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A. H Roe.

Horse owners' guide : being a synopsis of the diseases of horses and cattle and how to treat them : the anatomy of the horse as given by Mr. Dadd, V.S. online

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HORSE OWNERS' GUIDE,



J>i:iN<4 A SYNOPSIS OK Tin;



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AND CATTLE,



AND How TO TREAT THK



M.



The Anatomy of the Horse as 61? en hy Mr. Ml, V. S.



-BY-



A-H. ROE, VETERINARY SURGEON



MKNNONITE Pen. Co., PIMNTKKS:
KLKHAKT, INDIANA.

1878.



COPYRIGHT APPLIED KOR.



I n .

LIBRARY



PREFACE.




HIS unpretending little Treatise is an
attempt to supply an oft expressed
want. Namely, a brief, popular and
reliable Hand-Book on that depart-
ment of Veterinary Science which treats of
Horses, Cattle, and their Diseases.

It need hardly be proved by any argument
of mine that in accordance with the advance
ment of Medical Science in our day, a new work
(written up to the present time) is absolutely
required to instruct owners of horses and cattle
in the latest and most approved modes of treat-
ment in all diseases of horses and cattle. Within
the past twenty years new diseases or rather
new forms of old diseases (including the late
Epizootic and Spinal Meningitis) have afflicted
the equine race in our own country and elsewhere.
These diseases were considerably altered in
character from the type with which our Grand
fathers were acquainted. For these reasons it
would be exceedingly iumdicious to pursue PX



PREFACE.



actly the same treatment recommended in books
written for those times. In former days Bleed-
ing, Blistering, Firing and Physicing were indis.
(Tirniriately pursued, without knowing the where-
fore for so doing. The object of the author has
been to supply to such persons a brief, popular
and if possible a reliable work for all such
emergencies. How far he has succeeded in ac-
complishing that object he leaves to the judg-
ment of others.

Grand Rapids, Mich., May 10, 1878,



On the following page is found a table of the bones
in the structure of a horse, the notes below give explan-
ations on the table.



*) The bones in the sacrum of the colt consist of five pieces.

)) The pelvis of the young animal is made up of the two
ossa innominata, each of which is formed of two pieces, the
larger is called os ileum, the smaller, in allusion to the human
pelvis, has been subdivided into two portions, named os ichium
and os pubis

Dr. Hooper reckons the number of bones in the
human subject at 248.







Frontal. i




1


Parietal,




l:..inv of the Cranium >


Orripital, 1




or Skull.


Temporal,






Kthmoiil, 1


*




L Sphenoid, 1







r Nasal, 2


-"^




Ungins,


ll




Malaruin,






Maxillary, Superior and Ant.-rior, 4


a? r


IJi.ni-s of the Face ^


Palatine,
Tnrbinateil Bon-s.


y t




Vomer,







l'..>terior Maxilla, 1


w




Lachrymal,
^ Cuspidata, or Canine. 4


c3


Dent or Teeth.


J Molars, 2-1
t Inrisores, 12


f i .


Bone of the Tongue.


livoides, 1



09


Bones of the Ear.


1 Malleus,
Incus,
Stapes,
Orbiculare,


S


s . np (Vertebrae.


( Cervical, 7
' Dorsal, IS


s


' ( Sai'rnm. v


/ Lumbar, 5


S .

4-3 =


Tail.


Coccygis or bones of the, tail, 15-
( Sternum, at l-irth of d'tt'nt pieces, 1


a? r*

o a


Thorax.


^True ribs, 14
False ribs. 22


5i


IVlvis-Ossa Tnominata. f


2


r~i = :n
* r j


Shoulder,


Scapula,




Ann.


Humerus, 2




Fore Arm.


Radius, (Ulna conc'td with former) 4


P




r Os Schaphoides (1 to each knee 2


i




Os Lunare, 2


OQ




1 Os Cuneiform,


0)


Bones of the Knee. -<


I Os Trape/ium,
i Os Trape/oides


o




Os Unciform,






Os Magnum,


' ' _<




^ Os Pisiform,


f j 15




rMetacarpi Magnum.
Splents,






Sessamoides, 4


4-3


Helow the Knee.


Suffraginis, (large pastern)
1 Os Corronae, (small pastern)


O c




Os Naviculare,


*"




1 Os Pedis,


<>


Thigh.


Femur,


r- H


Stifle.


Patella, 2


i ^' *




Thibia,


C^


Leg.


} Fibula,


01


Bones of the Hook.


C Astragalus, 2
OsCalcis, 2
1 Os Ouboides,. 2
, Os Cuneiform Magnum,


J1




Internal Medium,
L External Medium,


** .'JS




f Metatarsi, (or canons) 2


^ 5




Splints. 4
1 OHSuffraginis,




Heh.w the Knye.


' Os Coronae,


1^




j Os Sessamoides, i






1 Os Naviculare, 2


IS




V 08 Pedi<. 2



Total,






10 ROE ON THE HORSE.



ant landmarks are presented, which may be very
useful in guiding to correct conclusions.

THE PTTLSE.

The pulse of a medium sized, healthy horse
beats from thirty-four to forty per minute. The
pulse of a small horse may be a few more, or of
a larger one a beat or two less. Age decreases
the pulse slightly. Any considerable increase of
the pulse over forty per minute, indicates fever or
inflammation, and other symptoms must be looked
for to determine the particular locality of the
disease. Where great weakness ensues the pulse
becomes fluttering.

THE MEMBRANE OF THE NOSE.

This in health is of a light pink color. In
fever and inflamation it is red.



Is supposed to be caused by any irritative
substance that may come in contact with the
mucus membrane of the stomach and alimentary
canal.

SYMPTOMS.

On account of the severe pain, in the first
stages of this complaint, it might sometimes be
mistaken for colic in the horse, but the copious
and bloody evacuations will soon convince the
most inexperienced veterinarian, that he has a very



K01-: ON Till-] LIOR8K. 11



different disease to contend with, and one, if not
soon counteracted, will very soon place its victim
beyond the reach of all medicinal aid. The dis-
charges from the bowels in this disease are of the
following nature: Blood, Mucus and Lyjnph,
often accompanied with Pus in the last stages of
this malady, very fetid and disagreeable to the
smell ; attended often with high fever, ardent
thirst, and considerable distress on pressure of
the abdomen, there being often considerable
swelling of the abdomen.

TREATMENT.

During the first stage of this disease give,
Chloroform oz., Laudanum oz., and Tincture
Jamaica Ginger 1 oz. in 1 pint of flax seed tea,
repeating the same often as circumstances may
require. In aggravated cases take the heads and
leaves of poppies and hops and make a strong
decoction, with which saturate the horse often and
about as hot as it can be borne by the hand. If
the horse has much fever give him Tincture of
Aconite and Sweet Spirits Nitre in equal parts,
tablespoonful every 3 or 4 hours, on the tongue,
and give him browned wheat flour, chocolate and
flax seed tea as drink, and 'wheat or rye flour
gruel to eat, and should he cloy on gruel, give
him a little of the same kind of flour mixed with
cut hay : and should he grow tired of the foremen
tioned drink give him drink of slippery elm
(ground) of the shops, or marsh mallows ; and
do the very best nursing and dosing, right up to
orders all through.



12 KOE ON THE HORSE.



CASTRATION OF COLTS,



- Is apparently at best somewhat barbarous,
and the grand idea is in every case to adopt the
safest and easiest mode, and that attended with
the least risk, least pain, and least inconvenience
to the animal operated on. We will not stop to
discuss the merits of all the various modes of
castration, but will recommend the mode intro-
duced by Dr. Robt. Jennings, of Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. This mode is performed with the
instrument known as the Ecrasseur, invented for
the removal of Hemorrhoids (or piles) in jnan.
The advantages of this over all other operations
of this kind, are: That it is safer, less painful,
more scientific, and less barbarous, than any
operation now known. Secondly, heals quicker,
seldom requiring over 10 to 14 days, and some-
times not more than 7 or 8 days. Thirdly, this
operation is attended with less trouble to the
skillful operator, as well as owner, as the colt is
done with as soon as let up. No subsequent
treatment, in commotfis necessary, as in other
methods, such as keeping scrotum open, &c.
Fourthly, but little if any swelling occurs ; the
colt not being perceptibly affected in any way by
this operation. And wherever the public suffi-
ciently rely upon this plan and the skill of the
undersigned to remunerate him fully in an excur-
sion, the services of the undersigned can be
secured for this or any operation warrantable in
veterinary surgery. The undersigned being in
possession of the most approved instruments of



ROE ON TIIK IIOIiSK. 13



the. present day and professing the knowledge
and experience necessary for their use.

Address, " A. H. ROE,

GKAND RAPIDS,

Michigan.



LOLIC,



Is divided into two kinds, Spasmodic and
Flatulent. The causes are set down as follows:
Drinking cold water when the horse is very warm;
change of food, as from old dry corn and hay,
to green corn or grass; exposure to cold air when
in a heated state. There seems to be a prone-
riess, or predisposition in many horses to this
complaint. In my opinion, however, the vast
majority of cases of colic are brought on through
overloading the stomach with hard and indigest-
ible food, where age and abuse have impaired
the digestive powers of that organ, and the food
taken in, instead of imparting its true nourish-
ment to the system, becomes a foreign substance;
ascidulates, Creating through that meansgasseous
substance, which instead of nourishing and up
building the system, (unless speedily changed or
carried off), destroys the life of its victim.

SYMPTOMS.

Of these painful and destructive maladies,
we will first treat the Flatulent form of this dis
ease, which comes on very suddenly ; pulse very
seldom much hurried beyond its natural beat in



14 ROE ON THE HORSE.



first stage of this disease; the limbs and ears
being about the ordinary warmth. If at work,
the horse stops and presents signs of distress ;
lies down or throws himself recklessly down, gets
up, paws, looks round at his side, and throws
himself again, repeating about the same pro-
gramme, until the skillful doctor cures or the
4 'Equine Tragedian" leaves the stage of existence
forever.

TEEATMENT.

That must succeed most infalliably in this
form of Colic, can naturally admit of but little
change from that recommended for spasmodic
colic; the two forms of colic being so nearly
allied that it is often impossible for the most
accurate Diagnosian to draw a true and consist-
ent line of demarkation. But will say that the
present form (Flatulent) must (if possible) receive
more prompt treatment, from the fact of the
alarmingly bloated state often found, in which,
the violent throes of the animal has been known
to rupture the stomach. Double the amount of
every narcotic recommended in spasmodic colic,
wherever the violence of the disease demands-
kill the pain or it will kill the horse.



INFLAMMATION OF STOMACH & BOWELS,



While really one and inseperable in form and
nature, are redundantly and irksomely treated
under both of the above names, which I do not
think admit of any such division, from the fact



KOK ON TIII-; IIOKM;. 15



that their form and nature are identical in almost
f\vry respect it being impossible that the stom-
ach should be affected without the intestines, or
the intestines and not the stomach.

CAUSES.

Protracted cases of colic often leave the
stomach and bowels in a highly inflamed condi-
tion, with pulse much hurried but very weak,
sometimes hardly perceptible ; legs and ears
cold ; belly very tender to the touch ; constant
pain ; sudden and great prostration ; respiration
more and more quick, and signs of very great
suffering; eyes present a wild, stareing and hag-
gard appearance ; pupils dilated ; sometimes
making such violent ado as to make approach
hazardous. But all of a sudden, from his ap-
parent calmness, his master may imagine that
he is going to recover. But only a momentary
delusion lulls his fears for all at once he starts
up in the most intense agony, and it is soon evi-
dent that the insidious giant is about reaching
the very vitals of the sufferer ; mortification if
not already begun, now sets in and closes the
scene.

TREATMENT.

If cases of this disease have been incorrectly
diagnosed (and consequently mistreated) or neg-
lected until the above symptoms are present, give
the poor animal something to lull his dying
groans. But if taken in time give him ^ oz, of
Oil Turpentine and 8 grains Valerianate of Mor-
phia in flax seed tea or browned flour gruel, every
4 hours ; and as an alternating fever dose a com-
mon teaspoonful of tincture Aconite, every four



16 ROE ON THE HORSE.

hours, giving first dose of Aconite just two hours
after Turpentine and Morphia. But it is often
best to establish an irritation of the sun.
through thick mustard paste, repeatedly rubbnd
over the belly, or the strong liniment made of
Spirits Ammonia 2 oz., Turpentine 2 oz. and
Spirits of Camphor 2 oz., or any quantity in
same proportion. Keep comfortable and quiet.
Feed bran mash if any appetite, and give flax
seed tea, or browned flour chocolate drink.



SWEENEY,



Is characterized by wasting away of the
muscles of the upper part of the shoulder and is
sometimes attended with lameness, but not
always ; it is not considered among the original
affections, but is the result of sympathetic action
with some other part, unless such violence
through strains, or bruises, or other accidents,
directly affecting the shoulder, have struck it
with such force as to occasion such atrophy.
This affection, by some, is set down as of very
easy cure, which, in many cases prove true, but
in my observation in regard to this affection
(where a severe strain has taken place especially)
is that it is very difficult (to say the least) of
cure; but will append some of the most success-
ful of the remedies generally applied.

TREATMENT.

Take Aqua Ammonia, Oil of Spike, Spirits
Turpentine, Sweet Oil, and Alcoholic Spirits of



ROE ON THK HORSE. 1 7



Camphor, of each 2 ounces, arid as soon as well
mixed by shaking, apply at least as often as
/very night and morning, until well; or in case
of failure of above liniment, put in seton as fol-
lows: Take long seton needle, loaded with tape
(or cord, composed of silk or linen thread) tape
or narrow ribbon, however, being preferable,
from 6 to 10 inches long, grab up the skin over
sweenied part with the thumb and lingers, grip-
ing together as closely as possible, (the horse he..
ing securely held by nose twitch), and then pass
needle just between your clenching thumb and
tinge] 1 gripe and the breast bone; tie the ends
together, forming loop. Shift the loop round
and cleanse once each succeeding day, and
should the discharge be subsiding before the
muscles appear to be replenished, drop a little
Turpentine into wound, or renew seton as before
described.



RINGBONES,



This is one of the classes of disease styled
Exostosis, or extra bone growth, and is known
by every person at all acquainted with horses as
a circular, rough, bony ring, around the coronet
of the hoof, and one author describes it as an
effort of nature to add to the strength of the
parts, and enable them the better to withstand
too early work or heavy concussion, and are
most commonly found on draft-horses, with up-
right pasterns and small feet. They do not inva-
riably produce lameness, they nevertheless con-



18 ROE ON" THK HORSE.



stitute in the horse market an eye sore, and to say
the least of them, constitute a very disagreeable
species of unsouridriess, for which we propose no
cure but fireing.



BONE SPAVIN,



This consists of a bony enlargement on in-
side of hind knee, or hock joint, and is caused
in young horses by over- work, before the bones
have acquired full strength.

TREATMENT.

In commencement apply cold applications,
as recommended for splint; but in cases of long
standing, after joint is severely affected, and
Tincture of Iodine, Blistering, and Counter-irri-
tants, generally, have failed, use the Actual Cau
tery (or hot iron), or to use the veterinary term-
tire it.



SPLINT,



This is an enlargement on inside of front
leg, just below the knee joint, and almost inva-
riably a disease common -to young horses. It
may sometimes be situated near the pastern, and
may occasionally be found almost encircling the
limb. When immediately under the knee the



ROE ON THE HOK 19



splint is most apt to interfere with the natural
action, or produce lameness. In all cases this
disease commences in the Periosteum the vascu-
lar membrane covering the bone. Over exertion,
and concussion, in badly shaped limbs, drives to
it an over supply of blood, the parts become hot
arid tender, and lymph is exuded from the in-
flamed vessels, and gradually converted into
bone.

TREATMENT.

In the beginning, while there is much fever,
keep well wet with the following preparation:
Sugar of Lead 1 oz., dissolved in \ qt. of water,
and an addition of 1 pint of Vinegar, by means
of cloths saturated in foregoing solution, or if
handy to stream or pool of water, let the horse
frequently stand an hour at a time therein.
Leave him idle 20 to 30 days. When the heat
leaves the limb apply the fly -blistering prepara-
tion of the shops, or ointment of Binoiodide of
Mercury, or the hot iron. The foregoing reme-
dies condense and harden the bony deposit, but
do not remove it. Union shortly takes place be-
tween the large and small splint bones; swelling
becomes solid; the lameness disappears, and the
splint still remains, but scarcely ever produces
any subsequent blemish or inconvenience.



RETENTION OF UF^INE.



This may arise from many causes, among
which are driving the animal too long without



20 ROE ON THE HORSE.

stopping to urinate, as well as long exposure to
severe cold; likewise when laboring under severe
and general spasms, as in cramp colic; from cal-
carious accumulations of gravel, or stone in the
bladder, etc., are a few of the many causes of
Retention of the Urine.

SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT.

About the same as those of inflammation of
the Kidneys, and where the pain is very severe,
introduction of Catheter, and one or two blankets
wet in hot water and applied over the kidneys,
and binding first a gum or oil cloth, and then
one to three dry horse blankets (the number to
be guided by the season of the year, arid temper-
ature) in order to get up, if possible, free perspi-
ration and consequent relaxation of the system.
Should the pain arid retention yet continue, give
him 2 ounces Laudanum and 2 of Sweet Spirits
of Nitre in ^ pint new milk, repeating the same
dose often as necessary.



Scoui\s OF^ PURGING,



May be brought on by change of feed or
water, but full oftener from over-driving, until
general exhaustion and relaxation of the system
is brought on, under which circumstances the
bowels frequently become the vulnerable part.

TREATMENT.

This disease is so plain that we neednot des-
cribe its symptoms, but shall proceed at once to



ROE ON THE I.'oKSj;. 21



its remedies. Give 1 ounces prepared chalk.
and drachm Tannin, in combination with one
drachm Extract Logwood, in 1 pint warm water,
repeating dose as often as necessary, and do not
allow the horse to he worked until entirely recov-
ered, as relapses are always hazardous if not
fatal in their tendency.



Are a parasitic formation common to
it not all animals, and may cause the death of
far more animals than is generally supposed by
owners, or doctors.

SYMPTOMS.

A rough, ragged coat, haggard eye, colicky
pains, gasping, debility, sluggish movements,
skin covered with scurvy blotches, small, feeble
pulse, belly drawn up, breathing slow, irregu-
lar appetite, food badly digested, agitation of
the heart, dung coated with mucus, a peculiarly
pale appearance of the fundament, rubbing the
tail. The foregoing symptoms are not common
in all cases.

TREATMENT.



Use worm powders, 1 teaspoonful twice a
for 4 or 6 days, in scalded bran: then give strong
Senna tea and Glauber Salts (dissolve salts in
the tea) sufficient to carry oft 1 the contents of the
bowels and if convenient keep the horse in a
shady pasture.



22 ROE ON THE HOKSK.



POLL EVIL,



This is an affection happening to the horse,
only when his blood is in morbid condition, (as
stated by some authors), but in my opinion and
experience, let the blood be never so pure, and
the horse receive a blow on the prominence, called
the poll, sufficient to cause extravasation at the
Periosteum, suppuration is very liable to result
and should the matter be too long pent up it may
prey upon the bone.

SYMPTOMS.

Swelling and inflammation of the poll, with
great tenderness, lasting sometimes for weeks
and months before it breaks.

TREATMENT.

If matter is already formed, open at once by
making a large incision, but, if the beginning of
swelling use the following liniment: Aqua Am-
monia 2 ounces, Alcoholic Spirits Camphor 4
ounces, Turpentine 2 ounces; with which wash
three times per day and keep covered with an oil
cloth hood. If matter has formed, and been
drawn off, syringing out daily with Castile soap
arid warm soft water, and dress with the follow-
ing preparation, Glycerine 4 ounces and Carbolic
Acid 1 ounce, mix and apply once or twice each
day.



i;oi; ON -I'm: HOUSE. 23

CHOKING,



But rarely happens with the horse, (but fre-
quently) among cattle; and when in the horse,
the treatment must he prompt if successful, and
is always dangerous according to position; lodg-
ment immediately over entnuuv of windpipe
being attended with immediate danger; as it may
suffocate at once.

TREATMENT.

Move the horse sharply and if that does not
excite coughing, let him be jumped over a fence
or some object that will excite violent expiration,
when the air so suddenly rushing in through
Bronchail tubes, must produce a spasmodic ac-
tion of the air cells, which through the violent
coughing produced, may cause the sudden ejec-
tion of the obstacle; but should this likewise
fail, with one hand grasp firmly the windpipe,
shutting off both inspiration and expiration,
until the horse begins to strangle, and suddenly
let go, when he will cough violently and may
throw out the obstruction. Should the last ex-
periment likewise fail, thrust the right hand into
the throat, (the mouth being securely held open)
and if possible, pass the hand or fingers far
enough to grapple the object by the hook formed
by the fingers. But should all the foregoing
efforts fail the only reliance must be in a free
lengthwise incision, right through upon the ob-
struction, just large enough to at once extract it,
when the incision must be closely brought together
and stitched up. Give the horse gruel to eat



24 ROE ON THE HORSE.



until he can safely eat grass, if in grass time,
and if not any kind of food he may best relish.
Let his drink be whatever he appears to best rel-
ish, and if bowels appear costive, give salts in
his drink and plentiful injections of Castile soap-
suds and let him rest until entirely well.



DIABETES.



This takes pi ace more frequently during the
warm season, when thirst is most ardent, and
consequently the greatest natural secretion of
water to the bladder, as well as the accompany-
ing material which often forms the future growth
of stone or calculi in that organ.

CAUSES.

These are almost identical with those of in-
flammation of the kidneys and particularly
from exposure and sudden straining.

SYMPTOMS.

In the economy of natures continual drain-
ing, the continual and urgent thirst is calculated
to supply the deficiency resulting. The urine in
this disease is very abundant, clear, and color-
less; the animal continually loses flesh, coat be-
comes rough, standing out straight from the body;
his appetite from voracious, fails, and if not soon
relieved, may lead to a complication of diseases.



ROE ON THE HORSW. 25

TREATMENT.

Administer morning and night the following
mixture: Iodide of Potassium 1 drachm, Iodine
1 scruple, Carbonate of Soda 4 drachms, warm
water pint and good nourishing diet.



CALCULI OR STONE IN THE BLADDER,



These deposits may and frequently do exist
long before any serious inconvenience is felt by
their victim.

SYMPTOMS.

Urinate frequently, but in small quantities,
and is of a turbid, yellow, or thick, whitish
color; the animal often looks around at his
sides, paws, kicks its belly, and appears relieved
by changing position.

TREATMENT.

Administer night and morning, 1 drachm of
Muriatic Acid, in a pail of water. Many reme-
dies might be proposed for dissolvidg the calculi
in the Bladder, but I seriously . question the effi-


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Online LibraryA. H RoeHorse owners' guide : being a synopsis of the diseases of horses and cattle and how to treat them : the anatomy of the horse as given by Mr. Dadd, V.S. → online text (page 1 of 7)