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FINE ART.,.
REPRODUCER,

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A 1



L the Illustrations in GOWANS'S ART
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No. 1. W3LD BIRDS AT HOM. SIXTY

PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE, BY CHAS. KIRK,
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No. 2.-WILD FLOWERS AT HOME.

FIRST SERIES. SIXTY PHOTOGRAPHS FROM
NATURE, BY CAMERON TODD.

No 3. WILD FLOWERS AT HOME,

SECOND SERIES.

No. 4. BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS AT

HOME. SIXTY PHOTOGRAPHS FROM LIFE,
BY A. FORRESTER.

In Preparation.
No. 5.-WILD BIRDS AT HOME. SECOND

SERIES.



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GOWANS'S NATURE BOOKS, No. 4



BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS AT HOME




Common Blue Butterfly (Lyceena icarus) at rest on rush.




Sixty photographs from nature by A. Forrester



GOWANS & GRAY, LTD.

35 LEICESTER SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.

58 CADOGAN STREET, GLASGOW

-



F4



ct.se

o_

7W 0wd ^ M<? volumes of the present *

series are the marvellous processes
of nature more forcibly brought home to the
reader than in the sixty photographs in
this little volume. TJie patience and
observation of Mr. Forrester have borne
fruit in a series of pictures of the life-
histories of some Butterflies and Moths,
and of examples of protective resemblance
which will surely fill every thinking mind
with wonder and reverence. The nomen-
clature followed is that of Kappel and
Kirby's ' ' British and European Butterflies
and Moths" 1896.




\



J



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate i
( L imen it is sibyl la)

The young caterpillar sleeps through the winter in a hammock which
it constructs from a small leaf. To prevent this leaf falling to the ground
with its fellows, the larva attaches it securely to the stem of the plant
with many fine silken threads.



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate a
{Limenitis Sibylla)

April 2ist

The honeysuckle buds having now expanded the caterpillar leaves its
winter residence. It feeds, however, principally at night, passing the
day on the stem as here shewn.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate 3
(Limenitis sibylla)

June loth
Jt has now attained its full growth-"




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate 4
(Limenitis sibylla)

June i2th

and spinning a small silken pad on the underside of a leaf, suspends
itself therefrom by its hindmost pair of claspers or pro-legs.



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate 5
{Limcnitis si by Ha)

June i4th
It now casts off its larval jacket and appears as a pupa or chrysalis^




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A WHITE ADMIRAL BUTTERFLY. Plate 6
{Limenitis sibylla)

June 27th

and one bright morning the perfect insect emerges, and hangs from
its empty pupa case until its wings are fully grown, and sufficiently stiff
for flight.








THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 2
(Goncpteryx rhamni)

A large spider which lives among the leaves of the Buckthorn, and
preys upon the caterpillars.








THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 3
(Gonepteryx rkamni)

July loth

When full fed the larva attaches itself to a twig in the same way as
the caterpillar of the White Admiral, but in addition makes a sling from
the twig round its body which keeps it in a more or less horizontal
oosition.




THE LIKE-HISTOKY OK A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 4
(fjonepteryx rhainni)

July nth

The pupa appears the following day. The discarded skin of the
larva may be seen hanging from the twig by a very fine thread.



i6




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 5
(Gottepteryx rhamni)

July 26th. 8-10 a.m.

When first the imago emerges from the pupa, its wings are small
and limn










THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 6
(Gonepteryx rkamnz)



but soon expand



July 26th. 8-25 a.m.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. Plate 7
(Goncpteryx rkamni)

July 26th. 9 a.m.
and by this time are quite stiff and fit for use.




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate i
(Zygaena filipendulee)

July 1 5th. 7 a.m.
The cocoon attached to grass.






THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 2
(Zygcena filipcndula)

July isth. 7-5 a.m.

The pupa pushes itself partially through the upper part of the
cocoon, using its anal extremity as a lever.





THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 3
(Zygoena filifiendulce)

July isth. 76 a.m.
The moth disengages itself




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 4
(Zygeena filipendulee)

July isth. 7-6 \ a.m.
and having freed its antenae and legs




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 5
(Zygoena, filipendulce)

July isth. 7-6^ a.m.

quickly crawls up the grass, leaving the pupa case sticking out of the
cocoon.




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 6
(Zygcena filipendula;)

July isth. 7-21 a.m.

Having found a suitable place where it can hang clear of the grass
the wings commence to expand, and when fully grown, but still limp, are
folded over the back as shewn.




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate 7
(Zygcena filipendulce)

July isth. 7-40 a.m.

The process being now completed the wings take the natural resting
position, and the moth soon flies away to join




THE EMERGENCE OF A SIX-SPOTTED BURNET MOTH. Plate
(Zygoena filipendulee)



its friends and relations on some neighbouring thistle head.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate i
(Macroglossa fuciformis)

The eggs are laid singly in June on the underside of a honeysuckle
leaf.



28







THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 2
(Macroglossa fuciformis)

The

way i



The egg soon hatches, and the young larva is noted for the curio
in which it eats holes in the leaves of its food plant.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 3
{Macroglossa. fuciformis)

While very young the caterpillar is liable to be attacked by an
ichneumon fly of the family Braconidae, which punctures the skin and
deposits an egg beneath. This egg hatches, and the resulting grub lives
upon the substance of its host, avoiding vital parts, until it is full fed,
when it forces its way out, and spins its cocoon on the leaf beside the
unfortunate caterpillar of the hawk-moth, which soon afterwards dies.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 4
(Macroglossa. fuciformis)

Caterpillar about \ grown.





THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 5
{Macroglossa fuciformis)

Caterpillar grown

It will be noticed that the caterpillar has now spots along its sides,
and the horn has become curved.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 6
(MacrOjglossa fuciformis)

The winter is passed in the pupa state. The chrysalis is of a very
ordinary type, and may be found in a very loosely constructed cocoon
among dead leaves, on the surface of the ground.



33




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BROAD-BORDERED BEE HAWK MOTH. Plate 7
(Macroglossa fuciformis)

The perfect insect emerges the following May.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A PRIVET HAWK MOTH. Plate i
(Sphinx ligiistri)

Newly hatched caterpillar with the egg shell from which it has
emerged.



35




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A PRIVET HAWK MOTH. Plate 2
(Sphinx ligustri)

Half-grown caterpillar feeding.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A PRIVET HAWK MOTH. Plate 4
(Sphinx ligustri)

At rest on trunk of oak.




THE LIFK-HISTORY OF AN EMPEROR MOTH. Plate i
(Saturnia carpini)

Eggs laid among heather.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF AN EMPEROR MOTH. Plate 2
(Saturnia carpini)

The full-fed caterpillar.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF AN EMPEROR MOTH. Plate 3
(Saturnia carpini)

The caterpillar spins a pear-shaped cocoon, in which it turns to a
chrysalis.




THE LIFE-HISTORY OF AN EMPEROR MOTH. Plate 4
(Satumia carpini)

The perfect insect (female).




m



SOCIABLE CATERPILLARS
Brood of larvae of Large Tortoiseshell Butterfly (Vanessa polychloros).




SOCIABLE CATERPILLARS
Young larvae of Buff -Tip Moth (Phalera Bucephala).




The curious caterpillar of the




-Lobster Moth (Stauropus fagi).



4 6




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE CATERPILLARS OF

Caterpillar which has fed on the leaves of an oak tree on which no
lichen is growing.

These caterpillars, of all our British species, seem to have the power




SCALLOPED HAZEL MOTH (Odontopera bidentata)

Caterpillar which has fed on the leaves of a lichen covered sallow tree.

of assimilating themselves to their surroundings most perfectly developed.




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
CATERPILLARS THAT MIMIC PINE-NEEDLES
Two larvae of Shaded Broad Bar Moth (Cidaria. variata).



49




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
CATERPILLARS THAT MIMIC PINE-NEEDLES
Larva of Pine Beauty Moth (Panolis piniperda).



PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
CATERPILLARS THAT MIMIC TWIGS
Caterpillars of Pale Oak Beauty Moth {Bearmici consort art a).




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
CATERPILLARS THAT MIMIC TWIGS
Larva of Mottled Beauty Moth (Boarmia repandata) on honeysuckle.







PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
CATERPILLARS THAT MIMIC TWIGS
Hibernating larva of Great Oak Beauty Moth (Boartnia roboraria)




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
Larva of Grass Emerald Moth (Pseudotcrpna pruinata] on genista.




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE

Larva of Brussels Lace Moth (Boannia lichenaria) on lichen-
covered branch of oak tree.




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE

Dingy Skipper Butterfly (Xisoniades tages) sleeping on dead teasel
head.




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE

Small Engrailed Moth (Boarmia crepuscular ia) at rest on trunk of
oak tree.



IW




QS c

" I




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE

The young larva of the Alder Moth (Acronyctct alni) much resembles
. bird -dropping.



59




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE

The Angle-shades Moth (Brotolotnia meticulosa) among dead oak
leaves.



6o




PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE
Copper Underwing Moth (Ainphipyra pyiam idea) on tree-trunk.




E y 3"" 1

i a is



62




Split bulrush shewing pupa of Bulrush Moth (Nonagria typhce).




-S.8



ill



-



5 ' -c

I Bf a



t









6 4




IN WINTER QUARTERS

Small Tortoiseshell Butterfly (l/anessa urticce) hibernating on a beam
in loft.



Pocket Anthologies.

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23rd Thousand.
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Online LibraryA ForresterButterflies and moths at home : sixty photographs from nature → online text (page 1 of 1)