A. J. (Arkady Joseph) Sack.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




The Birth of the
Russian Democracy



323^



A. J. SACK



Director of the Russian Information Bureau
in the United States



Russian Information Bureau

Woolworth Building

New York City



Z\S^7



Copyright. 1918,

by

A. J. Sack






CONTENTS



Part I

The History of the Revolutionary Movement

in Russia

CHAPTER I

The Decembrists — The First Russian Revolutionists 19

The founding of the first Russian revolutionary organizations after
the Napoleonic War — Pavel Pestel — "Union of Salvation - ' — Its
aim — Mikhail Muraviov — "Union of Welfare" — Its aims — Mutiny
in the Semionovsky Regiment in 1820 — "Society of United Slavs'' —
The "Northern Society - ' — Its Constitution — The "Southern So-
ciety's" Constitution — The uprising of December 14, 1825 — The trial
of the Decembrists — Executions and prison sentences — The find-
ings of the Investigating Committee.

CHAPTER II
The Revolutionary Movement during the Reign of Nicholas I
and the First Part of the Reign of Alexander II 28

Student-circles in the University of Moscow — Hertzen's Circle —
Stankevitch's Circle — The "educational" policy of Nicholas I —
The effect of the French Revolution of 1848 on the Russian
"intelligentsia" — Bielinsky, the "Annals of the Fatherland" and
the "Contemporary - ' — The Buturlin Committee — Censorship
measures — The Petrashevsky Circle and F. M. Dostoievsky- —
The War with Turkey in 1853 — Spreading of revolutionary senti-
ment among the conservative elements and the masses — Death of
Nicholas I.

The beginning of the reign of Alexander II — The reform move-
ment — Alexander Hertzen and his "Bell" — The emancipation of the
serfs in 1861 — Disturbances among the peasantry — The movement
in the University of Kazan — The movement among the nobility
of the Province of Tver — Peter Kropotkin's characterization of
Alexander II — The movement in commercial and industrial circles
— Growth of revolutionary spirit among "intelligentsia" — Cherny-
shevsky's arrest — Karakozov's attempt on life of Alexander II —
Governmental repressions — Count Dmitri Tolstoy and his educa-
tional policy — Repressions against the press.



CHAPTER III
The Revolutionary and Liberal Movement during the Latter
Part of the Reign of Alexander II 41

The Narodnichestvo — Disturbances in the Universities — M. A. Ba-
kuniii — Circle of Tchaykovsky — Kropotkin on the Tchaykovsky
Circle — The revolutionary center in Zurich — P. L. Lavrov and M.
A. Bakunin — The movement "V narod" (To the people) — The
society "Land and Freedom" — The demonstration before the Kazan
Cathedral in December, 1876 — Plekhanov's speech — War with Tur-
key — The inefficiency of the bureaucracy — Governmental persecu-
tions and terror — Revolutionary terror — Vera Zasulich — Assassina-
tion of Gen. Mezentzov — Assassination of Prince Dmitri Kropotkin
— The Zemstvo movement — I. I. Petrunkevitch's speech in the
Chernigov Zemstvo— Split in the "Land and Freedom" — Congress
at Lipetsk — Congress at Voronezh — New Parties: "Black Reparti-
tion" and "Will of the People" — Formation of the "Executive
Committee" — Attempts on the life of Alexander II — Dictatorship
of Loris-MelikofF — Assassination of Alexander II.

CHAPTER IV
H. A. Lopatin — A typical Russian Revolutionist of the

Sixties -. . 61

Lopatin's college days — His debut as a revolutionist — Arrest and exile —
Second arrest — Trial — Escape — His life in Switzerland — His return
to Russia — Trip to Siberia in search of Chernyshevsky — His arrest
— His sudden escape — His life in Zurich — His arrest upon return to
Russia — His escape from the Vologda prison — The assassination of
Soudeykin — Lopatin's arrest — The trial — Imprisonment in the
Schliisselburg fortress — His liberation in 1905.

CHAPTER V

The Reaction during the Reign of Alexander III. 69

The conference of March 4, 1881 — Pobiedonostzev's speech and victory
— Manifesto of April 29, 1881 — Change of Ministry — Decided re-
actionary course — Degaiev's treachery — Arrest of the remnant of
the "Will of the People" — Annihilation of previous judiciary re-
forms — Religious and race persecutions — Measures against non-
orthodox sects — Measures against Poles and Jews — Measures
against the press.

CHAPTER VI

The Revolutionary and Liberal Movement during the Early
Years of the Reign of Nicholas II 75

Revived hope in liberal circles — Zemstvos' delegations — Address of
the Tver Zemstvo — Tzar's answer to the "senseless dreams" —
Disappointment among the liberals — The open letter from the
revolutionists abroad — Pobiedonostzev's and Von Plehve's policy
— Founding of the Union of Liberation — The excommunication of
Leo Tolstoy — Persecutions of Jews — Pogroms — Measures against
the Georgians and Armenians — Confiscation of Armenian Church-
lands and Church-funds.



Development of capitalism in Russia — Growth of city proletariat —
Group for the Emancipation of Labor — Russian Social-Democratic
Workingmen's Party — Witte's policy towards labor — The strike
in Odessa — The Party of Socialists-Revolutionists — Its Fighting
Organization.

CHAPTER VII

The Activities of the Fighting Organization of the Party of
Socialists-Revolutionists 81

Assassination of the Minister of Education, Bogolepev — Peter Karpo-
vich — Assassination of the Minister of Interior, Sypiagin — Stepan
Balmashev — His execution — Assassination of the Governor of Ufa,
Bogdanovich — Grigory Gershuni — Story of his life — His trial —
His escape from Siberia — Assassination of the Minister of Interior,
Yon Plehve — E. Sazonov.



CHAPTER VIII
The Beginning of the Revolution of 1905 — Bloody Sunday. .94

War with Japan — Assassination of Von Plehve — Prince Sviatopolk-
Mirs_ky — Congress of Ze-ststvos — Pobiedonostzev's influence — New
tide of reaction — Bloody Sunday — Gapon's letters to the Minister
of Interior and to the Tzar — The demands of the workingmen —
Shooting on the people — Gapon's new letter to the Tzar and appeal
to the Russian Socialist Parties.

CHAPTER IX'
The Rising Tide of Revolution 106

Spread of disturbances and - strikes throughout the country —
Martial law in Poland, the Caucasus and over all railroads — As-
sassination of Grand Duke Serghei Alexandrovich — Ivan Kaliaiev —
The activities of the Social-Democrats and Socialists-Revolution-
ists — The Peasants' Movement — The activities of the Liberals —
Congress of Zemstvos in Moscow — Deputation to the Tzar-
Prince Trubetskoy's speech — The Tzar's answer — The spread of
Revolution — Mutiny on the Battleship Potiomkin.

CHAPTER X

On the Crest of the Revolution of 1905 114

The Manifesto of August 3rd — Second Congress of Zemstvos —
October. 1905 — First General Political Strike — Manifesto of
October 17th — Massacres of Jews and "intelligentsia" — The or-
ganization of the Council of Workmen's Delegates in St. Petersburg
— Mutiny in Kronstadt — The movement for autonomy in Poland —
Second General Political Strike — Third Congress of Zemstvos —
Split among the Liberals — Organization of the Party of Octobrists
— The weakening- of the Revolution — Arrest of the President of
the Council of Workmen's Delegates — Arrest of the Central Com-
mittee of the Peasants' Union — Martial law in St. Petersburg —
Arrest of the Council of Workmen's Delegates — The Third General
Political Strike — The coming reaction.



CHAPTER XI

Zinaida Konopliannikova and Maria Spiridonova. 124

The armed uprising in Moscow in December, 1905 — Punitive expedi-
tions — Assassination of General Alien — Zinaida Konopliannikova —
Story of her life — Her speech at the trial — Her execution — Maria
Spiridonova — The shooting of Lujenovsky— Her arrest and torture.

CHAPTER XII

y The First and the Second Duma 136

The Government's reactionary measures before the convocation of
the First Duma — Socialists' boycott of the First Duma — Constitu-
tional-Democrats' control of the First Duma — Reforms de-
manded by the First Duma — The dissolution of the First Duma —
The Viborg Manifesto — Elections to the Second Duma — Socialists'
factions in the Second Duma — The Government's policy towards
the Second Duma — The dissolution of the Second Duma — The re-
actionary policy of the Tzar's Government.

CHAPTER XIII
The Coming of the Second Revolution 157

The social classes, participants in the First Revolution — Their needs —
The defeat of the First Revolution — Its causes — The reaction of
1906-1910 — The breaking of the reactionary wave — The coming
of the Second Revolution — Great strike in St. Petersburg on the
eve of war — The declaration of war — The change in Socialist tac-
tics — The joint Socialist: Manifesto to the Russian laboring masses.



Part II

The Spiritual Leaders of the
Russian Revolution

CHAPTER I

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin 171

Mikhail Bakunin's early, years — Polish Rebellion of 1830 — First
" feelings of hatred for despotism — Friendship with Stankevitch
and Bielinsky — Life abroad — Meeting with Karl Marx, Engels
and Proudhon — Expulsion from France — Hertzen's characteriza-
tion of Bakunin's life in Paris — Bakunin in Germany — Expulsion
from Prussia and Saxony — Participation in the German Revolu-
tion — Bakunin's arrest in Saxony — Death sentence and extradition
to Austria — Again death sentence and extradition to Russia —
Bakunin in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul — Nicholas I,
about Bakunin — Bakunin in the Fortress of Schliisselburg — Baku-
nin in Siberia — His escape from Siberia — His life abroad — The
organization of the "International Union of Social Democracy" —
'Franco-Prussian War — Bakunin's activities in France — The ap-
proach of old age — Bakunin's farewell letter to his comrades —
Prince Kropotkin, about Bakunin.



CHAPTER II

Peter Lavrovich Lavrov ISO

Lavrov's life and work before his arrest — Incarceration in the Military-
Prison of St. Petersburg — Banishment to Vologda — The escape
abroad — Joining the International — "Historic Letters" — Editing
the "Vperiod" — Lavrov's scientific work — Editing the "Yiestnik
Narodnoy Voli" — Lavrov as recognized leader of the Russian "in-
telligentsia — Tchaykovsky, about Lavrov — The last years of Lav-
rov's life.

CHAPTER III
Peter Alexeyevich Kropotkin 187

Kropotkin's childhood — School days and preparation for a Court
career — First acquaintance with revolutionary ideas — Life at
Court — Scientific studies — Life in Siberia — Research work —
Return to St. Petersburg — Studies at the University — The turning
point in Kropotkin's life — Revolutionary activities — Life in Switzer-
land — Affiliation with the International Workingmen's Association
— Propaganda among the workers in the Jura Mountains — Return
to Petrograd — Affiliation with the Tchaykovsky Circle — Arrest in
1874 — Escape — The assassination of Alexander II — The Holy
League — Kropotkin's exile from Switzerland — Kropotkin's arrest
in connection with the uprising of the weavers of Lyons in 1882 —
Work and impressions in prison — Release from prison in 1886 —
"Mutual Aid" — Return to Russia in 1917 — Stand on the war —
Speech before the National Conference in Moscow.

CHAPTER IV

Ekaterina Constantinovna Breshko-Breshkovskaya 201

Breshkovskaya's parents — Early education — First activities as a revo-
lutionist and propagandist — Arrest — Trial — Her term as hard labor
convict — Exile to Siberia — Unsuccessful attempt at escape — Second
term as haxd labor convict in the Kara mines — Hunger strike —
George Kennan, about the "Grandmother of the Russian Revolu-
tion" — Her return to Central Russia in 1896 — Affiliation with the
Party of Socialists -Revolution ists — Stay in the United States in
1904 — Return tcTTRussia — Arrest in 1907 — Preliminary confinement
in the Fortress of St. Peter and Paul— Exile to Siberia — Liberation
in 1917 — Breshkovskaya's message to America.

CHAPTER V
George Valentinovich Plekhanov 216

Association with the Party of the "Will of the People" — Escape from
arrest — Affiliation with' "Land and Freedom" — First literary works
— Propaganda among the workers — Secession from the Partv of
the "Will of the People" — Forced trip abroad — Study of scientific
socialism — Plekhanov's role as founder of the Group for the
Emancipation of Labor — His contributions to Socialist literature —
Controversy with the "Will of the People — Literary works — Atti-
tude towards the Bolsheviki — Works on the history of the develop-
ment of Russian political thought — Plekhanov's stand on the pres-
ent war — The Socialist manifesto to the working people of Russia —
Plekhanov as the future leader of the Russian Democracy.



Part III
The Birth of the Russian Democracy

CHAPTER I
The March Revolution 227

The beginning of the March Revolution — The Tzar's abdication —
Formation of Provisional Government — Duma's part in the first
days of the Revolution — Formation of the Council of Workmen's
and Soldiers' Delegates — First declaration of the Provisional Gov-
ernment — Abolition of religious and national restrictions and the
granting of civil liberties to all Russian citizens — First official
notice of the Revolution to the foreign Powers — Foreign policv of
the first Provisional Government as outlined by Miliukov — Domes-
tic policy of the Provisional Government — Liberation of the op-
pressed nationalities — Finnish autonomy — Appeal to the Poles —
Extension of equal rights to the Jews — Recognition of the Pro-
visional Government by the United States — Recognition by other
Allied countries.

CHAPTER II

The Economic Program of the Provisional Government. . .256

The economic program of the first Provisional Government as the
inevitable program of Russia's future economic development — A. I.
Konovalov's speech before the Moscow Stock Exchange on April
4, 1917 — Two fundamental problems, before New Russia — The rela-
tion of the Provisional Government to capital and labor — Russia's
need of foreign capital — American-Russian rapprochement — Con-
struction of a merchant marine — The necessity for a thorough
study of Russia's national resources and their development —
Development of the mining industry — Nationalization of under-
ground riches — Measures concerning the reorganization of industry
and its restoration to normal pre-war basis — Cooperation of th
people, essential factor in carrying out reforms.



e



CHAPTER III

The First Crisis — The Resignation of A. I. Guchkov and
P. N. Miliukov 272

Breach between Provisional Government and Petrograd Council of
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Miliukov's communication to
the Allied Powers — Attitude of the Council of Workmen's and
Soldiers' Delegates — Guchkov's and Miliukov's resignation.

CHAPTER IV
The Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates
and its relation to the War 275

Resolution to call' International Socialist Conference — Skobelev's
speech — Appeal to the Socialists of all countries — Appeal to the
Socialists of the Allied countries — Appeal to the Socialists of the
Austro-German Alliance — Appeal to the workingmen and Social-
ists of the neutral countries — Tseretelli's speech — Appeal to the
Army.



CHAPTER V
The Convention of Delegates from the Front 283

Guchkov's speech — Kerensky's speech — Tseretelli's speech — Guchkov's
second speech — Plekhanov's speech — Sailor Batkin's speech — His
answer to the Bolsheviki — Resolution adopted by the Convention.

CHAPTER VI
The First All-Russian Congress of Peasants' Delegates. . .305

S. S. Maslov's speech — Breshko-Breshkovskaya's speech — Chernov's
speech — N. D. Avksentiev's speech — Chernov's second speech —
— Kerensky's speech — Dr. Smirnov's speech — Bunakov's speech —
Col. Jakubovich's speech — Resolutions adopted by the Congress —
Appeal to the people — Executive Committee of the Congress.

CHAPTER VII
The Middle Class in its Relation to the War and to the Re-
construction of Russia 327

Private sessions of the Duma — Guchkov's speech — Miliukov's speech —
Maklakov's speech — Rodzianko's statement — The All-Russian Con-
gress of Officers' Delegates — Gushchin's speech — Steklov's speech —
Shidlovsky's speech — Greetings from Allied nations — Agnieev's and
Batkin's speeches — Kerensky's speech — Resolution regarding the
war — Resolution regarding internal conditions of the Army.

CHAPTER VIII
The Second Cabinet 346

Guchkov's and Miliukov's resignation — The Government crisis — De-
cision of the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Dele-
gates to participate in Government — Declaration of the new Cabi-
net — Troteky's opposition to a Coalition Cabinet — Resolution of
the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Vote of confidence in the Government — Trotsky's speech at the
All-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Tseretelli's speech — Kamenev's speech — Resolution adopted by the
Congress.

CHAPTER IX

Allied Labor and Socialist Leaders and their Relation to the
Russian Revolution 356

Visit of representatives of Allied Labor and Socialist Movement to
Russia — Samuel Gompers' appeal to the Petrograd Cpuncil of
Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Emile Vandervelde's state-
ment — Labriola's speech — Albert Thomas' speech at the Confer-
ence of Executive Committee of the All-Russian Council of Work-
men's and Soldiers' Delegates — Thomas' address at a meeting of
officers of the Moscow garrison — Thomas' speech^ before the gen-
eral meeting of the Moscow Council of Soldiers' Delegates— His
final statement— Arthur Henderson's speech before the Executive
Committee of the Council of Workman's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Henderson's speech before English colony in Moscow— Hender-
son^ speech before Executive Committee of Moscow Council' of
W orkmen and Soldiers' Delegates.



CHAPTER X
The American Mission to Russia 377

Personnel of Special American Mission to Russia — President Wilson's
note to Russia — President Wilson's statement on the aims of
American Mission to Russia — Senator Root's address before Rus-
sian Provisional Government — Terestchenko's reply — The activities
of the American Mission — Tames Duncan at the All-Russian Con-
gress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates — Tscheidze's reply —
Charles Edward Russell at the conference of the Council of Work-
men's and Soldiers' Delegates — The return of the Mission to the
United States — Senator Root's address at reception tendered by
City of New York — Senator Root's speech before Chamber of
Commerce of the State of New York — The achievements of the
Mission.

CHAPTER XI

The Russian Mission to the United States .391

Arrival of the Russian Mission — Personnel of the Mission — Ambassa-
dor Bakhmeteff's speech at presentation of credentials — President
Wilson's reply — Ambassador Bakhmeteff's statement to the press
— Address before the House of Representatives — Address before
the Senate.

CHAPTER XII
On the Eve of the Offensive 405

Kerensky's part in the preparation of the offensive — Attitude of the
All-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates —
Attitude of the All-Russian Cossacks' Congress — Attitude of the
Duma — Kerensky's order to the Army — Polemics between Lenine
and Kerensky.

CHAPTER XIII

The Great Crisis— July, 1917 416

The disaster in the Army — Prince Lvov's resignation — Changes in the
Cabinet — Appeal to the Army — Gen. Kornilov's appeal to. the
troops — Resolution of Executive Committee of All-Russian Coun-
cils of Workmen's, Soldiers' and Peasants' Delegates — Appeal to
the Arm}- — Restoration of capital punishment — Principal causes
of disaster in the Army — Ukrainian problem — The policy of the
Provisional Government towards the Ukraine — Appeal of the All-
Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates regarding
the Bolshevist agitation — First Bolsheviki revolt — Its suppression
— Declaration of the new Cabinet.

CHAPTER XIV
The National Conference in Moscow 434

Chernov's resignation— New Governmental crisis — The National Con-
ference — Its composition and competence — President Wilson's mes-
sage to the National Conference — Kerensky's speech — Nekrasov's
speech — General Kornilov's speech — General Kaledine's speech —
Tscheidze's speech — Guchkov's speech — Tseretelli's speech —
Boublikov's speech — Breshko-Breshkovskaya's speech — Peter Kro-
potkin's speech — Plekhanov's speech — Kerensky's concluding
speech.



CHAPTER XV
The Fall of Riga and Kornilov's Revolt 475

Riga's fall — Its cause and effect — Kornilov's revolt — Kerensky's state-
ment — Kornilov's telegram to the Central Naval Committee —
Telegram sent by Provisional Government — Kerensky's order to
the Troops of Petrograd — Order to the Cossacks — His order to the
entire Army — Order to the Railway Workers — Kornilov's arrest —
Russia proclaimed a-,Republic — V. N. Lvov's part in Kornilov's re-
volt — Gen. Kornilov's telegram to Kerensky and to Gen. Brusilov
— Kornilov's telegram to Kerensky on having been appointed
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armies — Kornilov's farewell
order to the troops of the Southwestern Front.

CHAPTER XVI
The Democratic Conference and the Preliminary Parlia-
ment 486

Composition of the Democratic Conference — New Coalition Cabinet —
Its declaration — Preliminary Parliament — Attitude of Bolsheviki
towards Preliminary Parliament — Kerensky's last speech.

CHAPTER XVII

Russia under the Rule of the Bolsheviki 494

Last act of Preliminary Parliament — Role of Petrograd garrison in
Bolsheviki revolt — Overthrow of the Provisional Government —
The Bolsheviki Cabinet — Origin of the Bolsheviki movement —
Cause of the Bolsheviki success — Attitude of moderate Socialist
leaders towards the Bolsheviki — The part played by the Bolsheviki
in Revolution of 1905 — Activities of the Bolsheviki in period of re-
action — Character of the Bolsheviki rule — Foreign policy of the
Bolsheviki — Domestic policy of the Bolsheviki — Attitude of the
majority of Russian people toward the Bolsheviki at the moment
of the revolt — Attitude of peasantry — Manifestoes of Executive
Committee of All-Russian Council of Peasants' Delegates — Reso-
lution and proclamation of the Central Committee of the Party of
Socialists-Revolutionists — Appeal of the Petrograd Committee of
the Social-Democratic Party — Appeal of university students —
Maxim Gorky's stand on the Bolsheviki revolt — Lenine, on the
political parties in Russia — The evolution of Bolshevism — The
national problem in Russia — The Ukrainian problem — Siberia and
the Caucasus — The Cossack movement — The Provisional Govern-
ment and the Constituent Assembly — The Bolsheviki and the Con-
stituent Assembly — The disbandment of the Constituent Assembly
— The appeal of the Socialists-Revolutionists — Laws and resolu-
tions passed by the Constituent Assembly — Conclusion.



List of Illustrations



PAGE

Decembrists 19

Pestel, P 21

Kakhovsky, P 21

Ryleiev, K 23

Muraviov, S 23

Stankevitch, N. V 28

Bielinsky, Vissarion 31

Turgeniev, I. S 33

Dostoievsky, T. M 33

Hertzen, Alexander 35

Kropotkin, Prince Peter 36

Chernyshevsky, N. J 39

Bakunin, Mikhail 43

Tchaykovsky, Nicholay 45

Morozov, Nicholay 47

Lavro.y* Peter 48

Plekhanov, George 50

Zasulich, Vera 52

Zheliabov, A. 1 56

Perovskaya, Sophia 57

Mikhailov, T. M 57

Kibaltich, N. 1 57

Grinevitsky, N. 1 57

Lopatin, H. A 61

Figner, Vera 71

Volkenstein, L. A 73

Mikhailovsky, N. C 79

Balmashev, Stepan . .. 83

Karpovich, Peter 84

Gershuni, Grigory 87

"Revolutionary Russia" 89

Savinkov, Boris V 91

Gapon, Father 94

Sazonov, E 95

Sazonov, E. ...,._. 96

Kaliaiev, Ivan ..107

Kaliaiev, Ivan 109

Schmidt, Lieut. Peter P.. 119



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