him, and
brought about his destruction.

On the death of Philip V. of France, his successor, Charles IV., seems
to have sought pretexts for hostilities against Edward II., so that he might



EASTERN ENGLAND IN THE FOUKTEENTH CENTDRY. 575

if possible obtain possession of Guienue. To compose tlieir ditferenues,
Isabella was sent to France in 1325, and on her arrival she proved faithless
to the King, and entered into commtinication with some of the banished
Lincolnshire nobles, who, in common with herself, bitterly hated the Spen-
cers. She more especially gave her confidence to Koger Mortimer, one of
the lords of the Welsh marsheSj who, after the defeat at Boroughbridgc, had
been confined in the Tower, but had escaped to the continent. The Queen
and he were soon criminally intimate. While in France, she informed her
husband that if he wished to retain Guienne, he must send over his son, in
which case her brother would invest the youth with the possession of that
duchy. The French King performed his promise, and Edward desired
his Queen to return, but she visited Flanders, and without asking the
assent of her husband and the Parliament, affianced her son to Phillippa,
the daughter of the Count of Hainault. By the aid of that prince, she
levied an army of oOOO men to wage war on her lord the King.

Edward II., a weak-minded Prince, had from his childhood enjoyed the
society of Piers de Gaveston, the son of a Gascon knight, but as the
Pi-ince grew up, Gaveston acquired such an ascendancy over him that the
last King shortly before his death banished him from the country, and
made his son promise never to recall him. On the King's death, his sou
marched a little way into Scotland, but soon returned and disbanded his
army. Gaveston was sent for, and on his arrival was loaded with honours
and estates. Edward appointed him regent of the kingdom before leaving
England to marry Isabella, daughter of Philip IV., King of France.

Gaveston, though a man of courage and ability, was so unwise as to
irritate the nobility by his arrogance and insolence, and he did not even
refrain from applying sarcastic nicknames to some men of the highest
rank. The barons forced the infatuated King to banish the minion
(May 18th, 1308), but he was determined that he should not retire in
disgrace, and therefoi-e appointed him Viceroy of Ireland, the government
of which he conducted mth vigour. In his absence, Edward tried to
soften the animosity of the barons against him, and bravely gained over
a portion of them by concessions. He ordered Gaveston to return (June
26th, 1809), but the favourite had not profited by his late humiliation, and
became in consequence the object of still greater dislike. The barons did
not disguise their hatred, and on the pretence that they were exposed to
danger from the power of their enemy, refused to attend a Parliament
summoned to meet at York. As the King needed supplies, he directed
Gaveston to retire from public observation, and convoked another Parlia-
ment at Westminster. Thither the nobility came with a large retiime of
armed followers, and thus having all power in their hands, made the King
do what they pleased, and Gaveston was banished.



576 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

In 1327 tlie King, Edward II., kept his Christmas at Bury St. Ed-
mund^s, and being sore afraid of the Queen^s return, and of those exiles
who were with her, he commanded musters to be made in every city,
burgh, town, hundred, and wapentake in all England, to exercise the men
in arms both horse and foot, that so they might be ready whenever they
were called upon. He also commanded that beacons should be erected in
order to raise the people at a distance whenever they were fired.

About Michaelmas Queen Isabel, Roger de Mortimer, Edmund de
Woodstock, Earl of Kent, the King's brother, and others, landed at
Harwich, in Essex, and soon after came to Norwich, and thence went to
Bury St. Edmund's, where the Queen stayed some time to refresh herself.
She prosecuted her wicked designs against the King with such success
that he was deposed on the Christmas Day after, and murdered on Sep-
tember 21st following, in the year 1327.

The guilty Queen appears to have spent the remainder of her wicked
life at Castle Rising, in Norfolk, then a place of some importance. In
the reign of Edward III., the Dowager Isabella took possession of the
castle, where she resided during the greater part of her widowhood.
Before taking up her abode at the castle, she visited the far-famed shrine
of Our Lady of Walsingham. Several well-preserved records among the
documents of King's Lynn relate to events during her residence at the
castle, and show that her son, Edward III., and numbers of his family
were frequent visitors there.

One of these entries indicates the time when the alterations and enrich-
ments of the castle and chapel were effected, in the reign of Edward III.
On this occasion. Queen Isabella sent her precept, dated at the castle, to
John de Cokeslord, Mayor of Lynn, for eight carpenters to make pre-
parations for the reception of the royal party, and during this visit, the
account rolls of Adam de Reffham and John de Newland mention a
present of wine sent to the King. Similar gifts were also made from
time to time to the Queen Dowager. Lynn was then famous for its
importations of wine.

In 1357 the rolls of the Chamberlin at Lynn record a gift to the
Queen at Rising, showing that she was resident there at that date. Some
historians state that the Dowager Queen was a prisoner at Rising ou
account of her too intimate acquaintance with her guilty favourit(3
Mortimer. Sir John de Molins, who seized Mortimer in Nottingham
Castle, after his execution was appointed steward of the household at
Rising, and this looks very much like his holding the office of jailer. He
must, of course, have been very obnoxious to Queen Isabella at the castle.

The more we study the history of the Queen the less appearance do we
find of her being treated as a prisoner in any strict sense of the wordj for



EASTERN ENGLAND IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 577

it is certain that during her long residence at Rising she was treated
respectfully by her son. King Edward III. Her presence at the castle
can be traced till nearly the time of her death, August 22nd,
1358, aged sixty-three years. She was buried in the Church of the
Grey Friars in London, where a monument of alabaster was erected
to her memory.

In 1317, Sir John Howard, son and heir of Sir William Howard, one of
the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, was made Constable
of the Castle and Sheriff of Norwich. In 1321, the castle was in the
King's hands, as appears by a writ directed to the Sheriff commanding him
to furnish it witli all warlike stores and the garrison with victuals and all
necessaries ; and the year after, William de Eeedham was made Constable
of the Castle at Norwich.

During the reigns of Edward I., Edward II., and Edward III., Norwich
seems to have been left in the quiet enjoyment of some tranquillity aftei*
having endured so many wrongs at the hands of Norman Kings, barons,
priests, and monks. The liberties of the city continued undisturbed, and
were confirmed by successive Kings in a formal way in their charters.
In the fourteenth century, the commercial condition of the city was
greatly improved by its being made a staple town for the counties of
Norfolk and Suffolk.

Murage taxes had been imposed for some time to build the walls,
gates, and towers of Norwich; and in 1319 these fortifications were said
to be completed, although it would appear only generally so. When the
thickness and extent of the walls are considered, it cannot be thought
surprising that a period of twenty-five years elapsed before these mural
defences were finished so as to dispense with any additional tax; but
something more was required to render them adequate for the intended
purpose. Neither towers nor gates could be of much use unless furnished
with munitions of war.

The gates and towers of the city of Norwich had been built, but not
fitted up after the walls were finished, and about 1312 the gates and
towers were fortified by Richard Spynk, citizen of Norwich. One benefit
produces another, and to that wealthy citizen Norwich was not only
indebted for its safety from aggression, but also for an extension of its
liberties. It is recorded that Queen Isabella induced the King, her son,
in consideration of the costs and charges for the walls, which had been
raised without any call on the government, to grant a charter to the
citizens that they and their heirs and successors dwelling in the said city
should for ever be free from the jm-isdiction of the clerk of the market
and of the household of the King and his heirs, so that the said clerk or
his officers for the future should not enter the city or fee to make assay



578 HISTORY OP EASTERN ENGLAND.

of any measures or weiglits, or to exercise or do anything belonging to
tlie said office of the clerk of the market, &c.

In the reign of Edward II. Sir Eobert de Morley, of Swanton Morley,
in the Hundred of Launditch, Norfolk, was Marshal of Ireland, and truly
famous for his many gallant actions, both by sea and land, being Lieutenant
of Norfolk and Admiral of the King^s fleet. He obtained such a notable vic-
tory near Sluys in Flanders, that the hke sea-fight was never known before.
He was Constable of the Tower of London, summoned to Parhament
from the eleventh of Edward II. to the thirty-first of Edward III., and
died in the thirty -fourth of that King.

Sir Robert de Morley^s descendants lived for a long time at Swanton
Morley, in Norfolk. The last male heir of this noble family was Robert,
son of Thomas Lord Morley, and the Lady Isabel his wife, daughter of
Michael De-la-Pole, Earl of Suffijlk, who dying in the twenty-first of
Henry VI., left by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of William Lord Roos,
Alianore, his daughter and heiress, who afterwards married Wilham
Lovell, a younger son of Lord Lovell, of Tichworth, who in her right
was Lord Morley, and inherited the estate of that family.

Walter de Norwich flourished in the reign of Edward 11., and in the
fifth year of that reign he was made one of the Barons of the King's
Exchequer, and had summons to attend Parhament in the eighth year of
the same reign. He was a person much in favour with that Prince, and
besides the grant he obtained of him for a free warren on all the demesne
lands in Norfolk and other counties, he was made Treasurer of the
Exchequer, and held that office some years.

Sir John de Norwich, knight, who was summoned to Parliament iu
the sixteenth of Edward III., was Admiral of the King's whole fleet to the
northwards, and was several times in the wars against Scotland and
France, in which he performed so many signal services that the King
• made him two allowances out of his Exchequer, the one of sixty pounds
fourteen shillings, and the other of fifty marks per annum, &c.

At the commencement of the fourteenth century, John Salmon, Prior
of Ely, became Bishop of Norjvich. The times were evil, and the bishop
was not a man above the morals of his age. Summoned before the papal
legate for unlawfully exacting the first fruits from the clergy of his
diocese, he became the occasion of the first regular imposition of this tax
upon the parochial clergy, and the payments which have built up the fund
called Queen's Anne's bounty. But it was an age of building ; a mania for
architecture seems to have run through the length and breadth of the
lard. The Colleges of Clare, Gonville, and St. Peter at Cambridge, and of
Exeter and Oriel at Oxford, besides a host of ecclesiastical buildings
scattered over the country in every direction, belong to this period, and



EASTERN ENGLAND IN THE fOURTEENTH CENTURY. 579

Bishop Salmon was amongst the foremost of the builders. He founded a
" convent for five priests at the west gate of the Cathedral church,
together with a refectory chamber, and other suitable buildings ; also that
ample and lofty chapel in honour of St. John the Evangelist, and a vault
or subterranean crypt, as a repository for human bones." This range of
buildings, though it has undergone many mutilations, is in all its essential
features identical with the School-house and the present Grammar School
at Norwich. Probably when Bishop Salmon first began his work about
1315, he contemplated no niore than the erection of a carnary or recep-
tacle for human bones. These carnaries, or charnel houses, were intended
to supplement the wholly inefficient churchyards of large cities, which in
times of pestilence became so hideously choked that frightful heaps of
bones were constantly to be seen on the surface of the soil, sometimes with
the half-decomposed flesh adhering to them. As the building work pro-
ceeded, it was resolved to add the chapel, which was constructed over the
original carnary. It is certain that a tower was intended to have been
added at the west end, and that this was actually begun ; the remains
still exist, and it seems that it was intended to add an apse at the east



Online LibraryA. D BayneRoyal illustrated history of eastern England, civil, military, political, and ecclesiastical .. (Volume 1) → online text (page 66 of 70)