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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA




WHISTLER'S PASTELS
AND OTHER MODERN PROFILES



BY THE SAME WRITER

Aubrey Beardslefs Book- Plates. 1902.

Aubrey Beardslefs Dranvings : A Catalogue and a List of Criti-
cisms. 1903.

Whistler's Art DiEla and Other Essays. 1 904.

Whistler: Notes and Footnotes and Other Memoranda. 1907.

Modern Art at Venice and Other Notes. 1910.

The Portraits of Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), Statesman, Diplo-
mat, Financier. 1911.

A Fifteenth Century Mazer. 1912.

Whistlers Pastels and Other Modern Profiles. 1912. [New edition,
enlarged, 1913.]

The Portraits and Caricatures of James McNeill Whistler: An
Iconography. 1913. [In preparation.]



WHISTLER'S PASTELS
AND OTHER MODERN PROFILES

BY

A. E. GALLATIN



NEW EDITION



NEW YORK : JOHN LANE COMPANY

LONDON : JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD

MDCCCCXIII



Copyright, 1913, by Albert Eugene Gallatin
All rights reserved



Art
Library



NOTE

My remarks on the exhibitions of the International
Society and those on Homer and Zorn are printed
here through the courtesy of Art and Progress. T'he
notes on ''Max" and Frieseke, which have been
added to this edition, also made their first ap-
pearance in that journal, ^he appreciation of
Haskell is reprinted by permission from tfhe In-
ternational Studio.
r-^j

Mr. Burton Mansfield and Mr. Harris B.
Dick I am indebted for permission to reproduce
an hitherto unpublished pastel and an hitherto
unpublished water-colour by Whistler in their re-
specJive possession. In addition to fkese, the three
slight sketches by the same master which have been
reproduced as one plate have also been substituted
for certain illustrations which appeared in the
first edition of this book, as have the reproductions
after Forain, Conder, "Max" Frieseke andShinn's
French Music Hall.

A. E. G.

O}

New Tort, February, 1913.



CONTENTS

WHISTLER: THE PASTELS, CHALK
DRAWINGS AND WATER-COLOURS 3

THE ART OF ERNEST HASKELL 13

TWO EXHIBITIONS OF THE INTER-
NATIONAL SOCIETY : A SET OF NOTES 21
NICHOLSON : ORPEN : FORAIN I PAUL TROU-
BETZKOY: CONDER: KEENE: BEARDSLEY

AN ETCHING BY ZORN 33

WINSLOW HOMER: THE MEMORIAL
EXHIBITION 39

"MAX:" CARICATURIST 45

THE PAINTINGS OF FREDERICK C.
FRIESEKE 51

THE PASTELS AND RED-CHALKS OF
EVERETT SHINN 59



ILLUSTRATIONS

These, excepting the Frontispiece, are
placed together at the end of each paper.

WHISTLER

VENICE Frontispiece

From the hitherto unpublished pastel in the pos-
session of Burton Mansfield, Esq.

ON THE MERSEY

From the hitherto unpublished water-colour in the
possession of Harris B. Dick, Esq.

SOTTO PORTICO SAN GIACOMO

From the pastel, originally published in the first
edition of this book, in the possession of William B.
Osgood Field, Esq.

PORTRAIT OF WHISTLER

From the chalk drawing, originally published in
the first edition of this book, in the possession of
Messrs. Colnaghi & Obach.

STUDIES

From the hitherto unpublished sketches in chalk on
brown paper in the author's collection.



v



A VENETIAN PALACE

From the two chalk studies, originally published
in the first edition of this book, in the possession of
William B. Osgood Field, Esq.

ERNEST HASKELL

THE VALE

From the pen and ink drawing, originally pub-
lished in the first edition of this book, in the author's
collection.

FORAIN

LE CAFE

From the drawing in the author's collection.

CHARLES CONDER

LA FILLE AUX YEUX D*OR

From the hitherto unpublished pen and ink sketch

in the author's collection.



ZORN



THE BATHERS

From an etching.



C ]

WINSLOW HOMER



PALM TREE, NASSAU
water-colour.



FISHING-BOATS, KEY WEST

From a water-colour.

"MAX"

LORD CHESTERFIELD CONSERVING THE
FAMILY TRADITIONS

From the water-colour in the author's collection.

FREDERICK C. FRIESEKE

BREAKFAST IN THE GARDEN

From a painting.

EVERETT SHINN

A FRENCH MUSIC-HALL
From a pastel.

PARIS: EARLY MORNING
From a pastel,



WHISTLER



WHISTLER

THE PASTELS, CHALK DRAWINGS AND
WATER-COLOURS



AL supremely great works of art are
great because of their intrinsic
beauty: a marble from Greece, a piece of
Chinese porcelain, a bronze statuette of
the Italian Renaissance, a piece of enamel
or chased gold by Cellini, and a painting
by Velasquez might be grouped together
with the greatest harmony and unity of
purpose; they speak the same language
and have everything in common. And
with them could be placed a Whistler, for
he also had "the mark of the gods upon
him." 'In all of Whistler's works paint-
ings, water-colours , pastels ,etchings , dry-

'"/^i? have then but to wait until , with the
mark of the gods upon him there come among us
again the chosen who shall continue what has
gone before" WHISTLER'S 'T'en O'Clock.



C 4 ]
points, lithographs and dra wings we are

impressed by their distin6lion and ele-
gance, for always was Whistler an aris-
tocrat. Into an age dominated by commer-
cialism, vulgarity and the spirit to gain,
came Whistler with his unflinching de-
votion to beauty and to the search for
perfection.

Some thirty of Whistler's paintings, cho-
sen to illustrate the development of his
art, were shown during the spring of 1 9 1 o
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art; sup-
plementing them was a group of half this
number of the artist's pastels.

One could not place in an artist's hands
a more sympathetic, intimate and alto-
gether delightful medium of artistic ex-
pression than the pastel. The several
ways in which it may be employed are
illustrated by the masterly portraits in red



C 5 ]

and black of Holbein, executed in line; by
the exquisite studies in coloured crayons
of figures and draperies by Watteau and
Boucher; by the portraits, rubbed in and
stumped, of La Tour, which are so charm-
ing and gracious in spite of the facl that
his eyes have penetrated to the very souls
of his sitters; and, finally, by Whistler's
drawings upon brown paper, with the
added decisive touches of alluring colour,
which have put the charm of Venice be-
fore us.

For Whistler the pastel was certainly
an ideal medium. Etching and lithography
were eminently adapted for his needs and
very suitable vehicles for giving expres-
sion to his refined and elegant art: all
his efforts in these directions are preg-
nant with suggestion and executed with
a crisp and magical line. But in the pastels
we have the artist's wonderful colour in



: en

addition; they are perfect expressions of
his genius.

The Venetian pastels were an entirely
new note in art: as in all the other various
media he worked in, he not only mastered
it, but developed its possibilities as well.
Dr. Bode speaks of "the neatness of exe-
cution and the beauty of colouring" of the
great Verm eer, and how aptly these words
could be employed in describing Whis-
tler's pastels of Venice! These drawings,
outlined with black crayon on coloured
paper, usually brown, and then tinted
with pastel, in which much of the paper
itself is visible, are marvellous little pic-
tures, sparkling with sunlight, and record-
ing the very spirit of the city in the sea.
His subjects were always unhackneyed
and treated in an entirely personal way.
These pastels, with their amazing tech-
nique, the lines are broken, as in the



C 7 ]

Venetian etchings, possess that "im-
press of a personal quality," as Walter
Pater said of Luca della Robbia,"a pro-
found expressiveness, what the French
call intimite, by which is meant some sub-
tler sense of originality the seal on a
man's work of what is most inward and
peculiar in his moods and manner of ap-
prehension." The studies in black chalk
which Whistler made of Venetian palaces,
two of which are reproduced herewith,
contain as well as the pastels the" impress
of a personal quality."

The artist executed innumerable ex-
ceedingly graceful studies and sketches in
pastel and chalk of the nude and of dra-
peries, as well as many engaging portrait
studies in chalk, such as the self-portrait
here reproduced. Much closer do we get
to an artist in such spontaneous studies
as these than in his more elaborate paint-



[ 8 ]
ings: the collections of drawings by the

great masters contain examples which are
much more appealing, because more per-
sonal, than many of the huge, laboriously
wrought canvases, so often the work of
apprentices, which cover the interminable
walls of endless museums. Nothing in
the whole range of Whistler's art is finer
in quality than such a design of his as
the Venus Astarte, which is comparable
to a Tanagra, while certain other of the
nudes and lightly draped figures, some of
them in their accessories containing a de-
cided Japanese motive, are also possessed
of the true classic spirit.

Whistler's water-colours are as perfect
in their way as the pastels. The artist has
never strained his medium, hasnever tried
togetthe same results as if using pigment.
Very often his drawings in water-colour
are not much more than notes, with the



c 9 .:

result that they are always surprisingly
spontaneous and fresh in appearance, and
that his delicate and transparent washes
of captivating colour are always a delight.
What Viollet-le-Duc wrote of the lead-
workers of the Middle Ages, and the rea-
son for the charm existing in their work,
is also true of Whistler's water-colours :
"The means they employed and the
forms they adopted are exactly appro-
priate to the material/'






WHISTLER

On the Mersey




WHISTLER

Sot to Portico San Giacomo




WHISTLER

Portrait of the sirtist




S %\wlP^s

\ >?;>?>



'*>''>'






In r ess o

i -=atafci| ^




THE ART OF ERNEST HASKELL



THE ART OF ERNEST HASKELL

UNTIL the spring of 191 1 , when an
exhibition of his work was held in
New York, Ernest Haskell's exquisite art
was known only to the more discriminat-
ing and observing of amateurs. And to
them only through scattered decorative
designs in certain periodicals and by the
artist's immensely clever and amusing pas-
tel of Mrs. Fiske, and charcoal drawing,
tinged with caricature, of Mr. Whistler,
which have been frequently reproduced.
The exhibition proved to be one of the
most interesting and important one-man
shows of the season, and introduced to
us the work of a young American artist
whose genius is of the creative order and
whose art is most personal. Rare qualities,
indeed !

Just as Whistler to the last was always



C 14 D

a student, so is Haskell an experimenter,
and his point of view is invariably fresh
and engaging. In his decorations in black
and white, pastel portraitdra wings, mono-
types, lithographs, etchings, pencil draw-
ings and silver-points and examples of
all these were shown one is constantly
impressed with the great individuality of
the artist, as well as with the style and
distinction which dominate his art. One is
also amazed at the versatility of this man,
who has conquered so many media, for,
in addition to those enumerated, Haskell
has done work in oils and in water-colour,
besides some modelling in wax.

In his work in black and white Haskell
has executed some really notable draw-
ings. His landscapes vibrate with light and
air, and his treatment of trees and foliage,
which are always drawn direcl: from na-
ture, is quite extraordinary and compara-



C 15 n

ble in quality to Maxfield Parrish's, while
the rendering of cloud effe<5ts is also very
beautiful. The wealth of minute detail
employed in these drawings detracts no
more from the general composition than
it does from a drawing by Beardsley or
an etching by Diirer, the design always
being intensely decorative in feeling. The
portrait drawings the majority of them
done with pastels, in which a much
more flexible and supple line has been
employed are charming and gracious,
even if they are not invariably faithful
likenesses of the subjects. The question
whether or not a likeness is necessary to
make a picture great is an interesting
one; in his wonderfully illuminative con-
versations with Paul Gsell, Rodin states
that the resemblance which the artist
ought to obtain is that of the soul.
The artist's monotypes, some of which



C 16 ]]

have been worked on in pastel, have been
most skilfully executed and display a sound
knowledge of the resources of the tech-
nique of this fascinating form of reproduc-
tion. Several of these monotypes, in par-
ticular those of young girls in quaint cos-
tumes, were most captivating alluring
in colour, as well as agreeable in compo-
sition. The silver-point, that most delicate
of all media, involving, as it does, the most
exacl kind of draughtsmanship, it would
seem must have been invented expressly
for the display of this artist's talents, so
delightful are his drawings made in the
manner so closely linked with the name
of Legros, and before him with that of
Leonardo.

Haskell has made a number of very
brilliantly executed etchings, including
a charming series known as The Paris
Set, which at times suggest Whistler,



C 17]

without being a6tually imitative. Others
display an intelligent study of the plates
of Rembrandt and Diirer. He has also
produced some extremely beautiful litho-
graphs, that of Miss Maude Adams, as
Juliet, being particularly delightful, while
the Nude shown at this exhibition was
comparable to one of Charles Shannon's
stones, so graceful it was, so vaporous
and full of suggestion.

Arthur Symons once said: "Taste in
Whistler was carried to the point of gen-
ius, and became creative." This is also
true of Haskell, for he takes as much pains
in placing his name or signature device
upon a design as did Whistler, and always,
like Whistler's "butterfly," it is a neces-
sary part of the composition. His frames,
usually made of natural wood, are inva-
riably severely simple, while the mats,
of exactly the correcl proportions, often



C '8 ]

have been decorated by the artist, and
sometimes have on them a border of
brown lines and gold stripes, with water-
colour wash as decorative prints were
framed in France in the eighteenth cen-
tury.



!P^^

^ $M



ERNEST HASKELL

The Fak



TWO EXHIBITIONS OF
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY



TWO EXHIBITIONS OF
THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY

A SET OF NOTES

I

THE annual exhibition of the Inter-
national Society of Sculptors, Paint-
ers and Gravers, held in London during
the spring of 191 1, was one of great in-
terest. It contained many more paintings
of vital importance than were shown atthe
Royal Academy the latter being about
as inspiring as the Paris Salon. 1 Founded
in 1898, Whistler was the first president
of the International Society, which office
he held until his death, when he was suc-
ceeded by Rodin. Among the members
are artists of such real genius as William



cleverest works are always to be seen at the
Salon desHumoristes; these amiable drawings
long outlive the blatant Salon pictures.



C 22 ]

Orpen, William Nicholson, D. Y. Cam-
eron, James Pryde, Charles Shannon and
William Strang, while Forain and Paul
Troubetzkoy also exhibited this year.

William Nicholson was represented by
a splendidly painted portrait of F. Nash,
Esq. ; his name and William Orpen's are
two of the greatest in contemporary art.
Nicholson's composition and colour are
as notable as they used to be in the days
of the marvellous wood-cuts, which
some day will be treasured by the greatest
amateurs ofl'estampe, and higher praise
than this is not possible. The enamel-like
surface of his pigment is also an aesthetic
delight, his modelling and rendering of
values masterful. It was these qualities
that made his exhibition at the Goupil
Gallery the same spring proclaim him to
be a master of his craft.

William Orpen sent a picSlure entitled



[23 3

The Knacker's Yard, Dublin, a canvas
particularly notable for its superb com-
position, containing great imposing empty
spaces. The artist's paintings at the Royal
Academy ( for that institution has strangely
enough had the sagacity to elecl: him an
associate member) were by far the most
interesting works shown there. Certainly
with Nicholson and Orpen, and the other
men belonging to their group, to carry
along her glorious traditions founded
by Hogarth, Reynolds, Romney, Gains-
borough and Raeburn, British art may
well ex peel a renaissance; for it is not an
exaggeration to say that these men are
great artists.

The genius of Degas and his supreme
powers of draughtsmanship were illus-
trated by a Danseuse, very typical of this
phase of his wonderful art, while that of
his understudy, Forain, was shown by a



[ 24 ]

group of etchings, paintings and pastels.
This artist, like his master, is an im-
mensely clever draughtsman, his realism
as unflinching and his vision as penetrat-
ing and cruel. Forain's etchings possess
great technical beauty and are full of
strong characterization; his line is as
expressive and telling as that of a master
from Japan. But his work at times is too
much an echo of Degas frequently it is
veritable caricature. How differently has
the charming art of Mary Cassatt been
inspired! Forain is to Degas what Jor-
daens was to Rubens, Boucher to Watteau,
Walter Greaves to Whistler. One might
say that these artists exposed the failings
and the "tricks" of their masters.

The few pieces of sculpture which
adorned the exhibition were of a high or-
der: two examples of Rodin's great art,
one in bronze, one in marble, and two



examples of Prince Paul Troubetzkoy's
sculpture being conspicuous among them.
The exhibition of sculpture together
with a few of the artist's paintings held
in New York at the Hispanic Society dur-
ing the winter of 1911 showed us that in
Paul Troubetzkoy contemporary sculp-
ture possesses one of her most interesting
exponents. The genius of this Russian is
a force secondary only to such men as
Rodin and Meunier. His sculpture is most
spirited and full of vitality : here we have
nothing of alleged "classicism." His men
and animals vibrate with life, as Monet's
landscapes and marines vibrate with light.
The sculptor's range of subjecls is varied,
his versatility very marked. In his work
we find most charming statuettes of
women, children and men, extremely
lifelike animal subje&s, genre pieces, life-
size figures and busts, as well as eques-



C 26]

trian statues. And in all this work we find
equally brilliant modelling, a refreshingly
original technique, animation and an in-
tensely modern note. His art is linked
as closely with his age as Donatello's
was linked with his.

ii

AN exhibition intended to illustrate the
more important tendencies of English and
French art in the past hundred years
was arranged in London during the early
summer of 1911, under the auspices of
the International Society of Sculptors,
Painters and Gravers. The exhibition
could scarcely be considered as being
a comprehensive survey of these years,
owing to the fa 61 that Impressionism, the
most important movement of this period,
was almost totally ignored; but it was, at
the same time, an important assemblage



c 27 :

of vitally interesting works, of which the
section of the exhibition termed "an his-
torical survey of the graphic arts of the
nineteenth century" was an interesting
feature.

That Charles Conder was possessed of
an exquisite art was demonstrated by the
twenty-four examples of his work in oil
and in water-colour which were shown.
The little paintings made on the beach
at Dieppe were as deliciously pure in
colour and tone, and their washes of lim-
pid pigment as seduclive, as if Whistler
had painted them. The fans and panels,
painted with water-colours upon silk , were
as delicate and charming as the work of
a French master of the eighteenth cen-
tury: the Boudoir Fan and La Fille aux
Yeux d'Or were seldom excelled in grace
by Lancret or Pater. 1 One only regretted
l "Conder's paintings are like lyrical poems or



C 28 3

the omission of examples of the litho-
graphs: these, printed in sanguine, are
exceedingly beautiful, and surely the
most romantic drawings ever made! A
set of them was shown in New York dur-
ing December, 1911, in connection with
a most important loan exhibition of Con-
der's art.

The pen and ink drawings of Charles
Keene, considered by Whistler the great-
est English artist since Hogarth, com-
prised a selection of his famous work for
Punch. Immensely clever these were, dis-
play ing marvellous insight into character,
full of quiet humour, and executed with a
dextrous and facile technique: in a word,
masterpieces of their kind, which have

inspired melodies tfhe creatures of his delicate

fancy move about in an engaging world of heroic
landscapes and enchanted gardens, tfhe pictures
are arabesques of sumptuous women basking in
their own glorious beauty" MARTIN BIRNBAUM.



C 29 1

never been excelled. Keene's great tra-
ditions inherited from Daumier were
for a time worthily carried along by Phil
May, also a genius in this particular
branch of art, although as regards de-
sign he was far from being the equal of
the former.

The extraordinary genius of Aubrey
Beardsley was illustrated by five of the
Salome drawings and his Siegfried. The
Salome designs are marvellous perform-
ances that rank high among the master-
pieces of black and white, and yet one
would much rather have had any of the
engaging Rape of the Lock "embroider-
ings," with their fine eighteenth century
flavour, or certain of the Savoy draw-
ings in their stead. Beardsley 's instinct
for decoration, his great gifts as an orna-
mentist, his unerring genius for balancing
black and white masses, his wonderful line



c 30 :

and the sense of colour in his work are
all factors which proclaim him to be the
master of black and white: no artist work-
ing with pen and ink upon white paper
has ever obtained such amazing results.
This contention, it may be mentioned,
was fully borne out after seeing an ex-
hibition of originals, the most complete
ever gathered together, which was held
in New York during the autumn of 1 91 1 .
Certain of the studies by the Old Masters
which are executed in pen and ink
Diarer's in particular possess a "loose-
ness" of handling that is most engaging,
and which by comparison may make
Beardsley's execution appear at times
rather "tight. "But nothing is to be gained
by comparing such sketches, produced in
the white heat of inspiration, with the
highly wrought compositions of Beards-
ley, for they have but little in common.




F O R A I N
Le Cafe




CHARLES CONDER
La Fille aux Teux <i'0r



AN ETCHING BY ZORN



AN ETCHING BY ZORN

THE feature that impressed us most
of all at the special display of Zorn's
vigorous paintings shown at the exhibi-
tion of contemporary art held at Venice
in 1909, as well as at the collection shown
a year or two previously by Durand-
Ruel in Paris, was the artist's tremendous
joie de vivre. He is a pagan, intoxicated
with life and revelling in colour and form.

Zorn's art is coarse only in the sense
that this adjective might be applied to
Hals, for Zorn is a great artist and a
brilliant technician. As James Huneker
expresses it in his Promenades of an Im-
pressionist, that stimulating conglomer-
ation of art criticism, he is, "in a word,
a man of robust, normal vision, a realist
and an artist."

These qualities are also apparent in the



C 34 ]

etchings, and one welcomed the chance
given by a New York dealer in the spring
of 1911 to view a most representative
group of the artist's coppers, eighty-seven
in number. In the more recent plates,
however, of which that reproduced here-
with is an example, there is an evanescent
quality, delicacy and refinement of his art
not found in the earlier examples of his
etched work. The vision of the artist is
still as intensely searching, his love of
nature just as apparent, but the technique
is infinitely more subtle than that em-
ployed in such of his etchings as the mas-
terly study of Ernest Renan, one of the ar-
tist's greatest plates. In the silvery Bathers
Swedish peasants unabashed in their
nudity we have such an etching that
leads a critic of his art to inquire: " Who
save Zorn has ever etched a triumphantly
successful nude en plein air? "



C 35 p

Rembrandt and Whistler are certainly
the undisputed masters of the etching-
needle, but second only to them fol-
lows this virile Swede, in company with
Meryon, Cameron and one or two others.



WINSLOW HOMER



WINSLOW HOMER

THE MEMORIAL EXHIBITION

WINSLOW HOMER'S art was typi-
cally American, and in many
respe<5ls he was the most representative


1

Online LibraryA. E. (Albert Eugene) GallatinWhistler's pastels and other modern profiles → online text (page 1 of 2)