A. E. (Andrew Ewbank) Burn.

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Preface ...



I. The Apostles' Creed : —

§ I. Introduction ...

§ 2. Creed of Cyprian of Toulon (^Cod. Colon. 212)

§ 3. Cod. Bernensis, N. 645

§ 4. The Gallican Sacramentary {Cod. Paris, lat. 13246)

§ 5. The Gallican Missal {Cod. Vatic. Pal. lat. 493)

§ 6. The Sacramentary of Gellone {Cod. Paris, lat. 12048)

§ 7. 'Y\i&(Zxt.^A o{Yx\mm\\xs,{Cod. Einsidlensis, 199) ...

§ 8. Conclusions

II. The Nicene Creed in (i) Cod. Vatic, lat. 1322 ; (ii) Cod. Tolos. 364;

§ I. The Creed of the Nicene Council ...
§ 2. The Constantinopolitanum

III. The Athanasian Creed: —

§ I. Introduction ...

§ 2. Leidrat's MS

§ 3. Cod. Petriburg. Q. I. 15

§ 4. Cod. Monacensis lat. 6298

§ 5- Cod. Ambrosianus, O. 212 sup.

§ 6. Conclusions ...








I. Facsimiles of the Apostles' Creed : —

§ I. Introduction ...

§ 2. Cod. Bernensis, N. 645

§ 3. Cod. Paris, lat. \ 12^6 '.




§4. Cod. Vatic. Pal. lat. i\gi 31

§ 5. Cod. Paris, lat. \20\% 31

I 6. Cod. Einsidlensis, 199 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 33

II. Facsimiles of the Nicene Creed:—

I I. Rome Cod. Vatic, tat. 1322 34

§ 2. Cod. Tolosanus, 364 ... ... ... ... 36



(the German Version of the above Notes) 43


I. Cod. Colon. 212 (Darmstad. 2326), fol. 113.
II. „ „ „ „ fol. 113V.

III. „ „ „ „ fol. 114.

IV. Cod. Bernensis, N. 645, fol. 72.
Cod. Paris, lat. 13246, fol. 88.

V. Cod. Vat Palat. lat. 493, fol. 16.
VI. „ „ „ „ fol. i6v.

VII. „ „ „ „ fol. 17.

VIII. Cod. Paris, lat. 12048, fol. 181.
IX. „ „ „ „ fol. 191V.

X. Cod. Einsidlensis 199, p. 474.

, XI. Cod. Vatic, lat. 1322, fol. 15 3v.
XII. „ „ „ „ fol. 154.

XIII. Cod. Tolosanus 364, fol. 4, fol. 4v.

XIV. „ „ „ fol. 104, fol. 104V.
XV. Cod. Lugdunensis S. Fid. fol. 109V.

XVI. „ „ „ fol. 1 14.

XVII. „ - „ „ fol. 114V.

XVIII. Cod. Petriburgensis Q. I. 15, fol. 63.
XIX. „ „ „ fol. 63V.

XX. Cod. Monacensis lat. 6298 (Fris. 98), fol. iv.
XXI. „ „ „ „ „ fol. 2.

XXII. Cod. Ambrosianus O 212 sup., fol. 14.

XXIII. „ „ , fol. 14V.

XXIV. „ „ „ . fol. 15.


The task which I have attempted in this book of facsimiles has grown more serious
during the past eight years. It sprang from a desire to collect some photographs of early
MSS. of the Quicumque uult. While I was puzzling over Cod. Petriburg., Q. i. 15, it was
my good fortune to obtain an introduction to Dr. L. Traube. His interest in the photograph
led him to write his most suggestive article Perrona Scottorum} Everyone who knew him
personally found a fascination in his treatment of the subject of palaeography, which has been
too often at the mercy of theorists, who possessed neither his mastery over details nor his sure
grasp of principles. He was qualified to be a pioneer in the laying of foundations of what is
still a new science. When he consented to write palaeographical notes for this book it entered
on a new phase of potential usefulness. Despite increasing weakness he took an interest in it
to the end of his life. His heirs and his literary executor, Dr. P. Lehmann, have been most
kind in putting at our disposal all his papers which had reference to the subject.

In Dr. Traube's own words, palaeographical notes on a collection of photographs made to
serve other than palaeographical ends must be something of a tour de force. But many of the
MSS. in question are of more than average palaeographical interest, and some of them have
not been reproduced in any collection of facsimiles, so it seemed worth while to take the risk
of producing a book without much unity from the palaeographical point of view. The venture
has been justified, as I believe, by the interest and importance of Dr. Traube's discussions of at
least three of the MSS., Cod. Einsidlensis, 199, Cod. Paris, lat. 13246, and Cod. Petriburg.,

Q. i- 15-

My own notes on the historical interest of the creed forms published in facsimile (with
two exceptions) for the first time^ are of necessity brief My theories about the more obscure
forms are only put forward as working hypotheses until the evidence is better explained by some
other. We must be content to let many problems in the history of the creeds remain unsolved
for the present, but we shall make no progress unless some theory is provided by which to test
the facts collected, or to point in the direction in which new facts may be searched out.

Each group of MSS. has been selected with reference to some problem. The MSS. of
the Apostles' Creed have been chosen to throw light on the history of the Textus receptus. In
the Creed of Cyprian of Toulon, I shall exhibit a pure Galilean Creed, then an Anglo-Saxon
recension of the Old Roman Creed, then different stages of approach to the final form

' Sitzungsberichte der kgl. bayer. Akad. der Wissenschaften, Miincheri, 1900, iv, p. 469.

' Mabillon published a woodcut of the first words of the Quicumque uult in Cod. Petriburg., Q. I. 15 {de re
diplomatica, ed. 1789, i, 366). Swainson pubHshed a copy of one page of Cod. Ambros., O. 212 sup. (Nicetie and
Apostles' Creeds, 1875, '> P- 534-)


adopted in the West, ending with the Creed of Priminius which is the first dated occurrence of
the completed form.

The history of the Latin text of the Creed of the Council of Nicaea is less important than
the history of the later so-called Constantinopolitan Creed, the Latin versions of which open
out an almost unworked field of enquiry. The MSS. which I quote, apart from their
palaeographical interest, are important links in the chain of evidence which connects the
Constantinopolitan Creed with the Church of Jerusalem.

With the third group of MSS. we enter upon the debateable ground of the Athanasian
Creed, more accurately described as the Quicumque 7ndt. It may be hoped that this collection
will give the cotip de grace to the theory, which is hard to kill in England, though it has been
pronounced dead in Belgium and Germany,' that no MS. of the Creed in its present form is of
earlier date than the ninth century. Through the kindness of M. L. Delisle, Vice-
President of the Society, who was the first to call attention to the MS., I am able to publish
the text found in a MS., which was presented by Bishop Leidrat to the Altar of S. Stephen
in Lyons with an autograph inscription. Leidrat resigned his see in a.d. 814. As
M. Delisle points out, this terminus ad quern in the case of one MS. may be of great
assistance in enabling us to date others more confidently. In fact we need not hesitate to
accept the palaeographical arguments by which the other MSS. are assigned to the eighth,
or even (in the case of the Milan MS.) to the seventh century. Incidentally the photograph
from St. Petersburg turns out to be that of a MS. lost from St. Germain-des-Pres, and
Dr. Traube has confirmed the opinion of its first editor, Mabillon, as to its date, besides
making it the starting point of his enquiry into the handwriting of the monks of P^ronne.

I hope that the new light which these facsimiles throw on obscure passages in the history
of the Creeds will be held to justify the expense of their publication and the labour and care
which has been expended on them. I am in no way responsible for the prolonged delay in
obtaining a photograph from Cologne, which prevented Dr. Traube from finishing his part of
the work. But I am most grateful to the Council of the Henry Bradshaw Society for their
long patience as well as to Mr. Wilson and Mr. Turner for much help in the progress of the
work; to Mr. Turner also for his valuable note on Cod. Colon. 212.

I wish also to thank Mr. J. P. Gilson, of the Museum, for kindly undertaking the
difficult task of the transcription of the photographs and for relieving me of the burden of

A. E. Burn.

' Art. Athanasianum in Hauck's Encydopddie, Loofs; Le Symbole d'Atkanase, Morin, Revue Benidictine, Oct.
190 1.



§ I. — Introduction.

The history of the Apostles' Creed has attracted much attention during the past thirty years,
and the Hterature of the subject is increasing rapidly, especially in Germany. But it has
seldom been remarked that the work of the veteran pioneer, Professor C. P. Caspari, of the
University of Christiania, found stimulus in the work which Professor Heurtley had already
begun at Oxford in the publication of his Harmonia Symbolica} Dr. Heurtley's book included
some important facsimiles of creed-forms, and thus opened the way for the present volume,
the plates of which after the lapse of nearly half a century have been printed at the same
University Press.

The subject falls into two main divisions, the history of Origins, and the history of the
Received Text. The dividing line may be drawn at the year a.d. 400, which is the
•approximate date of the famous Commentary on the Aposdes' Creed in which Rufinus of
Aquileia compared the Old Roman Creed to the creed of his native city. The work of
Rufinus is the starting point of modern investigation. He wrote at the end of the century
in which Christianity became a permitted religion, and Christian Creeds, for the first time,
were brought into the light of day, though in many quarters the prejudice against writing them
•down still existed. With the history of Origins we are not concerned. A general survey of
the subject may be found in Harnack's article Ap. Symbolum in Hauck's Real-Encyclopddie
[ed. 3), or the present writer's article Creeds in the forthcoming edition of the Encyclopaedia
Britannica. Our present concern is with the history of the Received Text.

When we pass the year a.d. 400 we feel that a new era has begun in the history of the
world. We are face to face with the tide of barbarian invasion, and must soon meet with the
problem of missionary work among uncivilised Teutonic tribes, which is the ultimate cause of
the survival of our Received Text and of its triumph over other forms. In the fifth century
there were many Galilean, Italian, and African creed-forms of the same general type, of
which the Old Roman Creed, quoted by Rufinus, is the most important specimen, as it
is in all probability the archetype. For the sake of clearness I will quote the Old Roman
Creed side by side with the Textus receptus, and for the sake of brevity shall hereafter
quote them as R and T.

' Dr. Swainson, Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, 1875, P- 5i having acknowledged his own debt, pointed out
Dr. Caspari's frequent references to the work of Dr. Heurtley. The well known Bibliothek der Symbole, which has been
■edited by Dr. A. Hahn and Dr. G. L. Hahn, was first published in 1842, but it has always differed from the work of
Heurtley and Swainson and Caspari as being a work which does not deal at first hand with new MSS. Within its own
limits it is indispensable, and should be used with the monumental work of Dr. Kattenbusch, Das apostolische Symbol,



Old Roman Creed = R.

1. Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

2. Et in Christum lesum Filium eius unicum
Dominum nostrum,

3. qui natus est de Spiritu sancto et Maria

4. qui sub Pontic Pilato crucifixus est et

5. tertia die resurrexit a mortuis,

6. ascendit in caelos,

7. sedet ad dexteram Patris

8. unde uenturus est iudicare uiuos et mortuos.

9. Et in Spiritum sanctum,

10. sanctam ecclesiam,

11. remissionem peccatorum,

12. carnis resurrectionem.

Textus receptus = T.

1. Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem
creatorem caeli et terrae.

2. Et in < lesum Christum> Filium eius unicum
Dominum nostrum,

3. qui conceptus est de Spiritu sancto natus ex
Maria uirgine,

4. passiis sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus viortuus
et sepultus descendit ad iiiferna,

5. tertia die resurrexit a mortuis,

6. ascendit ad caelos,

7. sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis,

8. inde uenturus est iudicare uiuos et mortuos.

9. Credo in Spiritum sanctum,

10. sanctam ecclesiam catholicam, sanctorum

11. remissionem peccatorum,

1 2. carnis resurrectionem et uitam aeternam.

The variations found in T are not all of equal importance. Some are more or less
accidental, like the substitution of inde for unde (oOev). But the final solution of the
problem of the origin of T can only be found by tracing out the history of each new
phrase. At this point it is important to remark that creatorem caeli et terrae, passum,
morttmm, catholicaiii, sanctorum communionem were found before a.d. 400 in the Creed
of Niceta of Remesiana, and we shall find the remaining additions of T united in fifth
century Gallican Creeds. Separately, of course, these additions have an even higher
antiquity. Thus descendit ad inferna goes back to the fourth century Creed of Aquileia,
and et uitam aeternam was in the African Creed of Cyprian in the third century.

With these words of preface we may pass on to the consideration of an important Gallican
Creed which has recently come to light.

§ 2. — Codex Colon. 212 (Darmstad. 2326).

The letter of Cyprian, Bishop of Toulon, to Maximus, Bishop of Geneva, was first
published in Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epp., iii, p. 434, by Dr. Gundlach.^ It is found
on fol. 113b of this MS. Cyprian wrote to defend his use of the expression " the God-man
suffered." To our advantage he quotes the first two divisions of his creed. We are thus able
to confirm the evidence of the creed-form extracted from Ps. Aug. Serm. 244, which has been
ascribed to Caesarius of Aries. Cyprian asked that an answer might be sent to him through
Caesarius, with whom he was in communication. Although Cyprian does not quote the third
division of the creed we can restore it with confidence from the Creed of Caesarius which at
this point is confirmed by the evidence of Faustus of Riez. Such a restoration of the
South Gallican Creed includes two points, which are of some importance, (i) The threefold

' Attention was called to an interesting quotation of the Te Deum by Dom G. Morin (Rev. Ben., 1894, p. 49), and
to the creed-form of Cyprian by the present writer {Guardian, March 13th, 1895).


repetition of Credo was common Gallican usage. This adds to the artistic character of the
form, and Faustus seems to have the balanced rhythm in mind when he writes of Symboli
salutare carmen, (ii) The omission of the words maker of heaven and earth is very marked
throughout early Gallican Creeds. If T was formed after a Gallican model it seems strange
that it possesses neither of these characteristics. The omission of ad inferna descendit by
Cyprian is of less importance. It occurs in a fifth century sermon which may be connected
with Lerins.'

Cyprian of Toulon.

I. I. Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.
II. 2. Credo et in lesum Christum filium eius
unigenitum Dominum nostrum,

3. qui conceptus de Spiritu sancto natus ex Maria

4. passus sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus
* et sepultus * * ♦

5. tertia die resurrexit a mortuis

6. ascendit in caelos

7. sedet ad dexteram Patris

8. inde uenturus iudicaturus uiuos ac mortuos.


1. Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

2. Credo et in lesum Ciiristum filium eius
unicum Dominum nostrum

3. conceptum de Spiritu sancto natum e,x Maria

4. passum sub Pontio Pilato crucifixum
mortuum et sepultum, ad inferna descendit

5. tertia die resurrexit a mortuis

6. ascendit in caelis

7. sedet in dexteram Patris

8. inde uenturus iudicare uiuos et mortuos.

Faustus of Riez.

III. 9. Credo et in Spiritum sanctum

10. sanctam ecclesiam sanctorum communionem

1 1 . abremissa peccatorum

12. carnis resurrectionem uitam aeternam.

9. Credo in Spiritum sanctum

10. sanctam ecclesiam catholicam communionem

11. remissionem peccatorum

12. resurrectionem carnis et uitam aeternam.

§ 3. — Codex Bernensis, N. 645.

The contents of the MS. are of a geographical or chronological character. The creed-
form to which our attention is called is preceded by the Easter cycle of Victorius of Aquitaine,
and a catalogue of Church provinces made in Gaul. It is followed by the forged Acts of
a supposed Synod of Caesarea, which were probably written in Britain during the controversies
concerning the keeping of Easter in the seventh century. The provenance of the MS. is

probably Gaul. Mr. Turner called my attention to a note, fol. 41 -, which he found when he

inspected the MS. in 1900-, -^ XV REGN CAROLI RG = a.d. 782. But the documents

collected in it, which point to Britain as the country of their origin, leave us equally free to
regard Britain as the possible home of the creed-form. This hypothesis is confirmed by the
interesting resemblances which appear in it to the creed-form in Cod. Laudianus. In Art. 9
both forms show the ablative spu sco, in Art. 10 sancta ecclesia, in Art. 12 the genitive (carnis)

' Ausadtate expositionem, published by the present writer in the Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschkhte, July, 189S.
Letter of 21st August, 1900.

B 2


resurrectionist The Cod. Laudianus was brought to Britain before the beginning of the
eighth century, and its creed-form represents the normal type of Old Roman Creed, used by
Augustine and other Roman missionaries. The form before us in Cod. Bernensis may very
well represent this same type slightly modified, under the influence of Celtic Creeds, by the
addition o{ passus, descendit ad inferos, catholica, in uitam aeternam.

Kattenbusch^ has called attention to the fact that the same creed-form, without itt uitam
aeternam, is found in an ancient sermon in Cod. Monac. lat. 14508 of the tenth century from
St. Emmeran in Regensburg, which I published in the Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, xix,
p. 186. He connects it with the Celtic missions in Bavaria, and there is nothing improbable
in the view that a Celtic monk may have carried it with him to the Continent. But we cannot
speak very definitely about the provenance of the sermon because I can now quote other MSS.
of it which deserve examination, the earliest being Cod. Barberini, xiv, 44, saec. ix.'' While
we suspend judgment as to the history of the sermon in which the creed-form was so widely
distributed, there is no need to modify our judgment regarding the origin of the creed-form
itself. It is out of touch with the line of development followed either in Gaul or Italy. But
we can easily explain both its origin in Britain and its transit through Germany to Bavaria
or Switzerland.

Dr. Bratke's theory* that it represents the ancient form of the Galilean Creed as it existed
before a.d. 400 is not borne out by the evidence.

§ 4. — The Gallican Sacramentary.

The so-called Gallican Sacramentary in Cod. Paris, lat., 13246, saec. vii, is really a missal,,
and is but a mediocre witness of Gallican usage in spite of its antiquity. It is often called the
Missal of Bobbio, but opinions are divided as to the origin of the liturgical collection
contained in it.

Dom Cagin i^Paldographie musicale, v. 96-184, 1896) maintained that it contained a
Roman Missal of the fifth century brought by Columban to Bobbio, which had probably been
sent to the Britons at the time when enquiries were made about the Liturgy ; secondly,
Columban 's additions, e.g., a Mass in honour of S. Michael to be connected with the grotto
on the right bank of the Bobbio. But Dr. Traube suggests that Dom Cagin's assumption
has been disproved by Duchesne, Lejay, and Morin. Dom A. Wilmart speaks of the MS.
as a Gallican witness with traces of Irish influence.* For my present purpose it is immaterial
whether the mixture of Hispano-Gallic, Roman, and perhaps other elements and rites, which
it contains, were combined in Bobbio or in the mother house of Luxeuil, in the diocese of

In either case we are brought into touch with the life work of S. Columban, the great
leader of the Celtic missionaries who at this period travelled across Europe until they came

' This was originally a grammatical error, but tended to become a distinct reading carfiis resurrectionis vitam
aeternam, Book of Deer, Cod. Sangallensis, 188, Sacr. Gallic, Form C.
'^ op. cit., ii. 748 ff.
^ Cf. Cod. lat. Monac, 3909, Cod. Sangallensis, 676, Cod. Leidensis, xviii. Q. 17.

* Theol. Stud. u. Krit., i. pp. 153 ff.

* F. Cabrol, Diet, d'archeologie chretienne et de Liturgie, vol. ii (fasc. xv), col. 961.


into touch with the remnants of the old Latin Christianity of the Danube. In his very
suggestive article Some Creed Problems} Mr. Barns has called attention to a fact which is
probably the missing link in the evidence relating to the formation of T. The words
creatorem caeli et terrae are first found in the Creed of Niceta of Remesiana, and in
a contemporary creed preserved in some Arian fragments belonging to the same district
bordering on the Danube. They are not found in the pure Gallican type, and the crux of the
investigation of the history of T has been to find the source from which they may have come
into it. S. Columban and his companion S. Gall were welcomed on the Lake of Constance by
the Christian priest of Arbon, who represented the remnant of the influence of the Latin
Church of Illyricum from the days when there was a strong current from behind the Balkans
to N. Italy and Gaul. The call came to S. Columban to go over the Brenner, " to strengthen
the church along the highway of the East, on the confines of the ancient province of Illyricum.
He left S. Gall on the Lake of Constance and himself settled at Bobbio."" Thus the
experience of S. Columban brought him into touch with both the sources from which the
old Western Creed was ultimately enriched, the Gallican type including descendit ad inferna,
communionem sanctorum, etc., already familiar to Celtic Churchmen, and the clause creatorem
caeli et terrae which that type lacked.

Regarding the Sacramentary as in any case summarising the liturgical interests of
Columban's day, I turn to analyse its creed-forms, which I distinguish as A. AE. B. C. The
first three are Baptismal Creeds, the fourth is an isolated form which was probably used in the
Hour Offices.'' A is reproduced in facsimile in PI. 5.

The first Creed (A) is interpolated in a sermon used at the Traditio Symboli in a section
which is probably of Roman origin. It follows the ceremony known as apertio aurmm or
delivery of the first words of the four Gospels. This was a Roman custom. We gather that
A represents the creed used by the monks at Luxeuil about a.d. 700. It differs from T by
the substitution of Credo for et in Art. 2, also of tmigcnitum se^iipiternum for unicum, and
it omits Domimim. This variation recurs in the Gallican Missal (forms A, AE), and has
been attributed to the influence of the Te Deum}

The creed AE, which is embedded in the exposition, is nearer to the text of R than to
the Gallican text of the sixth century. But it has several, so to speak, Gallican
encrustations, conceptus, mortimm, descendit ad inferna, ojnnipotentis, catholicam, uitam

The sermon has interesting points of connection with Ps. Aug. Serm. 243, which has
been traced back to the sixth century ; but the question has not been decided whether it comes

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Online LibraryA. E. (Andrew Ewbank) BurnFacsimiles of the creeds from early manuscripts → online text (page 1 of 9)