A. E. Hough J. W. Klise.

The county of Highland: a history of Highland County, Ohio, from the ... online

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Online LibraryA. E. Hough J. W. KliseThe county of Highland: a history of Highland County, Ohio, from the ... → online text (page 23 of 63)
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Guthrie, H. L. Pavey, Samuel Beard.

Lynchburg: John Torrie, B. F. Hathaway, Isma Troth and H. C.
Dawson. New Petersburg: Thomas Ellis, E. A. Mosier. Belfast:
Thomas H. Basken. Buford: Cary Matthews. Sinking Springs:
H. N. Easton.

Three of this list died in 1877 — J. J. McDowell, Ruel Beeson
and Thomas Ellis, and since then Scott, Barrere, Collins, W. O.
Meek, Thompson, Matthews, John A. Smith, W. H. Trimble, B. V.
Pugsley, Henry A. Shepherd, E. L. Johnson, E. M. DeBruin, Jesse
K. Pickering, B. F. Beeson, Augustus Harmon, have all passed
away.

Of later years a class of young men of high legal culture and tal-
ents have taken their places as members of the bar of High-
land county ; prominent among them are Henry Pavey, John Horst,
J. W. Watts, Clark Holliday, Judge Frank Wilson,"^ Judge O. H.
Hughes, McBride, Frank Collins, Bronson Worley, Martin Van-
pelt, Henry Wiggins, H. P. Morrow, O. X. Sams, Col. D. W. Mor-
row, and George Garrett.



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CHAFTER XIII.



MEDICAL PROFESSION.



MIGHLAND county in the days of first settlement was known
as a health resort. The pioneer builders of the common-
wealth brought their families to her hills to escape the
deadly malaria that then seemed to wage war against the
invasion of civilization. As has been noted, the violent epidemic of
malarial fever at Chillicothe in 1801 drove some who intended to
settle there, to seek the higher lands on thef upper waters of Paint
creek and its tributaries. The disease that so powerfully influenced
the lives of many pioneers did not cease with that year, but continued
with moref or less severity for many years, and no part of the State
was entirely free from it, though regions like Highland county were
less severely visited. It was at times so malignant as to resemble
yellow fever in symptoms and fatality. Indeed, it is claimed that
yellow fevefr, wdth the accompaniment of black vomit, afflicted the
French settlement of Gallipolis soon after its establishmient. Though
this is denied by some investigators, the disease was suflBciently like
yellow fever for the unfortunate people who died.

The fever waa so continuous, so frightful in its effects, that it is
remarkable that the settlers were heroic enough to remain in Ohio.
They stayed partly through grim determination, partly through the
natural indisposition to move backward, partly through love of the
beautiful country, and largely through hope that is said to spring
eternal, doubtless with accuracy, for it was necessary for it to spring
eternally in the breasts of the pioneers, to cheer them in their toil
and suffering.

A realistic picture of the situation is given by Isaac J. Finley and
Rufus Putnam in their "Pioneer Record" of Koss county: "Rich
and productive as these lands weref, there was a terrible drawback
to their attraction in the shape of chills and fevers. So prevalent
was this disease that not a cabifi or a family escaped for a single
year; and it often happened that there would not be a single well
member to furnish drink to thef others. In such cases buckets would
be filled in the morning by those most able and placed in some access-



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202 THE COUNTY OF HIGHLAND.

ible place so that when the shakes came on each could help himself
or herself. Had there been any seemingly possible way of getting
back to the old settlements from which these adventurers had come,
most, if not all, would have left the rich Scioto bottoms with their
shakes and fevers, but so it was, there were no railroads or canals, or
even wagon roads, on which they could convey their disheartened
skeletons back to their old homesteads with their pure springs and
health-restoring associations. At the time of the year when a tedious
land or water trip could be made, there w^ere enough of each family
sick to prevent any preparatory arrangements for such a return;
while in winter there were even more obstacles in the way than the
sickness of summer. Thus held not only by the charms of the scen-
ery and the productiveness of the soil, but by the sterner realities
of shakes and burning fever, few came that ever returned, and every
year brought new neighbors."

These fevers are described at some length by Dr. Daniel Drake,
of Cincinnati, in his great work on the Principal Diseases of the
Interior Valley of Xorth America, published in 1850. They were
called by various names, autumnal, bilious, intermittent, remittent,
congestive, miasmatic, malarial, marsh, malignant, chill fever, ague,
fever'n'ague, dumb ague — and Dr. Drake himself preferred to call
them autumnal fevers. He was disposed to ascribe their origin to
what he called a *Vegeto-animalcular cause," meaning that the peo-
ple were infected by organisms that were bred in decaying vegeta-
tion, and he pointed out that the disease could not be caused by gases,
which should have an immediate effect, but must be due to some
organism that had a regular period of incubation, because people
were not taken with the fevers until some time after the date of sup-
posed infection. This he stated, not in this language, which is more
in the line of modem expression, but to the same effect, demonstrat-
ing a remarkable insight into the operations of nature. It is believed
now that the malarial infection, whatever its original source, is
spread by mosquitoes, but this the doctors and sufferers did not sus-
pect, and if they had, it would have done them little good, so numer-
ous were the insect pests, and so expensive would have been any
adequate attempt to suppress them. At a time when people were
exterminating bears, panthers, and vast forests, there was no time
to make war on such small and ubiquitous things as mosquitoes.

In comibating the fever and chills the doctors depended on Peru-
vian bark, quinine and calomel in heroic doses. Generally the
unfortunate victim was first bled, then large doses of calomel were
given, and the patient was cautioned to abstain from any acid food
or he might lose his teeth, and the calomel was followed by quinine.
Dr. Drake reported a case in Southern practice where a patient was
given calomel for malarial fever in increasing doses until he took
several ounces a day, and in a short time an entire pound of the drug



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MEDICAL PROFESSION. 203

was put in him. The fate of the unfortimate creature is not men-
tioned. Another patient was given six himdred grains of a compound
of aloes, rhubarb and calomel in equal quantities for six days consec*
utively. There were other remedies. Dr. Joshua Martin, of
Xenia, knew of a case where the chills were permanently cured in a
small boy by standing him on his head at the access of the fit "In
many cases," said Drake, '^the recurrence has been arrested by means
which acted entirely on the imagination and feelings. Of this kind
are very loathsome potions, which the patients have swallowed with
disgust, and different charms or incantations, which rouse powerful
emotions that change the innervation and destroy the habit of recur-
rence. '^ There were some very remarkable causes of recurrence
of the disease in various forms. A man on Deer Creek was sub-
ject to monthly attacks of vertigo and loss of consciousness. When
medicine had checked this, the trouble soon returned with intervals
of twenty-one days, and afterward for five years with periods of
sixteen days.

The chills and fever, while not so immediately fatal in ordinary
years as yellow feveT, from which Ohio was fortunately spared, was
worse in its effects. If a man recovered from yellow fever, he was
none the worse for it, sometimes better ; but the victim of fever and
chills often suffered all tlie rest of his life with neuralgia, liver or
spleen disease, dyspepsia or diarrhoea. At times, however, the
malarial fever assumed a malignant form, and it was certain death
unless the doctor was near at hand, and happened to be able to check
the paroxysms.

It was this disease, common in every part of Ohio, that the pioneer
doctors h^d to contend with. They battled nobly, some of them fall-
ing victims to their antagonist, and it cannot be doubted that they
performed a great work in alleviating the sufferings of himianity,
and encouraging the pioneers in the work of overcoming the evils of
a new country. In time, with drainage and extensive cultivation
of the soil, the dangerous conditions passed away.

There were some deaths in Highland county during the great
cholera epidemic of 1832-83. Again in the summers of 1847, 1848
and 1849 this dread disease ravaged the State, but mainly along the
rivers and canals.

Dr. John Boyd is credited with being the pioneer doctor of High-
land county. He was born in Uniontown, Pa., in 1767, obtained his
professional education at Philadelphia, and in 1797 came west to the
new towTi of Franklinton, on the upper Scioto. Afterward he cast
his fortunes with the town of Hillsboro, beginning his practice there
before the village was platted, and continuing in active work until
near the time of his death, which occurred in 1852. He was, how-
ever, a resideut of Hillsboro only about seventeen years, removing
after that time to a farm on the Chillicothe pike, where he built the



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204 THE COUNTY OF HIGHLAND.

maniLt^cturing establishment long known as Boyd's mill. He was
one of the first associate judges of the court of common pleas, a man
of energy, of good judgment in business, and in every way worthy
of remembrance among the founders of the county. Among the other
early physicians were Dr. James Smith, who came to Hillsboro in
1808, but did not long survive, and was succeeded in practice by his
son-in-law. Dr. Jasper Hand. Dr. Hand was a son of General Hand,
of the Continental army, was a graduate of the Philadelphia profes-
sional schools, and a man of general ability, as well as a successful
doctor. During the time of the war of 1812, a period of great excite-
ment and effort in the young State of Ohio, he took the place of a
leader in his community, served as surgeon in the army, and at its
close was rewarded with the rank of brigadier-general in the militia.
He died in the prime of manhood, leaving a large family.

The pioneer doctor of Greenfield was Garvin Johnson, who married
a daughter of Xoble Crawford and moved to Koss county in 1825.
Others practiced for brief periods. Dr. Milton Dunlap, for many
years honorably identified with the profession in Highland county,
was bom in Brown county in 1807, graduated at Cincinnati in 1829,
and established himself at Greenfield in 1830. After 1840 his
brother. Dr. A. Dunlap, was associated with him, and the two per-
formed what is thought to be the first operation of ovariotomy in the
state. Dr. Thomas McGarraugh, born in Pennsylvania in 1780, after
several years of practice at Washington Court House, came to Green-
field in 1836, and was prominent in the profession for several years.
He removed to Ross county later, but returned to Greenfield a short
time before his death in 1860. His sons were worthy successors of
this notable physician. Among the other physicians of long practice
at Greenfield were Dr. S. F. Kewcomer, a native of Maryland, who
came in 1846 ; Dr. J. L. Wilson, son of an old settler of the county,
who b^an his practice in 1846, and whose sons have also gained honor
in the profession, and Dr. Samuel B. Anderson, who practiced home-
opathy from 1843 to 1868, succeeding his father-in-law. Dr. Jeptha
Davis.

Dr. Samuel J. Specs was the earliest doctor of Lynchburg, settling
there in 1834, and removing to Hillsboro in 1866. At Leesburg,
Dr. Havilah Beardsley w^as the first to settle, in 1816, and among
those who followed were Drs. Benjamin Doddridge, Joab Wright,
Sylvester Hinton, Ruel Beeson and Isaac S. Wright. Dr. Beeson, who
came to Leesburg in 1833, became one of the prominent men of the
county. He was bom in Highland county in 1811, son of a pioneer
from N^orth Carolina, was educated at the Union academy at Xew
Petersburg, read medicine with Dr. Hardy of the same place and
attended lectures at Cincinnati. He did not practice medicine long,
but diverged into mercantile business and the profession of law. He
was elected to the state senate in 1848, was an earnest temperance



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MEDICAL PROFESSION. 205

agitator, was one of the founders of the Republican party, and^ firm
supporter of the war for the Union. lie died in 1877.

At Xew Lexington the pioneer was Dr. Charles Conway, in 1818,
followed by Dr. Stanton Judkins, a North Carolinian, and his
brother, Dr. Robert P. Judkins, who was prominent in the practice
until his death in 1864. S. Peabody, a botanical doctor, was the
first practitioner with his home at Marshall, 1830^46, succeeded by
Drs. Bayhan and Dixon before 1850. At i^ew Market the earliest
doctors were Vest, Washburn and Whisler, and at Sinking Spring
the first were Dr^. Loughbridge and Barnes; after 1856, T. H.
Davis, and still later Dr. Charles Leighton was the most prominent
practitioner.

The records of the Highland County Medical society afford thel
names of a considerable number of the practitioners in the period
midway between the pioneer times and the war of the rebellion- On
April 17, 183S, there wa"s a meeting at Hillsboro for the organization
of this society, participated in by the following doctors: Jacob
Kirby, C. C. Sams, John M. Johnston, A. Baker, W. T. Newcomefr,
J. L. Wilson, Layton, Howell, McCollum, W. C. McBride, Milton
Dunlap, Enos Holmes, Alexander McBride, A. J. Specs, Robert P.
Judkins, T. Rogers, and others. Dr. Kirby was made president, Dr.
Kewcomer vice-president, and Dr. Sams secretary.

The society, after a while, was neglected, but in March, 1853, it
was reorganized, with Dr. C. C. Sams as president, J. L. Wilson vice-
president, and J. M. Johnston treasurer, and a nimiber of new mem-
bers, among them John Duval, Christopher C. Matthews, J. P.
Garrett, M. Garrett, Thomas Davis, J. S. Wright, Ruel Beeson, G.
W. Dunlap, A. J. Dunlap, T. McGarraugh, X. H. Hixson, P.
Marshall and G. H. Viers.

The association was interrupted by the war of 1861-65, after
which the meetings were resumed, with Dr. Jacob Kirby as presi-
dent, Dr. S. J. Specs vice-president, and Dr. J. M. Johnston
treasurer. Dr. J. M. Johnston was made president, in 1874, and
his successors in the following years were Dr. S. J. Specs, Dr. W. W.
Shepherd and Dr. J. L. Wilson.

Dr. Enos Holmes, bom in 1821, and a practitioner at New Petefrs-
burg from 1843 until 1850 and after that at Hillsboro, was in the
army medical service by appointment of Governor Tod, and rendered
valuable? service. He was one of the most popular men of the county,
and stood in the highest ranks of his profession, until his death in
recent years. More is said of him among the biographical pages.

Dr. W. W. Shepherd was a native of Highland county, bom and
raised on a farm. He began his study under his father. Dr. Wra.
A. Shepherd, and Dr. E. H. Johnson of Cincinnati. In his effort
he did more than "read mledicine ;" to him it was a profound as well
as a delightful study, engaging his entire thoughts and reflection, and



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206 THE COUNTY OP HIGHLAND.

he was graduated in leading medical institutions at Cincinnati and
New York with, the highest honors of his class. Dr. Shepherd was
recognized by the medical association of the county as one of its
brightest members, a safe counsellor, wise and true. For more than
a quarter of a century he practiced his profession in the city of
Hillsboro, and during all this time he was very successful as a physi-
cian, while as a surgeon he was especially noted for wonderful skill.
His citizenship was of the highest order and his literary attainments
of a very high character. Socially he was genial and cultured, a
welcome guest at every circle. His great heart was crushed when his
bright young son was killed by the accidental discharge of a rifle,
and not very long after this sad event he fell unconscious on the
street and never regained consciousness, but passed in a few hours to
the unseen land where all the friends of his young professional life
had preceded him.

During the war period Dr. David Xoble may be taken as a worthy
example of the patriotic services of Highland county medical men.
He was born in County Donegal, Ireland, came to Adams county at
thef age of eighteen years, in 1838, and after teaching school for a
time began the study of medicine, witli the result that he obtained a
diploma from Starling medical college in 1855. Before that he
began work as a doctor at Sugartree Ridge, and when the war began
he had a good practice, which he abandoned to enlist as a private in
one of the short time regiments in 1861. Soon he was assigned to the
medical department, and as surgeon he contributed effectively to thd
great war for the Union. After 1865 he made his home at Hillsboro
until his death, embarking in important commercial enterprises as
well as maintaining his professional work.

Dr. Eufus A. Dwyer was another patriotic physician, going out
with the Sixtieth Ohio regiment in the summer of 1862, as surgeon,
and later serving with the Second battery heavy artillery and the
Hundred and Seventy-fifth regiment, and gaining the full rank of
major and surgeon. Dr. Dwyer was born in 1827, in Eoss county,
son of James Dwyer, and grandson of James Dwyer, Sr., a native of
Virginia and pioneer settler of Paint township. Dr. Dwyer was a
graduate of Starling medical college and practiced at Xew Peters-
burg from 1852.

Drs. C. C. Sams, Jacob Kirby and J. M. Johnston, for many years
leaders in the work of the medical association, were a noted trio in
the history of the profession, and should be remembered also for
their generous work during the rebellion among the soldiers of Ohio.
Their medical careers were for many years contemporaneous, but
Dr. Sams died in August, 1865, while Kirby survived until 1873,
and Johnston until October, 1876. Another prominent physician of
their day, somewhat younger, who died in 1880, was Dr. J. W.
M. Quinn.



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MEDICAL PROFESSION. 207

The pioneer physician of the homeopathic school in Chillicothe
was Dr. William Hoyt^ a native of Canada, who was graduated at
Cleveland in 1867, and began his practice at Hillsboro in the same
year.

In the history of the county prepared for the Centennial of 1876
by James H. Thompson, the following list is given of "distinguished
physicians who have departed this life and who during their lives
were extensively engaged in the practice of medicine:" Jasper
Hand, John Boyd, Allen, H. Faquer, Jacob Kirby, James Conway,
John Wood, C. C. Sams, R. P. Judkins, WiUiam M. McCollum, T.
H. Davis, Isaac Quinn, W. C. McBride, M. C. Russ, John Parke,
John M. Johnson, Zimri Ilussey, W. W. Holmes, Michael Holmes,
N. H. Hickson, George W. Dunlap, W. W. Hardy, Jeptha Davis and
W. A. Shepherd.

In the same work (1877) is given the following list of "physicians
of Highland county":

Hillsboro: Drs. E. D. Lilley, Sr., J. W. M. Quinn, S. J. Specs,
Enos Holmes, David K^oble, D. Collahan, W. W. Shepherd, P. H.
Wever, W. R. Smith, R. C. Russ, H. S. FuUerton, B. F. Hohnes, E.
L. Reeves, F. M. Metz, William Hoyt, J. L. Hill, C. Matthews, C.
C. Hixson, W. S. Patterson. Dentists, J. Callahan, A. Evans, B.
R. Shipp. Greenfield: S. F. Xewcomer, J. L. Wilson, Milton
Dunlap, W. W. Wilson, H. L. Wilson, Jr., W. F. Galbraith and
Frank Xelson. Leesburg : M. Holmes, J. L. McLaughlin and John
Holmes. New Lexington : E. Judkins, J. M. Spears and A. A.
Patton. New Petersburg : W. M. McCollum and Ruf us A. Dwyer.
Eainsboro: i J. P. Garrett, 'N. Troth, D. M. McBride. New Market:
H. Whisler, N. B. VanWinkle and D. M. Barrere. Marshall: H.
M. Miller and J. F. Blair. Belfast: A.Rogers. North Union: S.
McNulty. Sinking Springs: C. H. Leighton and T. C. Rogers.
Lynchburg: I. Holmes, J. W. Pettijohn, T. D. Achor. Prince-
town: F. M. Drake. Buford: A. S. Bryant, C. E. Lee and Dr.
Gaskins. Sicily: John Shocky. Boston: A. W. Devoss. Dan-
ville : S. F. Chaney, Silas Chapman and J. L. Vance. Mowrystown :
C. Hare. Taylorville: W. S. Moore. Sugartree Ridge: Arthur
Noble and A. S. Bunn. Fairfax : C. J. Whitaker. Samantha : F.
M. Thomas. Russell's Station : B. D. Granger and F. M. Granger.
At the present time in the city of Hillsboro few remain of the! first
mentioned number. Dr. B. F. Holmes and Win. Hoyt, as far as we
are able to find out, being the only living members of those who,
during their lives were extensively engaged in the practice of their
profession. A new generation has come upon the scene ; young men
of merit and of skill who bid fair to keep alive the reputation of the
past for earnest application and faithful study of the art divine.

In making mention of the names of the survivors of the old ranks
of physicians, after further investigation I find the names of W. S.



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208 THE COUNTY OF HIGHLAND.

Patterson of Hillsboro, and C. H. Leighton of Sinking Springs
entitled to recognition among that number of that early medical
association prominent in the county. The physicians at present resi-
dent in Hillsboro are B. F. Holmes, W. S. Patterson, Wan. Hoyt, J.
O. Larkin, V. B. McConnaughey, H. A. Euss, W. W. Glenn, H. A.
Beam, John MoBride and H. M. Brown. The last named, while a
most brilliant and successful physician and surgeon, has quit the
practice of medicine on account of threatened disease, and has retired
to his suburb farm on Rocky Fork, where among the pleasant sur-
rounding of home and the ourdoor exercise that his rural life brings,
; regaining the lost treasure that no wealth can buy — good
The names we have selected for special mention have been
t a single reflection upon the character and skill of any living
d, but simply to impress upon all who read these pages that
and success depend upon earnest, intelligent work in each and
iepartment of life.



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CHAPTER XIV.



EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.



THE' first settlers of Hillsboro were men of intelligence,
and at an early day evinced a great interest in schools.*
Many of these pioneers were men of liberal education for
that day, and always ready and anxious to provide schools
for their children. Very soon after the settlement of the town, pav
or subscription schools were taught at intervals by James Daniels
and others. The first of these schools deserving of particular notice
was taught by Eobert Elliott, who came from Kentucky, at the
instance of Allen Trimble, who had known him as a teacher in that
state. Elliott opened his school in 1814, in a building on Walnut
street opposite the Methodist church. At the start he had between
thirty and forty pupils, and the number was increased afterward.
He was considered a good teacher, and his school was continued for
the following three years. Some of the pupils of this school were
John A. Trimble, John M. Barrere, Colonel Trimble, and Washing-
ton Doggett

While this school was going on, the citizens of the town agitated
the subject of the erection of a school house. A public meeting was
held, at which it was determined to buy a lot and build a house, all
to be paid for by subscription, and to be the property of the town for
school purposes. Three managers were elected: Joseph Woodrow,
J. D. Scott and George Shinn. They were deeded on May 16, 1815,
a lot on East Main street by Jesse Williams, for fifty dollars. Very
soon afterward a log schoolhouse twenty-five by thirty-five feet, was
erected upon this lot The house was of hewn logs, and, in the
language of the article of agreement with the contractor, was to be
chinked and daubed with good lime and clay mortar on the outside,
and to be lined with plank on the walls on the inside, and ceiled above
head." On the completion of the house it was furnished with seats
and desks of simple construction, but in consonance with the means

♦From a sketch of the Rise and Proj^ress of the Common Schools of Hillsboro,
by Supt. H. S. Doggett, 1876, for the Ohio Centennial Memorial School Volume.

H-14



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210 THE COUNTY OF HIGHLAND.

of the people and in accordance with the furniture of their homes.
Elliott first occupied this house, removing his school from the house
on Walnut street. He taught in it until 1818. The next movement
in the direction of better schools occurred in that year. The Madras
or Lancastrian school system was attracting considerable attention
then in this country and Europe. Capt John McMuUen cam£f to
Hillsboro from Virginia, and proposed to teach a school upon that



Online LibraryA. E. Hough J. W. KliseThe county of Highland: a history of Highland County, Ohio, from the ... → online text (page 23 of 63)