A. M. (Alured Myddelton) Wilshere.

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UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



SCHOOL OF LAW
LIBRARY



THE OUTLINES OF PBOCEDUEE IN AN ACTION
IN THE KING'S BENCH DIVISION



THE OUTLINES OF

PROCEDUKE IN AN ACTION

IN THE

KING'S BENCH DIVISION

FOB THE USE OF STUDENTS



BY



A. M. WILSHEKE, M.A., LL.B.,

. M <

Of GRAY S INN AXD THB WESTERN CIRCUIT, BAHBISTBR-AT-L1.W



SECOND EDITION



LONDON :

SWEET AND MAXWELL, LIMITED,

3, CHANCEKY LANE.

1913



T



BRADBURY, AONEW, & CO. LD., PRINTERS,
LONDON AND TONBRIDGK.



A Si



o

v9



i



PKEFACE



THE first edition of this book included a chapter on
Evidence which has now been omitted because it was too
short to be of value : the other chapters have been re-written
and enlarged. Through an attack of illness and pressure of
other work I have been prevented from revising as fully and
carefully as I should have desired, but as the first edition
has been for some time exhausted, any further delay was
undesirable.

In view of the very small size of the book I have, instead of
an Index, inserted a full table of the contents of each
chapter.

A. M. W.

1, ELM COURT, TEMPLE,
January, 1913.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



CHAPTER I.

PAOK

The Supreme Court of Judicature and its Jurisdiction Proceedings
by Writ of Summons Originating Summons Form and Con-
tents of a Writ of Summons.

The Parties to an Action Joinder of Parties Joinder of Causes of
Action.

The Indorsement on the Writ General Indorsement Indorsement
for Trial without Pleadings Special Indorsement.

The Issue of the Writ Service of the Writ Appearance Default

of Appearance 1

CHAPTER H.

Proceedings after Appearance Summons for Directions Pro-
ceedings when Writ is Specially Indorsed Proceedings when
Writ is Indorsed for Trial without Pleadings Summary . . 29

CHAPTER m.

Pleadings Leave to deliver Pleadings Form of Pleadings Con-
tents of Pleadings Statement of Claim Contents of Statement
of Claim Defence Time for Delivery of Defence Contents of
the Defence, Traversing, Confessing and Avoiding, Payment
into Court, Tender, Matters arising pending the Action,
Objections in Point of Law Set-off and Counter-claim Reply
and Defence to Counter-claim Amendment of Writ and
Pleadings Notice of Trial Discontinuance .... 39

CHAPTER IV.

Applications in an Action Setting aside a Writ Stay of Proceedings
under the Arbitration Act, 1889 Interpleader Remission of
Action to County Court Security for Costs Third Party
Procedure Particulars Striking out Pleadings ... 77



Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER V.

Discovery and Inspection Interrogatories Discovery of Docu-
ments Objections to Discovery Methods of Opposing Dis-
covery Production and Inspection Admissions . . .91

CHAPTER VI.

Mode of Trial Trial with and without a Jury Special Jury

Proceedings at the Trial Eight to begin Costa.
Appeals and New Trials 104

APPENDIX.
Forms of Writs and Pleadings 115



TABLE OF CASES

PAOB

ABRATH v. North Eastern Railway Co., 11 Q. B. D. 456 . . 107

Allen v. Flood, [1898] A. C. 29 51

Allhusen v. Labouchere, 3 Q. B. D. 654 98

Anderson v. Bank of British Columbia, 2 Ch. D. 644 . . 98
Anglesey (Marquis of), In re ; Wilmot v. Gardner, [1901] 2

Ch. 548 .21

Anglo-Italian Bank v. Davies, 38 L. T. R. 197 . ... 34
Apollinaris Company's Trade Marks, In re, [1891] 1 Ch. 1 . 82

Arnold v. Bainbridge, 9 Ex. 153 69

and Butler v. Bottomley, [1908] 2 K. B. 45 . .86,87,95

Ashby v. Bates, 15 M. & W. 589 107

Atlas Metal Co. v. Miller, [1898] 2 Q. B. 500 . . . . 70
Attenborough v. London and St. Katherine's Docks Co., 3

C. P. D. 450 . . .79

Att.-Gen. v. Emerson, 10 Q. B. D. 191 . . . . 97, 101

v. Gaskill, 20 Ch. D. 519 97

v. Newcastle-on-Tyne (Mayor of), [1899] 2 Q. B. 478 . 97

of the Duchy of Lancaster v. L. & N. W. Railway Co.,

[1892] 3 Ch. 274 . . . . . . . .90

BAQOT v. Easton, 7 Ch. D. 1 46, 89

Baird v. Williamson, 16 C. B. N. S. 388 50

Barker v. Furlong, [1891] 2 Ch. 172 106

Barry v. Peruvian Corporation, [1896] 1 Q. B. 208 . . . 29

Bartlett v. Ford's Hotel Co., [1895] 1 Q. B. 850 ... 79

Bassett v. Tong, [1894] 2 Q. B. 332 81

Baxters. France, [1895] 1 Q. B. 455 84

Beasley v. Roney, [1891] 1 Q. B. 509 8

Beck v. Pierce, 23 Q. B. D. 516 8

Bellv. Lawes, 51 L. J. Q. B. 359 61

Benbow v. Low, 16 Ch. D. 98 96

Bickers v. Speight, 22 Q. B. D. 7 19

Bidder v. Bridges, 29 Ch. D. 29 96

Birmingham Estates Co. v. Smith, 13 Ch. D. 506 . . 70, 71

etc., Land Co. v. L. & N. W. Railway, 34 Ch. D. 261 . 85

Bolckow v. Fisher, 10 Q. B. D. 161 92

Bottomley v. Brougham, [1908] 1 K. B. 584 . . . . 90

Brinsmead v. Harrison, L. R. 7 C. P. 547 .... 9
British Association of Glass Bottle Manufacturers v. Nettlefold,

[1912] 1 K. B. 369 101



X TABLE OF CASES

MM

British South Africa Co. v. Companhia de Mocambique, [1893]

A. C. 602 2

Brown v. Feeney, [1906] 1 K. B. 563 62

Brunsden v. Humphrey, 14 Q. B. D. 141 .... 54

Bullivant v. Att.-Gen. for Victoria, [1901] A. C. 196 . . 98
Bullock v. London General Omnibus Co., Ld., [1907] 1 K. B.

264 11, 14

Burchard v. Macfarlane, [1891] 2 Q. B. 241 . . . . 91

Burr v. Smith, [1909] 2 K. B. 306 90

Burrows v. Rhodes, [1899] 1 Q. B. 816 67

BurstaU v. Beyfus, 26 Ch. D. 35 14, 91

BusHeld, In re, 32 Ch. D. 123 . . . . . . . 2, 3

Bustros v. White, 1 Q. B. D. 423 98

Byrd v. Nunn, 7 Ch. D. 284 57



CASHIN v. Cradock, 3 Ch. D. 376 89

Cave v. Crew, 62 L. J. Ch. 630 50

Chatterton v. Secretary of State for India, [1895] 2 Q. B. 189 . 99

Christie v. Christie, 8 Ch. 499 89

Civil Service Co-operative Society v. General Steam Navigation

Co., [1903] 2 K. B. 756 109

Cockle v. Joyce, 7 Ch. D. 56 106

Compagnie Financiere v. Peruvian Co., 11 Q. B. D. 62 . . 94

Compton v. Preston, 21 Ch. D. 138 71

Cooper v. Whittingham, 16 Ch. D. 601 109

Croft v. King & Co., [1893] 1 Q. B. 419 25

Cropper v. Smith, 26 Ch. D. 700 74

Crump v. Cavendish, 6 Ex. D. 211 35

Cullen v. Knowle, [1898] 2 Q. B. 380 9

DANFORD v. McAnulty, 8 A. C. 456 67

Darby v. Ousley, 1 H. & N. 1 107

Davey v. Bentinck, [1892] 1 Q. B. 185 86

Davy v. Garrett, 7 Ch. D. 173 89

Delobbel-Flipo v. Varty, [1893] 1 Q. B. 663 . . . . 82

Dicks v. Yates, 18 Ch. D. 76 109

Dierken v. Philpot, [1901] 2 K. B. 380 81

Drincqbier v. Wood, [1899] 1 Ch. 393 10

Dulieu v. White, [1901] 2 K. B. 669 52, 67

Du Pasquier v. Cadbury, Jones & Co., [1903] 1 K. B. 104 . . Ill



EDEN v. Weardale Co., 35 Ch. D. 287 91

Ellis v. Bedford (Duke of), [1901] A. C. 1 . . . 13, 14
v. Munson, 35 L. T. 585 65



TABLE OF CASES XI



FIRTH v. De las Rivas, [1893] 1 Q. B. 768 . . . . 78

Fisher v. Owen, 8 Ch. D. 645 ...... 89, 95, 99

Fleming v. Dollar, 23 Q. B. D. 388 ...... 89

Forster v. Farquhar, [1893] 1 Q. B. 564 ..... 109

Frankenberg v. Great Horseless Carriage Co., [1900] 1 Q. B.

504 ........... 11

Fraser v. Fraser, [1905] 1 K. B. 368 ...... 35



GARNHAM v. Skipper, 29 Ch. D. 566 16

Gathercole v. Smith, 7 Q. B. D. 626 68

Geach v. Ingall, 14 M. & W. 100 107

Gee v. Bell, 35 Ch. D. 160 56

Gerrard v. Clowes, [1892] 2 Q. B. 11 20

Gerson v. Simpson, [1903] 2 K. B. 197 . . . . . 84

Giblin v. McMullen, L. R. 2 P. C. 317 112

Godden v. Corsten, 5 C. P. D. 17 87

Goodson v. Grierson, [1908] 1 K. B. 761 90

Gourley v. Plimsoll, L. E. 8 C. P. 374 95

Gray v. Bartholomew, [1895] 1 Q. B. 209 . . . . 63

Greener v. E. Kahn & Co., [1906] 2 K. B. 374 ... 83

Griffiths v. Ystradyfodwg School Board, 24 Q. B. D. 307 . . 64

Guilford v. Lambeth, [1895] 1 Q. B. 92 81

Gurney v. Small, [1891] 2 Q. B. 584 19

Gyhon, In re, 29 Ch. D. 834 15



HALL v. Eve, 4 Ch. D. 341 44

v. Snowdon, [1899] 1 Q. B. 593 83

v. Truman, 29 Ch. D. 307 94

Hanmer v. Flight, 24 W. R. 346 43

Hannan v. Mockett, 2 B. & C. 934 50

Harris v. Harris, 7 Ch. D. 877 56

v. Jenkins, 22 Ch. D. 481 43

v. Judge, [1892] 2 Q. B. 565 82

-v. Petherick, 4 Q. B. D. 611 109

Hennell v. Davies, [1893] 1 Q. B. 367 62

Hennessey v. Wright, 21 Q. B. D. 509 . . . . 95, 99

Hess v. Labouchere, 14 Times Rep. 350 76

Hoare v. Niblett, [1891] 1 Q. B. 781 8

Hodgson v. Bell, 24 Q. B. D. 525 81

Hooton v. Dalby, [1907] 2 K. B. 18 . . . . 96, 97

Howe Machine Co., In re, 41 Ch. D. 118 82

Hubback v. British North Borneo Co., [1904] 2 K. B. 473 . 64
Hubbuck v. Wilkinson, [1899] 1 Q. B. 86 . . . .90

Humphrys v. Polak, [1901] 2 K. B. 385 90

Hymas v. Ogden, [1905] 1 K. B. 246 '27



Xll TABLE OF CASES

FAOK

IMBERT-TERRY v. Carver, 34 Ch. D. 506 19

Imperial Japanese Government w. P. & 0. Steamship Co., [1895]

A. C. 644 69

Ives and Barker v. Willans, [1894] 1 Ch. 68 . . . .79



JACOBS v. Booth's Distillery, 85 L. T. R. 262 .... 35

Jenkins v. Bushby, [1891] 1 Ch. 484 104

Jones v. Great Central Railway Co., [1910] A. C. 4 . . . 98
v. Montevideo Gas Co., 5 Q. B. D. 556 . . . . 94



KEARSLET v. Philipps, 10 Q. B. D. 36 . . . : , 99
Keates v. Woodward, [1902] 1 K. B. 532 . . '. .111

Kendall v. Hamilton, 4 A. C. 504 8

Kennedy v. Dodson, [1895] 1 Ch. 334 97

Kent Coal Co. v. Martin, 16 T. L. R. 46 14

King v. Hoare, 13 M. & W. 494 9

Kingdon v. Kirk, 37 Ch. D. 141 56

Knowles v. Roberts, 38 Ch. D. 263 89



LAGOS v. Grunwaldt, [1910] 1 K. B. 41 20

Lamb v. Munster, 10 Q. B. D. 110 97

Langton v. Roberts, 10 T. L. R. 492 35

Law v. Llewellyn, [1906] 1 K. B. 487 90

Lawrance v. Norreys, 15 A. C. 210 90

Lawrence v. Willcocks, [1892] 1 Q. B. 696 . . . . 21

Laycock v. Pickles, 4 B. & S. 497 46

Learoyd v. Halifax, etc., Banking Co., [1893] 1 Ch. 686 . . 98

Lloyds Banking Co. v. Ogle, 1 Ex. D. 262 . . . . 35

London Universal Bank v. Clancarty, [1892] 1 Q. B. 689 . 21

Lumley v. Brooks, 41 Ch. D. 323 ... . . . 106

Lund V. Campbell, 14 Q. B. D. 821 110

Lyell v. Kennedy, 27 Ch. D. 1 94, 100

v. Kennedy, 9 A. C. 85 92



M'CORQUODALE v. Bell, 1 C. P. D. 471 98

Macdonald v. Carington, 4 C. P. D. 28 70

Machado v. Fontes, [1897] 2 Q. B. 231 2

McLardy v. Slateum, 24 Q. B. D. 504 32

Markey v. Tolworth Hospital Board, [1900] 2 Q. B. 454 . . 67

Marriott t?. Chamberlain, 17 Q. B. D. 154 . . . . 96

Martin t>. Treacher, 16 Q. B. D. 507 97

Mendel v. Steel, 8 M. & W. 870 68

Mercer v. Whall, 5 Q. B. 447 108



TABLE OF CASES Xlll

PAQB

Metropolitan Railway Co. v. Jackson, 3 A. C. 193 . . . 112

v. Wright, 11 A. C. 152 113

Mexborough (Lord) v. Whitwood Urban District Council,

[1897] 2 Q. B. Ill 97

Meynell v. Angell, 32 L. J. Q. B. 14 80

Middleton v. Pollock, 20 Eq. 29 69

Milbank v. Milbank, [1900] 1 Ch. 385 86

Millington v. Loring, 6 Q. B. D. 190 . . . . 44, 89
Morgan, In re ; Owen v. Morgan, 35 Ch. D. 492 . . 46, 56, 89
Morris v. Edwards, 13 A. C. 309 94



NECK v. Taylor, [1891] 3 Q. B. 560 83

OXFOBD and Cambridge, Universities of v. Gill, [1899] 1 Ch. 55. 10

PALMER v. Palmer, [1892] 1 Q. B. 318 88

Parker v. Wells, 18 Ch. D. 487 92

Parpaite v. Dickinson, 38 L. T. 178 . . . . . . 88

Peck v. Bay, [1894] 3 Ch. 287 100

Pender v. Taddei, [1898] 1 Q. B. 798 70

PeppereU v. Hird, [1902] 1 Ch. 477 30, 31

Philipps v. Philipps, 4 Q. B. D. 127 ... 4244, 85, 87

Phillips v. L. & S. W. Railway Co., 5 Q. B. D. 78 . . . 113
Plymouth Mutual Society v. Traders' Publishing Association,

[1906] 1 K. B. 403 96

Pontifex v. Jolly, 9 C. & P. 202 108

Powell v. Vickers, Son and Maxim, Ld., [1907] 1 K. B. 71 . 64

Praed v. Graham, 24 Q. B. D. 53 113

Provincial Bill Posting Co. v. Low Moor Iron Co., [1909] 2

K. B. 344 .70

Public Works Commissioners v. Hills, [1906] A. C. 368 . . 20

Pym v. Campbell, 6 E. & B. 370 . . . . . 48

QUILTER v. Heatley, 23 Ch. D. 42 101



RATCLIFP v. Evans, [1892] 2 Q. B. 524 . . . . 52, 88

Rawley v. Rawley, 1 Q. B. D. 460 68

Remmington v. Scoles, [1897] 2 Ch. 1 90

Renton, Gibbs & Co., Ld. v. Neville, [1900] 2 Q. B. 181 . . 73

R. v. Judge of City of London Court, [1891] 2 Q. B. 71 . . 81

Rhodes v. Dawson, 16 Q. B. D. 548 83

Richards v. James, 2 Ex. 471 68

River Wear Commissioners v. Adamson, 2 A. C. 767 . . 61



XIV TABLE OF CASES

MM

Roberts v. Jones, [1891] 2 Q. B. 194 109

v. Oppenheim, 26 Ch. D. 724 97, 101

v. Plant, [1896] 1 Q. B. 697 33, 48

Robinson v. Geisel, [1894] 2 Q. B. 685 8

v. Jenkins, 24 Q. B. D. 275 80

Roselle v. Buchanan, 16 Q. B. 656 88

Runnacles v. Mesquita, 1 Q. B. D. 416 20

Rutter v. Tregent, 12 Ch. D. 768 56

SACCHARIN Corporation v. Wild, [1903] 1 Ch. 416 . . .13

Sachs v. Spielman, 37 Ch. D. 296 86

Sadler v. Great Western Railway Co., [1895] 2 Q. B. 688. 11, 12

Seroka v. Kattenburg, 17 Q. B. D. 177 . ' . . . . 8

Serrao v. Noel, 16 Q. B. D. 549 53

Shaw v. Smith, 18 Q. B. D. 193 91

Sheba Gold Mining Co. v. Trubshawe, [1892] 1 Q. B. 674 . 20

Smith v. Bond, 10 Bing. 125 20

v. L. & S. W. Railway Co., L. R. 6 C. P. 14 . . . 52

Sneade v. Wotherton, etc., Co., [1904] 1 K. B. 295 . . . 81

Soci6t6 G6nerale de Paris v. Dreyfus, 29 Ch. D. 239 . . 24

Solomon v. Mulliner, [1901] 1 K. B. 76 Ill

South African Coal Co. v. Haswell, [1898] 1 Ch. 465 . . 90

Southwark and Vauxhall Water Co. v. Quick, 3 Q. B. D. 315 . 98

Spedding v. Fitzpatrick, 38 Ch. D. 410 85

Spiller v. Bristol Steam Navigation Co., 13 Q. B. D. 96 . . 85
Spokes v. Grosvenor, etc., Hotel Co., [1897] 2 Q. B. 124 . 97, 99

Stanley v. Powell, [1891] 1 Q. B. 86 51

Stevens v. Chown, [1901] 1 Ch. 894 66

Steward v. North Metropolitan Tramways Co., 16 Q. B. D. 178 74

Stokes v. Grant, 4 C. P. D. 25 66

Stone v. Smith, 35 Ch. D. 188 106

Stooke v. Taylor, 5 Q. B. D. 569 68

Street v. Blay, 2 B. & Ad. 456 68

Stroud v. Lawson, [1898] 2 Q. B. 44 10

Stumore v. Campbell, [1892] 1 Q. B. 314 . . . . 70

TAFF Vale Railway Co. v. Amalgamated Society of Railway

Servants, [1901] 1 K. B. 170 6

Thompson v. Birkley, 31 W. R. 230 86

v. London County Council, [1899] 1 Q. B. 840 . . 12

Thorp v. Holdsworth, 3 Ch. D. 637 . ' . . . . 39, 58, 59

Tildesley v. Harper, 10 Ch. D. 393 74

Tuther v. Caralampi, 21 Q. B. D. 414 20

VAWDREY v. Simpson, [1896] 1 Ch. 166 79

WAGSTAFFE v. Bentley, [1902] 1 K. B. 124 . . . 64, 110



TABLE OF CASES XV

MM

Wallingford v. Mutual Society, 5 A. C. 685 . . 35, 87

Waynes, etc., Co. v. Kadford & Co., [1896] 1 Ch. 29 96

Wegg-Prosser v. Evans, [1895] 1 Q. B. 108 . . . 61

Weldon v. Neal, 19 Q. B. D. 394 . . . . . . 74

Welsbach Co. v. New Sunlight Co., [1900] 2 Ch. 1 . . .93

Wheeler v. Le Marchant, 17 Ch. D. 675 98

White v. Credit Keform Association, [1905] 1 K. B. 653 . . 99

v. Spafford, [1902] 1 K. B. 241 95

Wilks v. Wood, [1892] 1 Q. B. 684 19, 20, 21

Willey v. Great Northern Kailway Co., [1891] 2 Q. B. 194 . 109
Williams v. Cartwright, [1895] 1 Q. B. 142 . . . . 24

v. Morland, 2 B. & C. 916 51

v. Quebrada Kailway, etc., Co., [1895] 2 Ch. 751 . . 98

Williamson v. London and North Western Railway Co., 12

Ch. D. 787 72

Wilson v. Balcarres Brook Steamship Co., [1893] 1 Q. B. 422 . 8
Wood v. Durham (Earl of), 21 Q. B. D. 501 . . . . 44

v. McCarthy, [1893] 1 Q. B. 775 13

Wynne v. Tempest, [1897] 1 Ch. 110 85

YORKSHIRE Provident Co. v. Gilbert, [1895] 2 Q. B. 148 . . 87
Young v. Kitchen, 3 Ex. D. 127 69

ZIERENBERG v. Labouchere, [1893] 2 Q. B. 183 . . 87, 95



ELEMENTS OF PROCEDURE.



CHAPTEE I.

PROCEEDINGS BY WHIT OF SUMMONS.

Introduction. The Supreme Court of Judicature was
created by the Judicature Act, 1873. As constituted by that
Act it consisted of

(a) The High Court of Justice, exercising original jurisdic-
tion, and also appellate jurisdiction from certain
inferior Courts.

(&) The Court of Appeal, exercising appellate jurisdiction
with certain original jurisdiction incident to the
determination of appeals.

The High Court was by the Act of 1873 divided into five
Divisions, but now r under an Order in Council of 1880, it
consists of three Divisions, namely, the King's Bench
Division, the Chancery Division, and the Probate, Divorce
and Admiralty Division. By s. 24 of the Act of 1873 it
was provided that Law and Equity should be administered
concurrently by every Division of the High Court. Accord-
ingly the King's Bench Division can, and must, now take
notice of equitable estates, rights, and liabilities which were
formerly recognised only in the Court of Chancery, and can
grant equitable remedies formerly obtainable only from
the Court of Chancery, as for instance the remedy of an
injunction.

By ss. 33 and 34 certain business was assigned, subject
to alteration by Rules of Court, to particular Divisions of
the High Court. In particular the following matters were
assigned to the Chancery Division: administration of the
estates of deceased persons, dissolution of partnerships and
taking of partnership accounts, redemption and foreclosure

p. 1



'2 ELEMENTS OF PROCEDURE

of mortgages, execution of trusts, specific performance of
contracts relating to sales and leases of land.

The procedure in the Supreme Court is regulated by Roles
of Court made by a Rule Committee under powers conferred
by the Judicature Act, 1875, and subsequent Judicature Acts.
The poivers of the Supreme Court are exercised
(a) In the Court of Appeal, by the Lord Chancellor, the
Lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, the
President of the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty
Division, and five Lords Justices of Appeal.
(6) In the High Court, by the Judges, Masters, and Regis-
trars of the different Divisions.

Jurisdiction. It is a general rule that Courts exercise
jurisdiction only over persons who are within the territorial
limits of their jurisdiction. The territorial jurisdiction of.
the High Court is limited to England and Wales, and apart
from statute it has no power to exercise jurisdiction over
any one beyond its territorial limits. 1 Its jurisdiction is,
however, also limited by the nature of the dispute. No
English Court will adjudicate upon questions relating to
the title to immovable property out of the jurisdiction except
with regard to contracts made or equities existing between
persons within the jurisdiction. 3 But a personal action
can be maintained against a defendant within the jurisdic-
tion even though founded upon a foreign transaction. In
the case, however, of a tort committed in a foreign country
no action will lie between parties in this country, unless the
act is one which would be actionable in this country, and
is not innocent by the law of the country where it was
committed. 8

The County Courts and certain Borough Courts also have
jurisdiction which is generally limited both locally and as
to the amount which can be claimed. No limit exists as to

1 In re Butfield, 32 Ch. D., p. 123. As to service out of the jurisdiction,
sec post, p. 23.

8 Britith South Africa Co. v. Compankiade Mozambique, [1893] A. C. 602 ;
Deschamps v. Miller, [1908] 1 Ch. 856.

Machado v. Fontes, [1897] 2 Q. B. 231.



PROCEEDINGS BY WRIT OF SUMMONS 3

the amount which can be claimed in the High Court, though
in some cases actions may be remitted from the High Court
to the County Court. 1

Proceedings by Writ of Summons.

By s. 100 of the Judicature Act, 1873, an " action " is " a
civil proceeding commenced by writ or in such other
manner as may be prescribed by Eules of Court."

By Order II. r. 1, "Every action in the High Court shall be
commenced by a writ of summons which shall be indorsed
with a statement of the nature of the claim made or of the
relief or remedy required in the action and which shall
specify the Division of the High Court to which it is intended
that the action should be assigned."

In some cases, however, an action may be commenced by
an originating summons, i.e., a summons " other than a
summons in a pending cause or matter" [Order LXXL,
r. IA]. This method of commencing proceedings without
writ was introduced in 1852 for administration orders. 3
Later it was made applicable to trusts and other matters
assigned to the Chancery Division, 3 and now, under Order
LIVA. r. 1, in any Division of the High Court any person
claiming to be interested under a deed, will, or other written
instrument may apply by originating summons for the
determination of any question of construction arising under
the instrument and for a declaration of the rights of the
persons interested.

An action can accordingly be commenced only by writ
or originating summons. There may, however, be pro-
ceedings in the High Court which are not actions and
which are instituted by petition, summons, 4 or motion, and

1 Post, p. 81.

2 In re Busfield, 32 Ch. D. at p. 125. " The main difference between a
writ of summons and an originating summons is, that in the one case the
proceedings are in Court and there are, or may be, pleadings, whereas in the
other case the proceedings are in Chambers and there are no pleadings " (at
p. 126). The hearing may, however, be adjourned from Chambers into
Court [Order LIV., r. 9].

9 See, generally, Order LV.

4 See Order I., r. 2. Not every proceeding commenced by originating

12



4 ELEMENTS OF PROCEDURE

in some cases by an ex parte application to a Judge in
Chambers. 1

The Writ [see Appendix, Form 1] . A writ is a document
directed to the defendant commanding him to " cause an
appearance to be entered for him " and notifying him that in
default of his so doing judgment may be given in his absence.

The writ must contain 2

A. On the face

1. At the top left-hand corner the name of the Division
of the High Court in which the action is to be brought
[Order IL, r. 1, ante, p. 8] .

2. At the top right-hand corner the year, the initial
letter of the plaintiffs surname, and the number of the
action. 8

3. In the title the plaintiffs Christian name and
surname; the description of a female plaintiff (e.g.,
" married woman, wife of A. B., " or " spinster " or "widow") ;
the surname and, if known, the Christian name of the
defendant.

4. In the body the name and address or last known
place of abode of the defendant ; the name of the plaintiff,
and the description of a female plaintiff.

5. In the teste the date of issue.

6. At the foot the memorandum marked N.B.

B. On the back

1. An indorsement of " a statement of the nature of the

summons is an action. In some cases this method of procedure is prescribed
for applications to the Court in matters which are not of the nature of
actions, e.g. t a summons under Order LIV., r. 4p, to which no appearance
by the respondent is necessary, as, for example, a summons for interpleader
relief (port, p. 79).

1 In the King's Bench Division applications at Chambers are made either
ex parte on affidavit, or by summons served on the other side [Order LIV.,
r. 1] ; applications to a Judge in Court or to a Divisional Court are made by
motion [Order LIL, r. 1].

2 Forms of writs, summonses, and other documents are prescribed by and
are part of the Bules of Court [Judicature Act, 1873, s. 100] and are con-
tained in the Appendices to the Rules of Court. Printed forms are used
which are filled up in writing according to the circumstances of the case.

' See post, p. 22.



PROCEEDINGS BY WRIT OF SUMMONS 5

claim made or of the relief or remedy required in the action
[Order II. , r. 1, ante, p. 8].

2. If the plaintiff sues or if the defendant is sued in a
representative capacity, e.g., as executor or as trustee in
bankruptcy, a statement of the capacity in which he is so
suing or being sued [Order III., r. 4].

3. If the plaintiff is suing by a solicitor, the address of
the plaintiffs residence and the name and place of business
and " address for service " of his solicitor [Order IV., r. 1].

If the writ is issued by the plaintiff in person, a state-
ment of this fact and the place of residence and occupation
of the plaintiff and an "address for service" 1 [Order IV., r. 2].

4. "Wherever the plaintiff's claim is for a debt or
liquidated demand only, the indorsement, besides stating the
nature of the claim, must state the amount claimed for
debt or in respect of such demand and shall further state
that upon payment thereof within four days after service or
in case of a writ not for service within the jurisdiction,
within the time allowed for appearance, further proceedings
will be stayed " [Order III., r. 7] .

5. In actions for libel the indorsement on the writ must
state sufficient particulars to identify the publications in
respect of which the action is brought [Order III., r. 9] .

6. After service the writ must be indorsed with the date
of service. 2

The Parties to the Action.

The writ must contain the name of every person who is
intended or ought to be included as a plaintiff or defendant.
But, by Order XVI., r. 2, " where an action has been com-
menced in the name of the wrong person as plaintiff, or where


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Online LibraryA. M. (Alured Myddelton) WilshereThe outlines of procedure in an action in the King's Bench Division : for the use of students → online text (page 1 of 11)