A. J. (Arkady Joseph) Sack.

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The Birth of the
Russian Democracy



Director of the Russian Information Bureau
in the United States

Russian Information Bureau

Woolworth Building

New York City


Copyright. 1918,


A. J. Sack


Part I

The History of the Revolutionary Movement

in Russia


The Decembrists — The First Russian Revolutionists 19

The founding of the first Russian revolutionary organizations after
the Napoleonic War — Pavel Pestel — "Union of Salvation - ' — Its
aim — Mikhail Muraviov — "Union of Welfare" — Its aims — Mutiny
in the Semionovsky Regiment in 1820 — "Society of United Slavs'' —
The "Northern Society - ' — Its Constitution — The "Southern So-
ciety's" Constitution — The uprising of December 14, 1825 — The trial
of the Decembrists — Executions and prison sentences — The find-
ings of the Investigating Committee.

The Revolutionary Movement during the Reign of Nicholas I
and the First Part of the Reign of Alexander II 28

Student-circles in the University of Moscow — Hertzen's Circle —
Stankevitch's Circle — The "educational" policy of Nicholas I —
The effect of the French Revolution of 1848 on the Russian
"intelligentsia" — Bielinsky, the "Annals of the Fatherland" and
the "Contemporary - ' — The Buturlin Committee — Censorship
measures — The Petrashevsky Circle and F. M. Dostoievsky- —
The War with Turkey in 1853 — Spreading of revolutionary senti-
ment among the conservative elements and the masses — Death of
Nicholas I.

The beginning of the reign of Alexander II — The reform move-
ment — Alexander Hertzen and his "Bell" — The emancipation of the
serfs in 1861 — Disturbances among the peasantry — The movement
in the University of Kazan — The movement among the nobility
of the Province of Tver — Peter Kropotkin's characterization of
Alexander II — The movement in commercial and industrial circles
— Growth of revolutionary spirit among "intelligentsia" — Cherny-
shevsky's arrest — Karakozov's attempt on life of Alexander II —
Governmental repressions — Count Dmitri Tolstoy and his educa-
tional policy — Repressions against the press.

The Revolutionary and Liberal Movement during the Latter
Part of the Reign of Alexander II 41

The Narodnichestvo — Disturbances in the Universities — M. A. Ba-
kuniii — Circle of Tchaykovsky — Kropotkin on the Tchaykovsky
Circle — The revolutionary center in Zurich — P. L. Lavrov and M.
A. Bakunin — The movement "V narod" (To the people) — The
society "Land and Freedom" — The demonstration before the Kazan
Cathedral in December, 1876 — Plekhanov's speech — War with Tur-
key — The inefficiency of the bureaucracy — Governmental persecu-
tions and terror — Revolutionary terror — Vera Zasulich — Assassina-
tion of Gen. Mezentzov — Assassination of Prince Dmitri Kropotkin
— The Zemstvo movement — I. I. Petrunkevitch's speech in the
Chernigov Zemstvo— Split in the "Land and Freedom" — Congress
at Lipetsk — Congress at Voronezh — New Parties: "Black Reparti-
tion" and "Will of the People" — Formation of the "Executive
Committee" — Attempts on the life of Alexander II — Dictatorship
of Loris-MelikofF — Assassination of Alexander II.

H. A. Lopatin — A typical Russian Revolutionist of the

Sixties -. . 61

Lopatin's college days — His debut as a revolutionist — Arrest and exile —
Second arrest — Trial — Escape — His life in Switzerland — His return
to Russia — Trip to Siberia in search of Chernyshevsky — His arrest
— His sudden escape — His life in Zurich — His arrest upon return to
Russia — His escape from the Vologda prison — The assassination of
Soudeykin — Lopatin's arrest — The trial — Imprisonment in the
Schliisselburg fortress — His liberation in 1905.


The Reaction during the Reign of Alexander III. 69

The conference of March 4, 1881 — Pobiedonostzev's speech and victory
— Manifesto of April 29, 1881 — Change of Ministry — Decided re-
actionary course — Degaiev's treachery — Arrest of the remnant of
the "Will of the People" — Annihilation of previous judiciary re-
forms — Religious and race persecutions — Measures against non-
orthodox sects — Measures against Poles and Jews — Measures
against the press.


The Revolutionary and Liberal Movement during the Early
Years of the Reign of Nicholas II 75

Revived hope in liberal circles — Zemstvos' delegations — Address of
the Tver Zemstvo — Tzar's answer to the "senseless dreams" —
Disappointment among the liberals — The open letter from the
revolutionists abroad — Pobiedonostzev's and Von Plehve's policy
— Founding of the Union of Liberation — The excommunication of
Leo Tolstoy — Persecutions of Jews — Pogroms — Measures against
the Georgians and Armenians — Confiscation of Armenian Church-
lands and Church-funds.

Development of capitalism in Russia — Growth of city proletariat —
Group for the Emancipation of Labor — Russian Social-Democratic
Workingmen's Party — Witte's policy towards labor — The strike
in Odessa — The Party of Socialists-Revolutionists — Its Fighting


The Activities of the Fighting Organization of the Party of
Socialists-Revolutionists 81

Assassination of the Minister of Education, Bogolepev — Peter Karpo-
vich — Assassination of the Minister of Interior, Sypiagin — Stepan
Balmashev — His execution — Assassination of the Governor of Ufa,
Bogdanovich — Grigory Gershuni — Story of his life — His trial —
His escape from Siberia — Assassination of the Minister of Interior,
Yon Plehve — E. Sazonov.

The Beginning of the Revolution of 1905 — Bloody Sunday. .94

War with Japan — Assassination of Von Plehve — Prince Sviatopolk-
Mirs_ky — Congress of Ze-ststvos — Pobiedonostzev's influence — New
tide of reaction — Bloody Sunday — Gapon's letters to the Minister
of Interior and to the Tzar — The demands of the workingmen —
Shooting on the people — Gapon's new letter to the Tzar and appeal
to the Russian Socialist Parties.

The Rising Tide of Revolution 106

Spread of disturbances and - strikes throughout the country —
Martial law in Poland, the Caucasus and over all railroads — As-
sassination of Grand Duke Serghei Alexandrovich — Ivan Kaliaiev —
The activities of the Social-Democrats and Socialists-Revolution-
ists — The Peasants' Movement — The activities of the Liberals —
Congress of Zemstvos in Moscow — Deputation to the Tzar-
Prince Trubetskoy's speech — The Tzar's answer — The spread of
Revolution — Mutiny on the Battleship Potiomkin.


On the Crest of the Revolution of 1905 114

The Manifesto of August 3rd — Second Congress of Zemstvos —
October. 1905 — First General Political Strike — Manifesto of
October 17th — Massacres of Jews and "intelligentsia" — The or-
ganization of the Council of Workmen's Delegates in St. Petersburg
— Mutiny in Kronstadt — The movement for autonomy in Poland —
Second General Political Strike — Third Congress of Zemstvos —
Split among the Liberals — Organization of the Party of Octobrists
— The weakening- of the Revolution — Arrest of the President of
the Council of Workmen's Delegates — Arrest of the Central Com-
mittee of the Peasants' Union — Martial law in St. Petersburg —
Arrest of the Council of Workmen's Delegates — The Third General
Political Strike — The coming reaction.


Zinaida Konopliannikova and Maria Spiridonova. 124

The armed uprising in Moscow in December, 1905 — Punitive expedi-
tions — Assassination of General Alien — Zinaida Konopliannikova —
Story of her life — Her speech at the trial — Her execution — Maria
Spiridonova — The shooting of Lujenovsky— Her arrest and torture.


y The First and the Second Duma 136

The Government's reactionary measures before the convocation of
the First Duma — Socialists' boycott of the First Duma — Constitu-
tional-Democrats' control of the First Duma — Reforms de-
manded by the First Duma — The dissolution of the First Duma —
The Viborg Manifesto — Elections to the Second Duma — Socialists'
factions in the Second Duma — The Government's policy towards
the Second Duma — The dissolution of the Second Duma — The re-
actionary policy of the Tzar's Government.

The Coming of the Second Revolution 157

The social classes, participants in the First Revolution — Their needs —
The defeat of the First Revolution — Its causes — The reaction of
1906-1910 — The breaking of the reactionary wave — The coming
of the Second Revolution — Great strike in St. Petersburg on the
eve of war — The declaration of war — The change in Socialist tac-
tics — The joint Socialist: Manifesto to the Russian laboring masses.

Part II

The Spiritual Leaders of the
Russian Revolution


Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin 171

Mikhail Bakunin's early, years — Polish Rebellion of 1830 — First
" feelings of hatred for despotism — Friendship with Stankevitch
and Bielinsky — Life abroad — Meeting with Karl Marx, Engels
and Proudhon — Expulsion from France — Hertzen's characteriza-
tion of Bakunin's life in Paris — Bakunin in Germany — Expulsion
from Prussia and Saxony — Participation in the German Revolu-
tion — Bakunin's arrest in Saxony — Death sentence and extradition
to Austria — Again death sentence and extradition to Russia —
Bakunin in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul — Nicholas I,
about Bakunin — Bakunin in the Fortress of Schliisselburg — Baku-
nin in Siberia — His escape from Siberia — His life abroad — The
organization of the "International Union of Social Democracy" —
'Franco-Prussian War — Bakunin's activities in France — The ap-
proach of old age — Bakunin's farewell letter to his comrades —
Prince Kropotkin, about Bakunin.


Peter Lavrovich Lavrov ISO

Lavrov's life and work before his arrest — Incarceration in the Military-
Prison of St. Petersburg — Banishment to Vologda — The escape
abroad — Joining the International — "Historic Letters" — Editing
the "Vperiod" — Lavrov's scientific work — Editing the "Yiestnik
Narodnoy Voli" — Lavrov as recognized leader of the Russian "in-
telligentsia — Tchaykovsky, about Lavrov — The last years of Lav-
rov's life.

Peter Alexeyevich Kropotkin 187

Kropotkin's childhood — School days and preparation for a Court
career — First acquaintance with revolutionary ideas — Life at
Court — Scientific studies — Life in Siberia — Research work —
Return to St. Petersburg — Studies at the University — The turning
point in Kropotkin's life — Revolutionary activities — Life in Switzer-
land — Affiliation with the International Workingmen's Association
— Propaganda among the workers in the Jura Mountains — Return
to Petrograd — Affiliation with the Tchaykovsky Circle — Arrest in
1874 — Escape — The assassination of Alexander II — The Holy
League — Kropotkin's exile from Switzerland — Kropotkin's arrest
in connection with the uprising of the weavers of Lyons in 1882 —
Work and impressions in prison — Release from prison in 1886 —
"Mutual Aid" — Return to Russia in 1917 — Stand on the war —
Speech before the National Conference in Moscow.


Ekaterina Constantinovna Breshko-Breshkovskaya 201

Breshkovskaya's parents — Early education — First activities as a revo-
lutionist and propagandist — Arrest — Trial — Her term as hard labor
convict — Exile to Siberia — Unsuccessful attempt at escape — Second
term as haxd labor convict in the Kara mines — Hunger strike —
George Kennan, about the "Grandmother of the Russian Revolu-
tion" — Her return to Central Russia in 1896 — Affiliation with the
Party of Socialists -Revolution ists — Stay in the United States in
1904 — Return tcTTRussia — Arrest in 1907 — Preliminary confinement
in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul— Exile to Siberia — Liberation
in 1917 — Breshkovskaya's message to America.

George Valentinovich Plekhanov 216

Association with the Party of the "Will of the People" — Escape from
arrest — Affiliation with' "Land and Freedom" — First literary works
— Propaganda among the workers — Secession from the Partv of
the "Will of the People" — Forced trip abroad — Study of scientific
socialism — Plekhanov's role as founder of the Group for the
Emancipation of Labor — His contributions to Socialist literature —
Controversy with the "Will of the People — Literary works — Atti-
tude towards the Bolsheviki — Works on the history of the develop-
ment of Russian political thought — Plekhanov's stand on the pres-
ent war — The Socialist manifesto to the working people of Russia —
Plekhanov as the future leader of the Russian Democracy.

Part III
The Birth of the Russian Democracy

The March Revolution 227

The beginning of the March Revolution — The Tzar's abdication —
Formation of Provisional Government — Duma's part in the first
days of the Revolution — Formation of the Council of Workmen's
and Soldiers' Delegates — First declaration of the Provisional Gov-
ernment — Abolition of religious and national restrictions and the
granting of civil liberties to all Russian citizens — First official
notice of the Revolution to the foreign Powers — Foreign policv of
the first Provisional Government as outlined by Miliukov — Domes-
tic policy of the Provisional Government — Liberation of the op-
pressed nationalities — Finnish autonomy — Appeal to the Poles —
Extension of equal rights to the Jews — Recognition of the Pro-
visional Government by the United States — Recognition by other
Allied countries.


The Economic Program of the Provisional Government. . .256

The economic program of the first Provisional Government as the
inevitable program of Russia's future economic development — A. I.
Konovalov's speech before the Moscow Stock Exchange on April
4, 1917 — Two fundamental problems, before New Russia — The rela-
tion of the Provisional Government to capital and labor — Russia's
need of foreign capital — American-Russian rapprochement — Con-
struction of a merchant marine — The necessity for a thorough
study of Russia's national resources and their development —
Development of the mining industry — Nationalization of under-
ground riches — Measures concerning the reorganization of industry
and its restoration to normal pre-war basis — Cooperation of th
people, essential factor in carrying out reforms.



The First Crisis — The Resignation of A. I. Guchkov and
P. N. Miliukov 272

Breach between Provisional Government and Petrograd Council of
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Miliukov's communication to
the Allied Powers — Attitude of the Council of Workmen's and
Soldiers' Delegates — Guchkov's and Miliukov's resignation.

The Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates
and its relation to the War 275

Resolution to call' International Socialist Conference — Skobelev's
speech — Appeal to the Socialists of all countries — Appeal to the
Socialists of the Allied countries — Appeal to the Socialists of the
Austro-German Alliance — Appeal to the workingmen and Social-
ists of the neutral countries — Tseretelli's speech — Appeal to the

The Convention of Delegates from the Front 283

Guchkov's speech — Kerensky's speech — Tseretelli's speech — Guchkov's
second speech — Plekhanov's speech — Sailor Batkin's speech — His
answer to the Bolsheviki — Resolution adopted by the Convention.

The First All-Russian Congress of Peasants' Delegates. . .305

S. S. Maslov's speech — Breshko-Breshkovskaya's speech — Chernov's
speech — N. D. Avksentiev's speech — Chernov's second speech —
— Kerensky's speech — Dr. Smirnov's speech — Bunakov's speech —
Col. Jakubovich's speech — Resolutions adopted by the Congress —
Appeal to the people — Executive Committee of the Congress.

The Middle Class in its Relation to the War and to the Re-
construction of Russia 327

Private sessions of the Duma — Guchkov's speech — Miliukov's speech —
Maklakov's speech — Rodzianko's statement — The All-Russian Con-
gress of Officers' Delegates — Gushchin's speech — Steklov's speech —
Shidlovsky's speech — Greetings from Allied nations — Agnieev's and
Batkin's speeches — Kerensky's speech — Resolution regarding the
war — Resolution regarding internal conditions of the Army.

The Second Cabinet 346

Guchkov's and Miliukov's resignation — The Government crisis — De-
cision of the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Dele-
gates to participate in Government — Declaration of the new Cabi-
net — Troteky's opposition to a Coalition Cabinet — Resolution of
the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Vote of confidence in the Government — Trotsky's speech at the
All-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Tseretelli's speech — Kamenev's speech — Resolution adopted by the


Allied Labor and Socialist Leaders and their Relation to the
Russian Revolution 356

Visit of representatives of Allied Labor and Socialist Movement to
Russia — Samuel Gompers' appeal to the Petrograd Cpuncil of
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Emile Vandervelde's state-
ment — Labriola's speech — Albert Thomas' speech at the Confer-
ence of Executive Committee of the All-Russian Council of Work-
men's and Soldiers' Delegates — Thomas' address at a meeting of
officers of the Moscow garrison — Thomas' speech^ before the gen-
eral meeting of the Moscow Council of Soldiers' Delegates— His
final statement— Arthur Henderson's speech before the Executive
Committee of the Council of Workman's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Henderson's speech before English colony in Moscow— Hender-
son^ speech before Executive Committee of Moscow Council' of
W orkmen and Soldiers' Delegates.

The American Mission to Russia 377

Personnel of Special American Mission to Russia — President Wilson's
note to Russia — President Wilson's statement on the aims of
American Mission to Russia — Senator Root's address before Rus-
sian Provisional Government — Terestchenko's reply — The activities
of the American Mission — Tames Duncan at the All-Russian Con-
gress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Tscheidze's reply —
Charles Edward Russell at the conference of the Council of Work-
men's and Soldiers' Delegates — The return of the Mission to the
United States — Senator Root's address at reception tendered by
City of New York — Senator Root's speech before Chamber of
Commerce of the State of New York — The achievements of the


The Russian Mission to the United States .391

Arrival of the Russian Mission — Personnel of the Mission — Ambassa-
dor Bakhmeteff's speech at presentation of credentials — President
Wilson's reply — Ambassador Bakhmeteff's statement to the press
— Address before the House of Representatives — Address before
the Senate.

On the Eve of the Offensive 405

Kerensky's part in the preparation of the offensive — Attitude of the
All-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Attitude of the All-Russian Cossacks' Congress — Attitude of the
Duma — Kerensky's order to the Army — Polemics between Lenine
and Kerensky.


The Great Crisis— July, 1917 416

The disaster in the Army — Prince Lvov's resignation — Changes in the
Cabinet — Appeal to the Army — Gen. Kornilov's appeal to. the
troops — Resolution of Executive Committee of All-Russian Coun-
cils of Workmen's, Soldiers' and Peasants' Delegates — Appeal to
the Arm}- — Restoration of capital punishment — Principal causes
of disaster in the Army — Ukrainian problem — The policy of the
Provisional Government towards the Ukraine — Appeal of the All-
Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates regarding
the Bolshevist agitation — First Bolsheviki revolt — Its suppression
— Declaration of the new Cabinet.

The National Conference in Moscow 434

Chernov's resignation— New Governmental crisis — The National Con-
ference — Its composition and competence — President Wilson's mes-
sage to the National Conference — Kerensky's speech — Nekrasov's
speech — General Kornilov's speech — General Kaledine's speech —
Tscheidze's speech — Guchkov's speech — Tseretelli's speech —
Boublikov's speech — Breshko-Breshkovskaya's speech — Peter Kro-
potkin's speech — Plekhanov's speech — Kerensky's concluding

The Fall of Riga and Kornilov's Revolt 475

Riga's fall — Its cause and effect — Kornilov's revolt — Kerensky's state-
ment — Kornilov's telegram to the Central Naval Committee —
Telegram sent by Provisional Government — Kerensky's order to
the Troops of Petrograd — Order to the Cossacks — His order to the
entire Army — Order to the Railway Workers — Kornilov's arrest —
Russia proclaimed a-,Republic — V. N. Lvov's part in Kornilov's re-
volt — Gen. Kornilov's telegram to Kerensky and to Gen. Brusilov
— Kornilov's telegram to Kerensky on having been appointed
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armies — Kornilov's farewell
order to the troops of the Southwestern Front.

The Democratic Conference and the Preliminary Parlia-
ment 486

Composition of the Democratic Conference — New Coalition Cabinet —
Its declaration — Preliminary Parliament — Attitude of Bolsheviki
towards Preliminary Parliament — Kerensky's last speech.


Russia under the Rule of the Bolsheviki 494

Last act of Preliminary Parliament — Role of Petrograd garrison in
Bolsheviki revolt — Overthrow of the Provisional Government —
The Bolsheviki Cabinet — Origin of the Bolsheviki movement —
Cause of the Bolsheviki success — Attitude of moderate Socialist
leaders towards the Bolsheviki — The part played by the Bolsheviki
in Revolution of 1905 — Activities of the Bolsheviki in period of re-
action — Character of the Bolsheviki rule — Foreign policy of the
Bolsheviki — Domestic policy of the Bolsheviki — Attitude of the
majority of Russian people toward the Bolsheviki at the moment
of the revolt — Attitude of peasantry — Manifestoes of Executive
Committee of All-Russian Council of Peasants' Delegates — Reso-
lution and proclamation of the Central Committee of the Party of
Socialists-Revolutionists — Appeal of the Petrograd Committee of
the Social-Democratic Party — Appeal of university students —
Maxim Gorky's stand on the Bolsheviki revolt — Lenine, on the
political parties in Russia — The evolution of Bolshevism — The
national problem in Russia — The Ukrainian problem — Siberia and
the Caucasus — The Cossack movement — The Provisional Govern-
ment and the Constituent Assembly — The Bolsheviki and the Con-
stituent Assembly — The disbandment of the Constituent Assembly
— The appeal of the Socialists-Revolutionists — Laws and resolu-
tions passed by the Constituent Assembly — Conclusion.

List of Illustrations


Decembrists 19

Pestel, P 21

Kakhovsky, P 21

Ryleiev, K 23

Muraviov, S 23

Stankevitch, N. V 28

Bielinsky, Vissarion 31

Turgeniev, I. S 33

Dostoievsky, T. M 33

Hertzen, Alexander 35

Kropotkin, Prince Peter 36

Chernyshevsky, N. J 39

Bakunin, Mikhail 43

Tchaykovsky, Nicholay 45

Morozov, Nicholay 47

Lavro.y* Peter 48

Plekhanov, George 50

Zasulich, Vera 52

Zheliabov, A. 1 56

Perovskaya, Sophia 57

Mikhailov, T. M 57

Kibaltich, N. 1 57

Grinevitsky, N. 1 57

Lopatin, H. A 61

Figner, Vera 71

Volkenstein, L. A 73

Mikhailovsky, N. C 79

Balmashev, Stepan . .. 83

Karpovich, Peter 84

Gershuni, Grigory 87

"Revolutionary Russia" 89

Savinkov, Boris V 91

Gapon, Father 94

Sazonov, E 95

Sazonov, E. ...,._. 96

Kaliaiev, Ivan ..107

Kaliaiev, Ivan 109

Schmidt, Lieut. Peter P.. 119

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