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— I ^U^, ^ortli Antcrican 3ln^ia«.

iJT ^^^^ i^»^^«^^'^5t unl^ tribe tl)at cttcr

Vi^cxistc^, tltis book is luimbly

^c^icatc^, in memory of tl^e

years Jl folloUlc^ tlteir trails

tliroiu^liout tlic ^ortl]t»est.



KA- MI -AKIN



THE LAST HERO

OF THE

YAKIMAS



^



c^ ,.-BY

Arj.f^SPLAWN



COPYRIGHT 1917, BY MRS. A. J. SPLAWN



SEP 13 1317



PRCS« OF
1AM STATIONERY a PRINTING CO
PORTLAND. OREGON



©CI,A47Hn:j8



/



PREFACE

In writing this book of historical sketches of the early days,
the author makes no claim to literary merit. Plain facts are told
in plain language. My hope has been to correct some statements
which I knew to be wrong and to add some new facts that might
be of interest to different localities.

The writer's memory goes back to a time when the great
Inland Empire of Eastern Oregon, Washington and the present
Idaho was a vast country inhabited only by the Indian, coyote
and jack rabbit. The highways of travel were the deeply worn
trails running in every direction which had been followed by the
wild tribes for generations. Mountain stream and boundless
prairies were spread out before us where we roamed at will.

It is to present the Indian side of the War of 1855-8 that
the writer has undertaken this work. He has spent many years
in gathering stories and statements as to why they fought and
how they fought, descriptions of their battles, and names of the
killed and wounded. The task was difficult since superstition
keeps the red man from talking to the white man on such
subjects. My long residence among them, together with the fact
that I have alwa3's treated them right, gained me their confidence.

I have talked, during the years, with many of their old chiefs
and warriors who participated in the war, and they all tell prac-
tically the same story. Having spent over 50 years among them
and knowing Indian character as I believe it is known to few
men, I have no hesitation in saying that I believe their state-
ments, at least in the main, to be true.



CONTENTS

I THE PROPHECY - - - - - Page ]

Parentage of Ka-mi-akin-Prediction of his greatness-Com.ng of white man
prophesied.

n KA-MI-AKIN, THE GREAT CHIEF - - - Page 15

Charac'teristics-First herd of cattle in Yakima-Early garden and irrigation
ditch — First Catholic mission.

Plans of Lawyer.

IV THE COUNCIL OF WALLA WALLA - - - Page 27

Alleged plot against Gov. Stevens-Speeches of chiefs-Third reservation-
Treaty signed-^Description of reservations— Annuities.

V DIRECT CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 18.55-6 - Page 37

^^ - uS^^-j:^^^^^^"-^^?Sr^5^^jj^^

munition.

VI HOSTILITIES IN THE YAKIMA COUNTRY Page 40

Mailer's campaign-Battle of Jo,v^n^s^.^^e.^^ - ^;^^^^^^^

starts over mountains— Parley at P^gar Kock Ketirement ^ ^^^

SI -rr-B^S 'ASZ.?S^^SS'oi\.,y .one.

VII FURTHER OUTBREAKS - - .-■; ^'^' "

Palouse country-lo-kout's intervent.on-Ow-hi surrenders.

VIII. FORT SIMCOE - - - ""':', ^""f ^^'

Established in i8s6-Becorries agency in :86o-Indian agents-1 urchase of
cattle — Ft. Simcoe revisited.

IX BATTLE OF SATUS - - - -': f^^^ ^'^

CorneHus' command attacked^Capt. Hembree killed-Yellow-wash steals
horses.

X MILITARY OCCUPANCY OF YAKIMA

COUNTRY - - - '"■'',' rJt

Col. Wright's reports-Ow-hi-s visit described-Bridge across Naches-Great
fishery.

XI. YAKIMAS ATTACK GOV. STEVENS - - - Page «

Walla.

XII INDIAN TROUBLES WITH FT. SIMCOE - Page 82

H^se thief nikes trouble-Quil-ten-e.nock's death-So-happy killed-Step-
toe's defeat.

XIII SPOKANE CAMPAIGN - - - - ^""^^ ^^

Co Vnghf ordered out-Treaty with Nez Perces-Battle of Four Lakes-
fndians capitulate-Eight hundred horses shot.

XTV G\RNETT'S CAMPAIGN - - - - P-'^S^ ^^^

D^ath of LierU. Allen-Mountain pursuit of Indian band-Many murderers

'Tv OKANOGAN INDIAN ATTACK - " ' ' " /.jf '

XV. *^JV/^iNwvj McLoughlin chosen leader— Robert

Expedition to Fraser R'|«J-Dav^g,Hfornian-Attack by In-no-mo-se-cha s
L^°^!:iM"eTeU,de^^"°-Re"ch ^'hompson River.



CONTENTS— Continued



XVI. PASSING OF THE GREAT CHIEFS - - - Page 110

Ow-hi tries to save son — Oual-chan IninB — Brother Lo-kout escapes — Marries
Qual-chan's squaw — Ow-hi makes dash for liberty — Is shot — Ka-mi-akin in
British Columbia — Goes to Buffalo country — Author meets him at Rock Lake
in Palouse country in 1865 — Dies fifteen years later — Sklooni buried near
Cascade mill — Removed to Toppenish Creek.

XVn. THE TWO GREAT .MEX OF THE YAKIAFA

WAR - - - - - - - Page 122

Stevens and Ka-mi-akin compared.

XVIII. SPEECH OF LO-KOUT - - - - Page 12.-.

Hatred of white race — Fought in many battles — Saw Custer killed on Little
Big Horn — Sharpshooter in Steptoe battle — Theodore Winthrop's guide over
the mountains.

XIX. ENTERING llll'. I'KOAHSED LAND - - - Page 129

Author leaves home in the Willamette for Klickitat — Only sixteen years old — ■
Homes of early settlers — The Dalles, a frontier town — Sees Indian hung —
Moo-sum-pah — Indian maiden a neighbor — l^cgend of Moo-sum-pah — \'isits the
Yakima.

XX. THE BEGINNING OF THE Y.\KLM.\ VAL-
LEY - - - - - - - - Page 14G

I". M. Thorp, first settler — Neighbors arrive — First white women to see Kit-
titas — Author visits Mok-see — Indian alarms — Saved by Indian girl^ — -Terrible
winter of 186 1-2 — Cattle die by thousands — Indians lose hundreds of ponies — -
We-i-pah brings chinook — First school teacher — Mining excitement.

XXI. FERGUSON COUNTY - - - - Page loG

Created in 1863 — Changed two years later to Yakima — First officers — Early
roads.

XXII. THE COWBOY OF 1861 - - - - Page IC.o

Cattle Drive to Cariboo mines — Encounter with Chief Moses — Indian attack
averted — Friendship with In-no-mo-se-cha Bill — Scalp dance — Chief Tonasket
— Governor .Moody's gift — Major Thorp's i)rophecy — Wintering on Bonaparte
Creek — Drive resumed in spring — Boone Helm — Cattle sold — Return to
Yakima.

XXIII. BACK OVER THE OLD TRAIL - - - Page ISI

British Columbia revisited in igo.s — Many changes- Prediction come true —
old trails become thoroughfares.

XXI\. DISCOVERY OI- IIOISI': i;.\SL\ GOLD

MINES - . - - - - -. Page ISG

Story of Moses Splawn, one of discoverers — Seekers join with another com-
pany — Bannock Indian's storj — .\ttack and death of firimes Retreat of rrt)s-
pectors.

XXV. GOING HOME - - - - - - Page v.n

Winter journey to Willamette — Lal-looh's proposal — Hard going in soft snow
- l,:i>it stage by steamboat.

XX Vi. A SIDE STI-.r i.Xro TIM'. W 1LD1:RX1;SS - rage \w

J'aek horses run off -I'a-nina's death — Hacon to Cariboo — Council ground at
Cbe-lolian- Backing for Oregon Jack — Winter trip out — .\rcliibald McKinlev.

X.WII. \ l*.\SSENGi:U 'IKAIX r( ) I'm: 1: \SIN - - Page 2()'.i

t DUiitrv g"ld mad- Suspicicins vi-ii.n ll..i>c i;King at Cmalilla — l-'reighting
to Rock Island -Trip with Chinaman.

XXVIII. A TRIP TO BOISI-: B.\SIX IX iMi:. - - - - Page 210

Banils of calllc mixed Hunting the trial— llild up bv Indians— Backer
John's c.ibins -Emigrant train.



CONTENTS— Continued



XXIX. ROBBERS ON THE TRAIL, 1S66 - - - - Page 224

Three horsemen hi pursuit — Lawyer's canyon — Mule equal to emergency.

XXX. A DRIVE INTO MONTANA - - - Page 22G

Start for Blackfoot mines — Doctoring Indian herder — Held up by snow —

Coeur d'Alene mission — Early butchers — A night with road agents ^Henry

Marlin — Leonard Thorp's narrow escape — !Mok-see under water — Death of
Wei-i-pah.

XXXI. TO BRITISH COLU-MBIA AGAIN - - - - Page 2.37

Cattle in whirlpool — Trouble at ferries — Ground hog bad eating — Starvation
threatens.

XXXII. ON THE KAMLOOPS TRAIL - - - Page 243

Racing the grand champion — English colony loses wagers — Cattle buying
errand — Xan-num-kin.

XXXIII. A FISHING TRIP - - - - - Page 24S

Start for I-i-yas (Fish Lake) — Stick Indians — Howit's story — Legend of
Speel-yi's Son — Waptus Lake.

XXXIV. FIRST SETTLERS - - - - - Page 254

French squaw men in 1863 — Xah-cheez settlement — William Parker — First in
Ahtanum — Wenas pioneer — Selah's first settler — John Goodwin in Cowiche — •
First white baby — ^Initial sheep venture — General store established — <^atholic
mission rebuilt — Settlers in Kittitas — Yakima City established — First wedding
in Kittitas — First irrigation ditches — Emigrant train of 1852.

XXXV. THE CATTLE INDUSTRY - - - - Page 281

Oregon importation in 18.36 — First to Yakima brought by Kami-akin — Indians
trade horses for cows — lEarly cattlemen — Mines the market — Business declines
— Trade with Portland and the Sound — Stock losses in winter of 1880-1.

XXXVI. THE COWBOY - - - - - - Page 289

His work — His disposition — Illustrative incidents — Sliipping cattle by rail — ■
Warning to cowboys.

XXXVII. THE LAST DRIVE - - - - - Page 293

Great blizzard — Xo feed — ^Arrangement with steamboat — Intense cold — •
Decision to quit trail.

XXXVIII. THE FOUNDING OF ELLENSBURG - - - Page 297

Robbers' Roost established in 1870 — Trade with Indians — Race track near by
— Xew settlers — 'Early wedding — Edward Whitson herding sheep.

XXXIX. THE PERKINS ^lURDER - - - - Page 304

Buffalo Horn's conspiracy — 'Failure of plot — Yakima settlers build forts —
Renegades cross Columbia — Meet Mr. and Mrs. Perkins at Rattlesnake
Springs — Both are shot — John Edwards identifies murderers — Moses under
suspicion — Encounter with posse at lava beds — Murderers arrested — Break jail
— Hide in swamp — All finally accounted for.

XL. REMINISCENCES OF 1880-1 - - - Page 31S

Finds river closed — ^Steamboat breaks ice — Crust over whole country —
Horses and cattle die in their tracks — Thousands of dead cattle — Author loses
hundred head in ice jam — Starts out to make fortune anew.

XLI. EARTHQUAKE OF 1 872 - - - - - Page 324

XLII. A GREAT INDL^N AGENT — JAMES H.

WILBUR - - - - - - - Page 326

Twenty years at Ft. Sinicoe — Gfts Indians allotted to his church — Charac-
teristics of man — Cattle purchas. blocked — Future friendly relations.



CONTENTS— Continued



XLIII. CHIEF MOSES AS I KNEW HIM - - - - Page 334

A great sportsman — Wonderful control of liis i)eople — Prevents war on the
whites — Splendid looking Indian.

XLIV. SHU-LUS-KIN'S STORY - - - - Page 340

Guide to two white men — Ascent of Ta-ho-mah — Gastronomic reputation —
Matrimonial troubles — His new wife.

XLV. EARLY IXDIAX REI.IGIOXS - - - Page 347

Smo-hal-la's doctrine — Ko-ti-ah-an's version — Salmon dance.

XLVI. THE CATHOLIC MISSIOXARIES - - - - Page 353

Arrive in 1847 — Mission St. Rose — Under protection of chiefs — Ah-tan-um
mission destroyed — Activity of fathers in whole Indian country — Father
Caruana.

XLVII. THE IXDIAX'S FIRST HORSE - - - Page 360

Journey of Pe-peu-mox-mox to California — Death of his son — Horse intro-
duced by Spaniards — Indian thefts -I'avorite colors — The cayuse.

XLVm. THE PACK TRAIX - - - - - Page 367

Famous old packers — Saddles — .\ train startinK out.

XLIX. THE GOLD HUXTERS - - - - Page 3G9

Malheur discovery in 1845 — F'ailure of attempt to relocate the spot — British
Columbia gold in 1858 — Rush to new territory — Trouble with Indians —
Williams Creek — Rich rewards — Thousands in gold washed out at rich bar.

L. FIRST W'AGOXS - - - - - - Page 37S

Drive over mountains in 1840 — l'"irst through \'akima with Tames Longmire
in 185.3.

LI. I'lRS'l" WAGON TR.MX 1I<().\1 I'RIl-.ST
RAPIDS OX COLL.MI'.IA RI\-1-:R TO
FORT KAMLOOPS OX Till". TIIO.MI'SOX
RIVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA - - - - Page 3S1

General Joel Palmer pioneer driver — Follow Indian trails — Portage by
canoe.

LII. OLD ()KI:G()X !'10Xi:ERS - - - - Page 383

Tribute to early settlers — Incidents of long journey — Old west gone.

I. ill. (11 \K \CTI",KISTICS OF THI-. IXL.Wl)

X.\TI\ I-; - - - - - - Page 3S7

Kastern Washington tribes — .Meaning of word Yakima — Government and war
methods — TemjieramentMarriagc customs — Morals — ' Dances— Gambling —
Food — Treatiiunt <if sick .\rts and Irafls.

LIV. IXDIAX l-OLK LORE - - - - - Page 411

Wish-poosh, the great beaver- -Chinook winds — Legend of I-yap-pe-ah — Stick
Indians — I.,egend of i'aiiited Rocks — Union Ga|) — I,one Giant Woman — Soda
Springs tradition — F'ortified villages— Indian evangelist.

LV. EARLY REFl'RI-XCI'.S - - . V:vav 431

A chapter of first things.

I'.loGRAI'in ol' A I "n I OR. AXDRI'.W I.

SI'I \\\ X - - - - - - - - - ■ I'a-r 141

Kul......



ILLUSTRATIONS

Page -

CHIEF KA-MI-AKIN - - - - - 14 ^

SPEARING SALMON - - - - - 26

THE SCOUTS - - - - - - 36

INDIAN VILLAGE - - - , - 45

BLOCK HOUSE - - - - - 53

ARMED FOR BATTLE - - - - 73

WAITING FOR THE ENEMY - - - - 99

HUNTER'S LODGE - - - - - 104

OWHI - - - - - - - 115

CHAMESUPUM - - - - - 124

TESH PALOUSE KA-MI-AKIN - - - - 12S

THE VANISHING RACE - - - - 145

OLDEST HOUSE STANDING, YAKIMA VALLEY - - - 159

COWBOY OF 1S61 - - - - - 179

FORT BOISE - - - - - - 193

SPIRIT LAKE ... - - - - 198

THE LAST OF THE WASCOPAMS - - - 223

AN INDIAN MOTHER - - - - 253

THE COWBOY'S DREAM - - - - 288

CHIEF JOSEPH - - - - - 303

JAMES H. WILBUR - - - - - 326

CHIEF MOSES - - - - - 334

SHULUSKIN-WIYITOOYI - - - - 339

PE-PEU-MOX-MOX - - - - - - 359

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDIAN MAIDENS - - - 386

HOME - - - - - - 395

ITHLECUM GAME - - - - - 400

SWEAT HOUSE - - - - - 405

THREE GRACES - - - - - 410

COL. LEE MOREHOUSE - - - - 438



CHAPTER I.

THE PROPHECY

Parentage of Ka-mi-akin — Romantic Love Story of
Ja-ya-yah-e-ha and Ka-e-mox-nith — Prophecy of
Medicine Man Concerning Future Greatness of their
Son — Return of Mother to Her Own Tribe.

Before the coming of the white man there was a young-
Indian warrior named Ja-ya-yah-e-ha, whose father was of the
Sha-hap-tan or Nez Perce tribe and his mother of the Choppenish
or Palouse nation. Born at Asotin, Washington, near the present
city of Lewiston, Idaho, he became a noted brave who always
joined in the annual bufifalo hunts on the east side of the Rocky
mountains, where he and his fellow tribesmen were sure to meet
their ancient enemies, the Blackfeet, and other nations who resented
this encroachment of the Indians further west upon what they con-
sidered their game preserve. Many pitched battles have been fought
between the Nez Perces and their allies on the one hand and the
Blackfeet, Crows and their allies on the other, during these buffalo
hunts.

Of Ja-ya-yah-e-ha it was said that he bore a charmed life.
However that may be, it is certainly a fact that his enemies feared
him, for he was a fierce and desperate fighter. A tall, command-
ing figure, a superb horseman and reckless beyond the point of
danger, he would be a remarkable man in any battle. Restless by
nature, he was constantly on the move, so that his fame became
widespread and he was a welcome guest in strange wigwams. Yet
he was shiftless, accumulating little wealth in horses, his war ponies
alone being his pride

The thirst for adventure often carried him beyond the confines
of his tribe. Sometimes he was to be seen w'ith the Cay-uses in their
forays through the country of the Sho-sho-nees or Snakes, who
inhabited at that time the eastern part of the present Idaho and
adjoining Utah. These expeditions were for the purpose of stealing
horses and were often so successful that many fine steeds were driven
home to swell the already large bands which had been captured in
former years from this same tribe. This, indeed, was the source
from W'hich the Nez Perces, Cay-uses and Walla Wallas obtained
their first horses.

In one of these expeditions two horses of exceptional speed
were captured, one a bay, the other a sorrel.- The bay was taken by
a Cay-use Indian, the sorrel by a Nez Perce brave. The former
became known as the swiftest horse in the Cay-use nation, while the
latter held like honors with the Nez Perces. The fame of these
two animals grew to such an extent that nothing short of a contest



2 Ka-nii-akin — Tlic Last Hero of flic Yakimas

between them for speed over a race course would settle the question
which was the more fleet.

Arrangements were made by the tribes to meet on neutral
ground for the great race. A spot in the Palouse country was
selected and here the Indians from far and near gathered in great
numbers to witness the race between two of the fastest horses that
had ever been known among the red men of the Northwest. Never
had the plains of the Columbia seen so great a gathering. Each
tribe backed its favorite to the limit.

Now, Ja-ya-yah-e-ha had coveted the splendid sorrel ever since
the horse had been captured from the Snakes. He had offered for
it his whole band, save his few war ponies, without avail. But his
mind was made up to possess it or die in the attempt. Knowing
it must be done by strategy, he sought out the old gray-haired med-
icine man who had been the companion and friend of his father.
The aged doctor replied. "I will consult my Tam-man-na-was (guid-
ing spirit) and see what can be done to help you. Return to me in
two days."

Promptly at the time set Ja-ya-yah-e-ha appeared before the
medicine man, who told him that a certain root, dried, powdered and
ruljbed over the hand, then applied to the horse's nose, would make
it wild and vicious towards all save the one with the odor of the
root on his hand.

Dressed in his best buckskin suit, with a buffalo robe tied around
his waist, and a bow and quiver of arrows strapped over his shoul-
ders, Ja-ya-yah-e-ha appeared at the race course on the great day.
The race was to be a test of endurance as well as speed. Far down
the valley a monument of rocks was piled and the ground to be
covered was from a point near the village to and around the mound,
then back to the starting point, a distance of several miles. Men
were stationed at the monument to make sure that the riders went
around it.

All was ready for the mount, excitement running high, and
men and women betting even their wearing ap]x\rel, all else having
already been put up on the result. But lo ! the sorrel is rearing and
plunging, kicking and l)iting at every person who comes near it.
Ja-ya-yah-c-ha has touched its nose with the magic powder and is
standing by to watch results.

Known to be the greatest horseman of his day, it was small
wonder that when he offered his services they were accei)ted.
although not without some misgivings, for the horse's master spoke
thus. ■■ja-ya-yah-e-!ia. I;i\ aNide your tra])pings. '\'a\sv liff \hc \)u\-
falo hide; it is heavy and so arc the c|uiver of arrows and your buck-
skin. Why wear these? Put on a su-pali-col-c\t ( breech clout) "

The covetous one replied, "\i3; to >liow you that 1 can ride him.
I go as I am or not at all."



Ka-iiii-akiii — The Last Hero of tJie Yakiiiias 3

The bystanders now interfered, pointing out their disappoint-
ment if the race should fail. The owner wavered and finally handed
the rope to Ja-ya-yah-e-ha, who with outstretched arm touched the
horse's nose. The animal's spirit subsided ; it became docile again.
Amid a silence eloquent of wonder, Ja-ya-yah-e-ha mounted, erect
and immobile ; the sorrel, with only a hair rope in its mouth to guide
it, stood quivering, head high, nostrils distended, showing in every
line the strain of the desert, until the word was given, "Go !"

They bounded forward — what a race ! what a scene ! The
plains were colored with autumn — it was Indian summer. Away
off hung the blue haze ; near by were the wigwams and the Indians
standing in breathless expectancy watching the two sons of Arabia
fly like the whirlwind down the bunch grass valley. A wild yell
goes up from the watchers at the monument. The sorrel is in the
lead. On ! on ! without lash of whip, under the steady pull of its
clever rider, goes the pride of the Sha-hap-tans. It passes the pile
of rocks, but what is this ? It does not turn ; it keeps on going !

Those stationed near the monument draw back in alarm. Has
the man lost control, or is he feigning ? Woe betide him, if he is !
But no; they see he makes no effort to turn. He has become but
a shadow going away from them towards the setting sun.

Excitement ran riot in that vast gathering of red men ; disap-
pointment and rage were heard in every wigwam. The act of a
reckless daredevil had let Babel loose. The greatest sporting event
of the time had been ruined. All bets were declared off. The
village broke up forthwith, each tribe going its way, sullen and
resentful.

The owner of the stolen horse, with darkened brow and a tom-
ahawk in hand, leaped on the fleetest mount he could procure, and,
accompanied by a few who wished to see the end of the affair,
started in hot pursuit, which continued till they reached the Colum-
bia. There they stopped. Should they go further, when they were
ignorant of the character of the tribes beyond the great river?
Might it not mean complete disaster? Thus they reasoned, and
slowly turned back, beaten and outwitted.

After leaving behind his outraged tribe, Ja-ya-yah-e-ha bent
every energy to evading his pursuers and carrying out his well-laid
plan. The rapid strides of his sure-footed horse were taking him
over the bunch grass plains, along the banks of the Palouse river to
Wastucna coulee, down which he sped past Wastucna lake, nor
slackened until the sun was down behind the western mountains
and he had reached the Columbia river. As he paused for a brief
moment before crossing the dividing line that would cut him off
from his tribe, he looked at the mount for which he had risked exile
and life, and he smiled. It was worth the game.

He decided to put off the crossing till morning, snatching here
a few hours' sleep and giving the sorrel a chance to graze. Before



4 Ka-uii-akin — TIic Last Hero of the Yakiinas

daylight he was mounted and riding slowly up the river, where he
came upon a small encampment of the So-kulk tribe. The Indians
treated him hospitably, and in a canoe crossed him over the river,
swimming his horse alongside. On the spot where he landed now
stands the town of White Bluffs.

Ja-ya-yah-e-ha rode on up the river and a few hours later, as
he passed around a bluff, there came into view the ancient village
of Pi-nah, the home of the Wi-nah-pams or Priest Rapids Indians,
whose chief, So-wap-so, was the founder of the dreamer religion +
still practiced by that tribe and some others. So-wap-so also posed
as a prophet. Ja-ya-yah-e-ha tarried for a day as the guest of the
chief to learn something of the tribe beyond, for in his buffalo hunts
east of the Rocky mountains he had met a few warriors whose coun-
try he believed to be still further west. So-wap-so said: "Son, go
the way I point out and after a short day's ride you will find the
powerful Pisch-wan-wap-pams, whose chief, the great and wise
We-ow-wicht, is my friend."

Continuing up the river a few miles, he found the trail as
described, leaving the stream and leading up a narrow valley in a
westerly course. This valley is now known as Honson's canyon.

A few hours' travel at an easy gait brought him to the summit
of the divide between the Columbia and the beautiful E-ya-ki-ma*
or Kittitas valley. On down the western slope he went till the
valley was reached with its many small streams winding their way
through the thick bunch grass which covered the surrounding plain,
rushing on as if anxious to contribute their mite to the river below.
Here he found a few lodges and by the sign language inquired
for the chief, who, he learned, could be reached by following up the
river a short distance to a white bluff called Kit-ti-tas (white
earth). This bluff is about a mile above the present city of Ellens-
burg.

During this day of solitary wandering in a strange land. Ja-va-
yah-e-ha's ardor had subsided. His mind had been actively engaged
in solving that most perplexing problem, "What shall I do?" He
felt that he dare not return to his own country for some little time.
Though he had always been of a roving character and owned no
wigwam, he thought today of his people, and of Wa-ni-nah, most
beautiful maiden of the tribe, for whom he had offered to part
even with his war ponies, that she might become mistress of his



Online LibraryA. J SplawnKa-mi-akin, the last hero of the Yakimas → online text (page 1 of 48)