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A G pub Walling.

History of southern Oregon, comprising Jackson, Josephine, Douglas, Curry and Coos countries, comp. from the most authentic sources .. online

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Online LibraryA G pub WallingHistory of southern Oregon, comprising Jackson, Josephine, Douglas, Curry and Coos countries, comp. from the most authentic sources .. → online text (page 1 of 86)
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HISTORY



Southern Oregon ,

' — * y — '^ ^



RCKSON, Josephine. ..Doiiglss Curry anti Cnos



COUNTIES,



Compiled from the Most Authentic Sources.



PUBLISHED BY



1884.



PORTLAND, OREGON :

I'RINTINC; AND LITIIOCIKAP IIING HOUSE OF A. G. WALI.ING, CORNER IMRST AND ASH STREET



'Ugress, in tlie j'C
jin of Congress, (



PREFACE. 12C43G9

In giving these pages to the pnblic, the publisher has been actuated by the lauil-
able ambition to materially aid in a great work — the jjreservation in historical form or
tlie fast-fading annals of Oregon. The history of this great state, the story of its
struggles and triumphs, has never been written; nor can it be until the annals of each
section have been carefully gathered and recorded. They are the stones, which, set in
place by the hand of a skillful builder, make the complete edifice. To gather the scat-
tered threads of history ere they fall from the hands of those who have spun them, and
to weave them into a complete and reliable narrative, is the arduous task the publisher
has assumed; and to do this he has undertaken the work in the only manner l)y which
this result can be accomplished.

No portion of the state exceeds in importance or historical interest that section to
which the pages of this volume are specially devoted. The counties of Douglas, Jack-
sou, Josephine, Coos and Curry, usually referred to under the title of "Southern
Ol-egon," are large, populous and prosperous, and their annals constitute one of the most
important factors in the history of Oregon.

The work has been performed by a corps of able writers, who have patiently
examined ever}' source of information, giving sj^ecial attention to drawing out the tes-
timony of the pioneers and actois in the scenes portrayed. Every volume touch-
ing upon the subject has been carefully perused, the state and county records have been
examined, the files of the earliest newspapers of the state have been searched, pioneers
have been interviewed by the hundred, not only those now living in Southern Oregon,
but others encountered in every section of the Pacific Coast. Pains have been taken
to reconcile as nearly as possible all conflicting statements, and to do this the compilers
liave interview men of all shades of opinion. Whenever possible, disputetl j^oints have
been decided by reference to official records and documents and the contemporaneous
accounts in the newspapers. It is upon this careful investigation of all original sources
of information that this volume bases its claim of being the only reliable record of the
events of which it speaks. Everything previously written on these subjects has been
Init personal recollections, valuable to be sure, but incomplete, or was prepared for the
juirpose of attacking or defending some particular person, organization or theory, and
is valuable, not as history, but simply as evidence from which history may be compiled.
The task has been an arduous one, but it was undertaken with a full realization of its
diniculty, and has been conscientiously performed. That no errors whatever should
be committed could not even be hoped for; but their very scarcity and unimportant
nature are evidences of the general accuracy of the work.

The publisher returns his sincere thanks for the encouragement and substantial
aid extended by the state, county and city officials, the press, and the intelligent citizens
generally. With these remarks he submits the volume to the thoughtful perusal of the
Pioneers, the sturdy men and women who have through many years t)f toil, liiiitlship
and danger, bravely woven the tapestry of Oregon's history.

THE PrBLlSlIEIJ.

Portland, Oregon, May lo, 18.SJ.



ILLusTRA.TIo:^;^s.



Applegate, Hon. Lindsay, 8

Beekman, Hon. C. C. 22S

Drain, Mr. and Mrs. Hon. Chas. 432

Klippel, Henry, 452

Lane, G^n. Joseph, frontis-piece.



PORTKAITS.

Lane, Mrs. Gen. Joseph, 184
McCall, Gen. J. M., 32
Owens, Hon. J. F. W., 412
Ply male, W. J.. 68
Reams, Thos. G., 100



Ross, Gen. John. E., 176
Smilh, Capt. Thomas, 372
Tolman, Gen. J. C, 356
T'Vault, W. G., 296
Tichenor, Wm., 472



Agee, Benj. C, 12
Aiken, Andrew G., 16
Alford, Albert, 20
Amy, Haskell, 24
Ashland— Bird's-eye, 352
Ashland Woolen Mfg. Co., 28
Barron, H. F., 36
Battle Rock, 40
BeallT. F. and R. V., 44
Blanco Hotel, 48
Booth, John O., 52
Brockway, B. B., 56
Brown, H. G., 60
Burnett, Jas. D., 64
Cape Arago Light, 496
Cape Blanco Light, 72
Cellers, Joseph, 76
Chapman, John H., 80
Constant, Isaac, 84
Coohdge, Orlando, 88
Court House, Roseburg, 96
Court House, Jacksonville, 92
Coquille Jlill and Tug Co., 492
Crater Lake, 104
DaMotta, Philip, 108
l>odge, J. R., 112
Eagle Mills, 116
Elkton Mills, 120
Emmitt, John, 124
FuUerton, John, 128
Ganiard, O. V., 136
Gardiner Mill Co., 132
Gardner, T. K., 140
Gates, Henry, 144
Gazley, J. F., 148
Gillam, Thos. J., 152
Grubb, John L., 156



VIEWS.

Gurney, Mrs. E., 160
Gurney Bros., 164
Hanley, M., 172
Ish, Mrs. Jacob, 180
Jacksonville — Bird's-eye, 360
Jones, Henry, iSS
Jones, Joseph, 192
Lane's (Gen. Jos.) Tomb, 196
Leeds, Capt. J. B., 200
Levens, D. A., 204
Love & Hanley, 16S
Magruder, Constantine, 208
ilap — Coos and Curry Counties, 464

— Douglas County, 384

— Jackson County, 30S

— ^Josephine County, 444
Marshlield — Bird's-eye, 484
Marshfield Mills, 212
Marshfield Church and Academy, 488
Mark, Frederick, 220
Masonic Temple, Ashland, 224
Mathes, Wm. E., 232
McClellan, D. C, 236
McClendon, C. C, 240
Mingus, Conrad, 244
Moon & Stanley, 248
Murphy, John, 252
Jlyer, W. C, 256
Nasburg & Hirst, 260
Nichols, I. B., 264
Nickell, Charles, 216
Ocean House, 268
O.&C.R.R.— Rock Cut, 272

—Tunnel No. 8, 276
—S. from Tunnel No. 8, 2S0
— Grave Creek Crossing, 2S4
Palmer, P. P., 288



Patterson, Joshua, 292

Payne, C. T., 300

Pershbaker, A., 304

Pelton Bros., 3S8

Pickens, E. P., 312

Plymale, F. M., 316

Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville, 320

Price, J. W., 324

Rast, John, 328

Riddle, T. S., 332

Roseburg — Bird's-eye, 408

Roseburg Public School, 336

Ross, John E., 340

Sawyers, Andrew, 348

Sheffield, James F., 364

Shrum, Thomas, 368

Simpson Bros., 500

Singleton, T. J., 376

Singleton, W. B., 380

Stanton, H. C, 392

Stearnes, D. W., 396

Sutherlin, Fendel, 400

Taylor, S. C, 404

Thomas, Richard, 42S

Thornton, S. I., 416

" Times" Printing House, 216

Walker, J. P., 420

Walton & Hayes, 424

Ward, Frazier, 436

Weaver, J. W., 440

Welker, Daniel, 448

Williams, L. L., Monument, 456

WiUis, Rev. W. A., 460

Woodruff, A. H., 468

Wright, J. W., 476

Wrisley, J. B., 4S0



INDEX.



Abbott, G. H., 275, 276.
Abernethy, George, 146, 14S, 150, 160.
Agriculture, 115, 315, 394-
Aguilar, Martin cle, 30, river of, 30,
49, 54. 76-

Alarcon, Fernando de, explores Colo-
rado river, 17.

Alaska, 35, 59, 63, 65, 69, 95, 102.

Albion, New, 21, 55,

Alden, Capt. B. R., 215.

Allhouse creek, 455-6.

Allhouse, Philip, 44S, 455-

Amazons, Isle of, 14.

Ambrose, Dr. G. II., 202.

American explorations, 6S, 72, 75, 76,
92, iiS, 126, 136, 145, 1S6, 301.

.American board of commissioners for
foreign missions, 128.

American Fur Company, 118, 123, 125,
129.

Angell, Martin, killed, 259.

.\nian, .Straits of, 13, 19, 22, 28, 35,
48, 60, 62, 75.

ADplegate creek, siege of cabins, 259,
■458.

.^pplegate trail, 14S, 302-7.

Applegate, Charles, Jesse and Lindsay,
143, 148, 302, 349.

-Armstrong, Ben., 215.

Armstrong, Pleasant, 219.

Arteaga, voyage of Captain Ignacio,
62.

Ashland, 214, 352, 358.

Ashburton treaty, 141.

Ashley, Gener<il W. H., u8.

Astor, John Jacob, 94, 106.

Astoria, 96, 100, 102, 104, 105, 107.

Athabaska, lake, 81.

.\ugur, Captain U. S. A., 276.

Avalanche, 3S9.

B

Baffin's bay discovered, 32.

Baker guards, the, 348.
Baker, mount, 79.

Bandon, 4S9.

Battle Kock, siege of, 471, 473.

Bear creek, Indian tight on, 214.

Beaver money, 170.

Beekman, C. C. 363.

Behring Straits discovered, 35, 60.

Benton Senator T. H., 163, 164.

Berkeley, Capt., re-discovers Straits of

Fuca, 66.
Big Bar, 374.
Big Meadows, 266, Smith's tight at,

279, 281.
Bitter-root Mountains, 86, 91.
Blackburn's Ferry, fight at, 188.
Blanchet, Revs. F. N. and A. M. A.,

132, 136, 156, 170.
Blanco, Cape, discovered, 30, 54, 76.
Bledsoe, Capt., 282.
Bloody Point Massacre, 204.
I'.Uie Mountains, 102, 123, 148.
liodega y Quadra, J. F. de, 52, 54.
Bohemia mines, 392.
Boise Fort, 125.

Bonneville, Capt. B. L. E., 123, 125.
Boundaries of the United States, 47, 84.



Browntown, 455.

Brouillet, Father J. B. A., 15S, 159.
Bruce, Major James, 256, 2S2.
Bucareli, Port, 54.
Buccaneers, 20, 22, 32, 33.
Buchanan, Lieut-Col. U.S.A., 276.
Buford or Beaufort, James, killed, 272.
Butte creek, war upon, 258.



Cabeza-Vaca, N. A. de, 16.
Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, 18.
California Lower, discovery of, 15;
attempts to colonize, 15, 33; Mis-
sions, 38; Upper California, first
exploration, 18; missions, 44.

Calilornia, Gulf of, 16, 44; population
of, 46: mines, 169, 170.

Camas Prairie, 406; valley, 421.

Camp Leland, 254.

Camp Stewart, 215.

Canada, 47.

Canneries, 488, 4S9.

Canyon, emigrant suffering in the, 149.

Canyonville, 425;

Carver, Jonathan, 48, 49.

Cascades of the Columbia, 87.

Cascade mountains, 148, 387.

Cascades massacre, 176.

Casey, Lieutenant-Col. Silas, 200, 474,
475.

Catching creek, 486.

Catholic Missions, 132, 135 to 157, 151.
15s. 157-

Cave fight, the, 233-4.

Cayuse Indians, 89, 130, 152, 153,
106 to 165.

Census of 1849, 169.

Chapman, Lieutenant-Colonel W. W.,
264-S, 268,

Chetco Indians, 271; description of,
481

Chinese, 346.

Chinook Indians, 78, 87, 104.

Chipewyan, fort. Si.

Cibola, fabulous city of, 16, 17.

Civil Bend, 421.

Clarke's Fork of the Columbia, 86.

Clatsop, fort, 87.

Clearwater river, 86.

Cleveland, 428.

Climate, 299.

Cluggage, James, 359.

Coal, 394, 493.

Coats, Onsby and Long murdered,
205.

Coast Indians, 271.

Coast Mail newspaper, 494.

Coast Range mountains, 389.

Cockstock killed at Oregon City, 154.

Cole's valley, 426-7.

Colorado river, 16, 17, 118, 119, 123.

Columbia river, 49, 53, 67, 76, 78, 80,
S3, S7, 96, 106, 114.

Columbia, ship, second voyage of, 76.

Columbus, Christopher, 10.

Concomly, Indian chief, 105.

Conasset, fabulous city of, 27.

Congregational missions, 1 28, 1 32, 151
to 160.

Congressional debates, 142, 149, 164
to 167.



Cook, Capt. James, voyage of, 55'

491.
Cook's inlet, 60, 66.
Coos, origin of name, 496.
Coos Bay, 490; discovery of, 491; bar,

496-7.
Coos Bay company, 492.
Coos Bay Neius, newspaper, 494.
Coos county, 483, 499; boundaries of,

496.
Copper mines, 457.
Coppermine river, 50.
Coquille massacre, 271-2; river, 484,

490; Herald, newspaper, 487; Co-
quille river bar, 490; origin of name,

496; City, 487.
Coionado's invasion of Cibolo, 18.
Cortereal, Caspar de, 13.
Cortes, Hernando de, 14 to 17.
Cow creek, murder of miners on, 212;

disturbances, 257, 258; description,

etc., 423, 424, 425.
Cowlitz river, 117.
Carter lake, 308, 311.
Crespi, Father, 45.
Crowley, Miss M. L., 462.
Crooks, Ramsey, 100, 103.
Culver, Indian agent, 271.
Curry county, war in, 270; description

and history, 465, 482.
D
Dalles, The, 102. 131, 137, 153, 156,

159-
Dardanelles, the, 215, 379.
Dart, Dr. Anson, Indian commissioner,

474-
Day, John, 100 to 103.
Deady, Judge M. P., 221, 363, 366,

367, 446.
Deer creek, 452.
De la Matter mine, 453.
Demers, Father Modest, 151.
Denmark, 476.
DeSmet, Father P. J., 132.
Destruction island, 53.
Dilley, murdered at Phnenix, 196.
Disappointment, Cape, 53, 67, 77,

78, 87.
Douglas county, 3S3, 442; boundaries

of, 404, 406; statistics, 407, 408.
Drain, 431, 432.
Drake, Sir Francis, 20, 22.



Eagle Point, 376.

East India Company, 64.

Edgecumb, Mount, 53, 59, I06.

Edwards, Edward, 213.

Edwards, P. L., 127, 131, 132, :S6.

Eells, Rev. Gushing, 131, 139.

Eight Dollar Mt., fight at, 264, 265,

452, 453-
Elk creek, 477.
Elk Head, 441.
Elkton, 402, 405, 434.
Ellensburg, 478, 4S0.
Ely, Lieutenant Simeon, 217,218.
Emigrations, yearly, 1 37, 143, 147, '48.
Empire City, 493.
English explorations, 20, 32, 47, 55 to

61, 64 to 68, 761081.
Enos, Indian, 273, 183.



Esther mine, 333, 463.

Evan's creek, campaign of, 21S, 220.



Fairweather, mount, 59.

Ferrelo, discovers Cape Mendocino, 18.

Fields and Cunningham murdered, 240,

241.
Fitzgerald, Major, U. S. A., 206, 209,

246, 255.
FiveCrows, Indian chief, 153, 15S, 161.
Flat-head Indians, 127.
Flattery, Cape, 52, 7S.
Flint. A. R., 402, 403.
Floras creek, 476.
Fonte, Admiral de, 27.
Foot's creek, 185, 1S6, 379.
Forests, 390.
Fort Boise, 125.
Fort Briggs, 452, 454.
Fort Hall, 125, 137, 138, 14S.
Fort Hays, 452.
Fort Jones, 209.
Fort Lamerick, 278.
Fort Lane, 231.
Fort Orford, 275.
Fort Umpqiia, 301, 397, 399-
Fort Vancouver. 114, 115, 124.
Fort Walla Walla, 123, 129, 137, 156,

159, 175, 176.
Fowler mine, 331-2.
Franciscan missionaries in California,

43-
Fraser river, 81.

Fremont, Lieutenant J. C, 145, 187.
French explorations, 48, 63.
Frizzell and Mungo killed, 229.
Fuca, Straits of Juan de, 23 to 26, 52,

57. 66, 75, 76, 78.
Fur trade, 34 to 37, 61, 63, Si, 82, 91,

93, 100 to 104, 106 to 113, 114 to



Gaines, Governor, treaty with Indians,
199- 336.

Galice creek, supposed murder of
miners at, 20S; siege of, 250-1; de-
scription, 460-1.

Gania, Vasco de, 11.

Gardiner, 402, 436.

Geisel family, the, 274, 478-9.

Geoige, fort, 104, 107.

Ghent, treaty of, 106.

Gibbs, A. C, 402.

Gilliam, Colonel Cornelius, 160, 161,
■163.

Glendale, 426.

Gold Ik- . !: ;n ;^ ,. . 274.

Gold. .1^ I u.

Gold 11. , ■-, j;S.

Goodall, L_L, :. |. .!.._-, 206, 215, 21S,

234.
Grand Ronde valley, 102, 123; battle

of, 176.
Grant's Pass, 3S0.
Grave creek, 462-3; Indians, 199, 208,

213.
Gray, W. H., 129, 131, 139, 145.
Gray, Capt. Robert, 68, 72, 76.
Gray's Harbor, 78, 80.
Great Slave lake. Si.
Green valley, 439.
Green river, 118, 122.
Griffin, B. B., 216.

H
Hahn, Capt., 385.
Hall, fort, 125, 137. 138, 148.
Harding and Rose killed, 217.
Harkness killed, 266.
Harris family, the, 246.



Hawaiian Islands, 56, 60.

Hearne, e.xplorations of Samuel, 50.

Heceta, Bruno d-, 52, 53.

Hedden, Cyrus, 471, 474-

Hermann, Dr., 485.

Hermansville, 485.

Hines, Rev. Gustavus, 132, 136, 146,

>53-
Hitchcock, General, U. S. A., 200.
Hooker, Colonel Joseph, U. S. A.,

339-
Horn, Cape, discovered, 32.
Hudson's Bay, 13, 32, 47.
Hudson's Bay Company, 33, 50, 81,

loS to 126, 148, 397, 399.
Hull, Charles W. killed, 259.
Humboldt river, 119, 122.
■'Humbug war," 238, 240.
Hungry Hill, campaign of, 251, 253,

464.
Hunt, Wilson P., e.xpedilion of, 100 to

103, 105.

Illinois valley, 451.

Immigration of 1845, 137; of 1843,

143: of 1844, 147.
Irvin, Lieutenant U. S. A., kidnapped,

200.

J
Jackson county, description of, 306,

315: history of, 315, 382.
Jackson creek, 337.
Jackson Rangers, 349.
Jacksonville, 359.
"Jesuit missionaries in lower California,

38, 42-
Joe, Chief of the Rogue River Indians,

263.
Joint occupancy of Oregon, loS, 113,

126.
John, Chief of the Applegate Indians,

190, 216, 217, 279, 281, 284.
John Day Rivei, 8S. 103, 148.
Jones, Capt., U. S. A., 275.
Josephine creek, discovered, 447.
Josephine county, 446.
judah, Capt. H. M., U. S. A., 233.
Jump-off-Joe creek, 461.



Kamiakan, Indian chief, 174, 176.
Kautz, Lieut. A. V., U. S. A., 221,

251.
Kearney, Gen. Philip, 197.
Keene, Granville, killed, 240.
Keeney, Captain Jonathan, 261.
Kelsev, Colonel John, 265.
Kendrick, Captain John, 68.
Kerbyville, 453, 454.
ICing ( ;curge III. Archipelago, 53.
King ( ieorge Sound Company, 64.
Kino, Father, 33. 38, 39.
Klamath Indians, 1 78.



K!an



13'-



Klickitat Indians, 183.*
Kyle, James C, killed, 231.



Labrador, straits of, 13.

Lamerick, General J. K., 202, 254,

262, 266, 282.
Lane, Gen. Joseph, 16S, 198, 217, 222.
La Perouse voyage of, 63.
Lapwai Mission, 130, 132, 155.
Latshaw, Major, 281.
LeBreton, George W., 136, 146, 153,

154-
Ledford massacre, 346, 347.
Leivard, John, efforts to cross the

Continent, 63.
Lee, H. A. G., 160.



. 132, 136, 146.
ition, 85, 92.



LeN\i>. Joe, 157 to 159.
Limestone, 321.
Long Prairie, 438

Looking-glass, 417, Indians of, at-
tacked, 257.
Loretto, Mission of Our Lady of, 40.
Lost river fight, 207.
Lowden's ferry fight, 1S8, 189.
Louisiana, Province of, 47, 84.
Lovejoy, A. Lawrence, 139, 150.
Lower California, colonized, ^;i.
Lupton massacre, 243.

M
Mackenzie, Alexander, explorations of.

81, 82; Mackenzie river, 81.
Magellan, 11, 13.

Maldonado and theSlraitsof Anian, 22.
Mandan Indians, 86.
Marple, P. B., 491.
Marshall, James W., 169.
Marshfield, 494, 495.
Martinez, Estevan, voyages of, 52, 69:

Nootka controversy, 71.
Mary's river, (see Humboldt).
Mrssacre on October ninth, (855, 24-I.
Maurelle. Antonio voyages of, 52, 6:.
McBean, William, 159.
McKay, Alexan.ler, Tom and William
C, 95, 121, 129, 138, 152, 156,161.
McKinlav, Archiiwld. 1 58.
McLaughlin, Dr. John, 121. 136, 153.
McLaughlin, Joseph. 122.
McLeod river, 122.
McTavish, J. G., 104.
Meachani, A. B., 207.
Meadows, first campaign of the, 256;

second campaign, 266, 269.
Meares, Captain, voyages of, 58, 65,

6S, 71-
Medford, 375.
Meek, Joseph L. and Stephen II., 133,

137, 146, 148, 166, 168.
Mendocino, Cape, discovered, 18.
Mendoza, Antonio, Viceroy of Mexico,

16, 18.
Merchants' and Farmers' Navigation

Co., 3S5.
Methodist missions, 127, 130, 131, 132.

135 I" 137. 151. 154-
Meteorological tables, 300.
Miller. Captain John F., 331, 232.
Mines and Minerals, 321 to 333, 392

to 394-
Mis^i,,ns in California, 38.
Missions in Oregon, 127 to 133, 151.

154.
Missionaries, 127, 159.
Missouri Fur Co., 92, 118.
Missouri river, 86, 91.
Modocs, 187, 204, 207, 349.
Molalla Indians, 154.
Montcrrv, Ibv of, 29, 45.
M..nm M. Klias, 60.

Murphy's creek, 459; fight at, 280.

Myrtle creek, 422, 423.

Myrtie Point, 4S5.

N

Nesmith, J. W., 148, 221, 223.

New Archangel, 106.

Nez Perce Indians, 86, 90, 123, 128.
130, 132, 153.

Ninth Regiment, 293, 296.

Nisqually, missions at, 151, 174.

Niza, Father Marcas de, pretended ex-
plorations of, 17.



Nolan, Rhodes, 214.

Noolka convention, 73, 74.

Nootka Sound, 51, 54, 64, 66, 70, 73,
75, 81.

Xorlh Bend, 495.

North Sea, 11.

North Umpqua river, 389.

Northwest Fur Co., of Montreal, 81,
91, 100, 107 to 109, 113, 114.
O

Oak Flat, council of, 279.

Oakland, 406, 428, 430.

Ogden, I'eter Skeen, 122, 159.

Ogden's river (see Humboldt).

Olympus, Mount, 52.

Ord, Capt. E. O. C, U. .S. A., 277.

Oregon, first discoveries, 18, 20, 30;
origin of name, 49, 50, S3; joint oc-
cupancy, 108, 113; missions 127 to
133; first efforts at self-government,
133; boundary, 141: white popula-
tion of, in 1843, 143; subdivided,
170.

Oregon and California railroad, 381,
3S2, 396, 411, 424, 462.

Oregon City laid out, 137; Indian fight
at, 154.

Oreifoii Senlinel, newspajjer, 369.

Oregon trail, the, 338, 447, 449, 461.

Orford, Cape, 30, 54, 76.
P

Pacific Fur Co., 95, 104.

Pacific Ocean, discovery of, 11; early
explorations, 15.

Palmer, Joel, 221,

Palouse river, 87, 103.

Palouse Indians, 103.

Pambrun, P. C, 129.

Parker, Rev. Samuel, 128, 151.

Parkersburg, 488.

Peo-peo-mux-mux, Indian Chief, 88,
153, 175-

Perez, voyages of Juan, 51, 52.

Peters Philip, 400.

Philip II., orders survey of northwest

Philippine Islands subdued by Spain,

19-
Phillips, Edward, killed, 236.
Philpnt killed, 237, 452.
I'hoenis, 374.
Pikhei. M,ijor, 122.
Pirmecrs, s..ciety of, 35 1.
Poland, Captain, 273.
Portala, first governor of California, 44.
Port Orford, 200. 471, 477.
Port San Lorenzo, 51.
Post, newspaper, 480.
Prim, Judge P. P., 361.
Prince William's sound, 60, 65, 69
Printing, first in Oregon, 132.
Provisional government of Oregon,

133. 135. '45. 146.
I'ligcl S.iund Agricultural Co., 1 70.
Puget Sound explored, 79.
Putnam Valley, 438, 439.

Q

(Quadra, Bodega y, 52, 62, So.
(Quartz mining, 326, 333, 392, l<)l,

456, 466.
Queen Charlotte's Island, 51, 79.
Quicksilvei, 321, 593, 394.
(juivira. Fabulous City of, jr.

R

Rainfall, 300.
Ranier, Mount, 79.
Randolph, 492; mines of, 4S9.
Rawlins, Miss Josephine, 447.
Ricortkr, newspaper, 476.



Red River of the North, 50; settle-
ments, 109, 134; emigrants, 137.
Redwood grove, 482.
Reyes, Rio de los, 26 to 28, 48,49, 54,

59, 76- .
Reynolds, Major U. S. .\., 272, 274.
Rhoades, Jacob, 215.
Rice settlement, 257, 420.
Rice valley, 440.
Riddle, 424.

Rinearson, Capt. Jacob, 247, 249.
Rock Point, 379,
Rocky mounlains, 48, 85, 118.
Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 119,

122, 123.
Rogue river, 312, 313.
Rogue River Indians, 178, 185, 190,

202, 216, 302, 304, 378.
Rollins (see Rawlins.)
Roseburg, 403, 405, 416.
Roseburg and Coos Bay railway, 396,

494. 499-
Ross, General John E., 160, 205, 206,

213, 220, 234, 249, 251, 328, 345,

349. 464-
Russian explorations in the Pacific, 34

to 38.
Russian American Trading Company,

36, 63, 106, 117.
Ryswick, treaty of, 47.

S
Sahaptin river (see Snake.)
Sailor Diggings (see Waldo.)
Saint Elias, Mount, discovered, 35, 59.
Salt Lake, Great, 118.
Salva-Tierra, Father, 38.
Sam and Joe, chiefs of the Rogue

River.s, 210, 211.
Sandwich Islands, 56, 60, 6S, 93.
San Diego mission, 43.
San Jacinto, Mount, 53.
San Francisco Bay discovered, 21, 29,

45-
San Lorenzo, Port, 5l.
San Roque, river of, 53.
Sauvies' island, 88.
Saskatwchewan river, 81.
Scott, Capt. Levi. 148, 302, 400, 401.
Scurvy, sufferings of Spanish explorers,

iS, 29, 30.
Scottsburg, 385, 401, 402, 435.
Second regiment, O. M. V., 260, 265,

286, 292.
Selkirk's Red River settlements, 109.
Serra,' Father Junipero. 43 to 46.
SettlemeiUs in Oregon, 130, 134, 152.
Shasta Indians, 178, 189.
Sheep, 395.

Simpson, Sir George, 137.
Siskiyou mountains, 122, 131.
Siuslaw river, 384, 440.
Sitka, Alaska, lo6.
Sixes river. 476.
Skinner, Judge A. A., 150, 199, 202,

Slate creeC, 459-

Smith, Capt. A. J., U. S. A., 223,
m, 239. 277. 279-

Smith river, 383, 439, 44°-

Smith, Jedediah S., iiS, 120, 122,
184. 399.-

Snake river, 86, 100, 125.

South Sea, discovery of, 10.

South Sea Company, 64.

Southern Oregon, history and descrip-
tion of, 297, 499.

Southern Oregon emigrant road, 148,
302.

Southern Oregon Improvement Com-
pany, 494, 499.



Spanish explorations, iS, 29, 30, 31,
51, 52, 53, 62, 69, 75, 79.

Spalding, Kev. H. H., 129, 133, 139,
152, 157-

Spokane, fort, 103, 104; mission, 132.

Steele, Elijah, 201, 202, 203.

.Stevens, Gov. \. I., 173, 176.

.Stewart, Captain, U. .S. A., 197.

Steptoe, Col. E. J., 176.

Stock, 394.

Straits of Anian, 17, 20, 23.

Stoneman, Lieutenant, 475.

Sucker creek, 544, 455.

Sumner, 495.

Sutter, Captain John A., 131, 169.

Sutton, J. M., 464.
T

Table Rocks, the, 377, 37S; reserva-
tion at, 231.

Table Rock band, 263.

Tal'U Rock Stitlincl, newspaper (see
Oregon Smlinel. )

Table Rock treaty, 221, 224.

Tallent, 380.

Tam-su-ky, Cayuse chief, 156 to 162.

Tedford and Rouse attacked by In-
dians, 224.

Temperature, 300.

Ten-mile valley, 419.

Territorial government of Oregon, 163,
176.

Thornton, J. Q., 150, 164, 167.

Tichenor, Capt. Win., 471, 473, 478.

Tierra, Father Juan Maria Salva, 39.

Timber, 390.

Tipsu Tyee, 201, 211, 216, 230, 233.

Tonquin, ship, 95, loo.

Touchet river, 90.

Townsend, Port, 79.

Trappers, character of, 125, 126.

Treaties — Nootka, 73; Ghent, 106;
Ryswick, 47; Ashburton, 141; of
1S46, 149.

Trinidad, bay of, 52.

Tukannon river, 87.

T'Vault, W. G., 197, 369, 370, 372,
377, 473-

Tyee George, 547.
U

Ugarte, Father Juan, 38, 41.

Ulloa, Francisco de, explorations of,
16.

Umatilla river, 88, 124.

Umpqua City, 402, 438.

Umpqua county, 403, 405, 406.

Umpqua, Fort, 184, 301, 397, 399.

Umpqua Indians, 178, 182, 183.

Umpqua river, 21, 30, 117, 119, 184,
384, 399. 401.

V

Vancouver, Capt. George, 74, 81.

Vancouver Island, 51, 80.

Vancouver, Fort, 80, 1 14, 115, 124.

Viscaino, Admiral Sebastian, 29, 31.

Voyageurs, 95.

Wagner, Mrs., killed, 245.

Wagons first taken to Oregon, 129,

137, 142.
Waiilatpu, 130, 1 38, 152.
Waldo, called Sailor Diggings, 229,

456, 457-



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