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Guide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists online

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dant Irs amices, 17S(i-!)7. Fol. with M plate-, Tan.-, 1M15-21.

Sdi-idiui, ,/. c. ,/,'. Description dc 1' Kgypte. Ilistoire naturelle. Crustacea,
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Wn ill iiinmi, >'./!. IT. Aussereuropaische Z \veilliigeligelnsecten. 2 vols. Hamm,
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( 'art is, .loli n. Farm Insects ; being the Natural History and Economy of the Insects
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Chevrolat, Aug. Coleopteres du Mexique. Strasbourg, 1834-5.

Stephens, J. F. Illustrations of British Entomology. London, 8vo, 1835. Sev-
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Kirby, W. Fauna boreali- Americana, etc. Norwich, 1837, 4to.

Koltar, V. Naturgeschichte der schaedlichen Insekten. Wien, 1837, 4to. Contains
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M<t<-f/utirt, J. Dipteres Exotique nouveaux on pen connus. 2 vols. en 5 parties, et
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JJurnu'ister, II. Manual of Entomology, translated by W. E. Shuckard. London,
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Iliiruieistcr, IL'rmmin. Zoologischer Hand Atlas. Berlin, 1836-43 fol., 41 plates.

Wt'xtn-ood, J. O. An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects. 2 vols.
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Cuvier, G. Le Kegne animal distribue d'apres son Organisation. Nouvelle edi-
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Insectes, Arachnides, Cru.-laces par Atiflouin, -Dlanchard, Doyere, Milne- Ed-
imn/rt et 7)n</> : *. 4 vols. Texte et 4 vola. atlas.

(;i : ri-M<'iK'rU]<\ F. E. Iconographie du Regne Animal de G. Cuvier, on repre-
sentation d'aprcs nature de 1'une des especes les plus remarquables et souvent
non encore ligurees de chaque genre d' animaux, vols. C et 7: Annelides, Crus-
taccs, Arachnides et Insectes, Paris, J. B. Bailliere, 1S29-14, 1G4 pi. 8vo.

Griffith, F. The Animal Kingdom, described and arranged in conformity with its
organization. London, 1824-33, 8vo. Class Insecta, 2 vols. with 140 pi. 1832.
Classes Annelida, ( 'rustacea et Arachnida. 1 vol. with (>0 pi.

Suiti-s n Unfa n <t Xaiircl/ex suite* it Ili/ji'on. Formant avec les CEuvres de cet
auteur un Cours complet d' Ilistoire naturelle. Paris, Dufart, 1798-1807. Paris,
Roret, 1S:',4-1S(;4, 8vo. (Insectes, Crustaces, Arachnides etc., par Latreille, Lacor-
tl<iir<-, Aini/nf, .tiiiiH-f-S<'rri//i', Ii<>i*ilin-(il, Gnenee, Itambur, Lepeletier de St.
Fiiri/i'dtt, M<n-<//iurt< Mi/in'- /-'i/trnri/.^, It'itilci-iidi-r, et Gervais).

f/o.s-xc, /'. //. Canadian Naturalist. London, 1840.

Xi'tter.-ifi-d'f, J. }\'. Insecta Lapponica. Lipsiae, 1840, 4to. Several species from
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l>ict,'t, /'. Ilistoire naturelle, etc., des insectes N.-uroptiies, Parti, Perlides; Part
II, Ephemeriues. Geneve, 1841-45, 8vo, with colored plates.


Doubleday, E., and Westwood, J. O. The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. SG col-
ored plates, 2 vols. fol. London, 184(i-. r )2.

Walker, F. List of the specimens of Lepidopterous, Dipterous, Neuropterous, and
Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. London, 1848-67.

Amyot, C., and Serville, A. Hemipteres. 8vo, Paris, Roi'et, 1843.

Ratzeburg. J. T, C. Die Forstinsekten. 4to, 3 vols. Berlin, 1837-44.
Van der Haven, J. Handbook of Zoology, English translation. 2 vols. 8vo, 1850.
Gerstaecker, A. Handbuch der Zoologie (in connection with V. Carus), 2 vols.
8vo. (vol. 2, Arthropoda). Leipzig, -1863.

De Selys Lovgchamps, E. Revue des Odonates ou Libelhiles d' Europe avec la col-
laboration de H. Hagen. Paris, 1850, 8vo. (Memoir. Soc. R. Science de Liege,
vol. vi.) (Two species, Lib, Hudsonica, p. 53, and Agrion Doubledayi, p. 209, are
described in this work.)

Hagen, H. Revue des Odonates ; Monographic des Calopterygines ; Monographic
des Gomphines (cf. Selys Longchamps).

Agassiz, L. Lake Superior, its Physical Character, its Vegetation, and its Animals,
Boston, 1K50. With Catalogue of Coleoptera, by Dr. J. L. Leconte, and of the
Lepidoptera, by Dr. T. W. Harris.

Lacaze-Duthiers, H. Recherches sur 1' armure genitale femelle des Insectes.
Plates. 8vo. Paris, 1853.

Melsheimer, F. E. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of the United States.
Smithsonian Institution. 8vo, 1853.

Dallas, W. S. Catalogue of Hemipterous Insects in the British Museum. 1, 2.
Illustrated. London, 1852.

Fitch, Asa. The noxious, beneficial, and other Insects of the State of New York.
Reports 1-8, 185n-f>G.

Smith, Frederic. Catalogue of Hymenoptera in the British Museum. Parts i-vi.
Plates. London. 1857-58.

Fallen, C. F., Stal, C., and Fieber. Various papers on Hemiptera in Scandinavian
and German periodicals.

Hiibner, J. Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge. 5 vols. 4to. Plates. 180G.

Guenee, A. Species general des Lepidopteres. (Noctuidse, Phalaenidae and Tyra-
lidae) Suite a Buffon. Paris, 8vo, 1852-57.

Stainton, H. T. The Natural History of the Tineina. 8vo, with many plates. Lon-
don, vols. 1-8, 1855-04, 8vo.

Lacordaire, J. T. Genera des Coleopteres. 8vo, tomes 1-7. Paris, Roret, 1854.

Boisduval,J. A. Histoire generale et Iconographie des Lepidopteres et des Che-
nilles de 1'Amerique septentrionale. 8vo. Paris, Roret, 1829-42.

. Species generale des Lepidopteres. 8vo. Roret, Paris, 1856.

. Essai sur 1' Entomologie horticole. 8vo. Paris, 18G7.

Practical Entomologist. Entomological Society of Philadelphia. Vols. 1, 2, 4to,

Harris, T. W. A Treatise on some of the Insects of New England, which are
injurious to Vegetation. Third edition, illustrated. Boston, 18G2.

Leconte, J. L. Classification of the Coleoptera of North America. Part I, 18G1-2.
Smithsonian Institution.

. List of Coleoptera of North America. 8vo, 1863-6. Smithsonian -Institu-

. New Species of North American Coleoptera. 8vo. Part 1, 1863-6. Smith-
sonian Institution.

. Coleoptera of Kansas and Eastern New Mexico. 4to. ' 3 plates. 1859.

Smithsonian Institution.

Hagen, H. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America. 8vo. 1861. Smith-
sonian Institution.

Morris, J. G. Catalogue of the described Lepidoptera of North America. 8vo,
1860. Smithsonian Institution.


Osten Sacken, 71. Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. 1858.

Smithsonian Institution.
Loeio, II., and u*t< n ,sv/r/.v, It. Monograph of the Diptera of North America.

Tarts !.-_>. Svo, 1SC-.MJ4. Smithsonian Institution.
Triinblt-, I. /'. \ Treatise on tlie Insect Enemies of Fruit and Fruit Trees. The

Curculioand Apple moth. 4to. Plates. New York, 1805.


Sai'igny, J. C. Memoires sur les Animaux sans VertMires. 1 Partie. Description
et ( lassilieationdes Auiinaux invertcbres et articules, 1. Fascicule. Theorie des
Organes de la Bouehe des Crustaces et des Insectcs. Paris, 1816.

Audoui n, J. V. Recherches anatomiques sur le Thorax des animaux articules et
celui des Insectes hexapodes en particulier. (Aunales d. Scienc. natur. 1, 1824,
p. 97 and 41G.)

Eschscholtz, J. F. Beschreibung des inneren Skeletes einiger Insekten aus ver-
schiedenen Ordnungen. Dorpat, 1820, Svo, p. 21-41), 2 Taf.

Baer, K. E. f. Ueber das aussere uud innere Skelet (Meckel's Archiv. f. Anatom.
u. Physiol. 1S2U, 1). 327-374).

Er'n-h*(n\, W. F. Ueber zoologische Charaktere der Insekten, Arachniden und
Crustaceen. (Entomographien, S. 1-28.) Berlin, 1840, 8vo.

Brulh', A. Itecherches sur les Transformations des Appendices daas les Arti-
cules (Annales des Sciences naturelles, 3. ser. II, 1844, p. 271-374).

Leuckart, R. Ueber die Morphologic und die Verwandtschaftsverhaltnisse der
Wirbellosen Thiere. Braunschweig, 1848, Svo.


Straus-Diirckheim, If. Considerations generates sur P Anatomic compared des
Animaux articules, auxquelles on a joint P Anatomic descriptive du Melolontha
vulgaris. Paris, 1828, 4to. 10 pi.

Dufonr, L. Numerous anatomical papers in the Annales des Sciences naturelles,

Sii'lialil, C. Th.v. Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomic der wirbellosen Thiere.
Berlin, 1848, Svo. Translated by W. I. Burnett. Boston, ia r )l, 8vo.

Gegenbmtr, C. Grundziige der vergleichenden Anatomic. Leipzig, IS^n, Svo.

Geoffroji St. intuire, frtienne. Considerations philosophiques sur la deterniination
du Systeme solide et du Systeme nerveux des Animaux articules. (Annal. d.
gcienr.. natur. II, 182t, p. -2!:> 11'., Ill, p. l!Hi u. p. 4r>:{ ff.)

\<ir]n,rt, G. On the Structure, Relations, and Development of the nervous and
circulatory Systems, and on the existence of a complete Circulation of the Blood
in Vessels, in Myriapoda and Macrourous Arachnida. (Philosoph. Transact-
1843, p. 213-302.)

. On the Structure and Development of the Blood, I. ser. The Development

of the Blood Corpuscle in Insects and other Invertebrata, and its Comparison
with that of Man and the Vertebrate. (Annals of Nat. Hist. XV, 1S45, p. 281-284.)

. On the- Nervous System of the Sphinx ligustri Lin. and on the Changes

which it undergoes during a Part of the Metamorphoses of the Insect. (Philo-
soph. Transact. 1832, p. 383-398, and 1834, 389-4-2:'..)

. On the Temperature of Insects and its Connexion with Functions of Res-
piration and Circulation in this class of Invertebrated Animals. (Philosoph.
Transact. is:57, p. 2.V.)-:{:5S.)

IHaiirlnirfl, /:. Iferheivhes anatomiques et zoologiques sur le Systeme nervenxdes
Animaux sans vertebres. Du systeme uerveux des Insectes. (Annal. d. scienc.
natur. 3. ser. V, 1840, p. 273-379.)


SlancJiard, E. Du Systeme nerveux chez les Invert^bre's dans ses rapports avec la

Classification de ces Animanx. Paris, 1849, 8vo.
Milne- Edwards, II. LCQOIIS surla Physiologic et P Anatomic comparee de 1'Homme

et des Animaux. Paris, Masson 1857-04, 8vo.


Jlathke, H. Untersuchungen iibcr die Bildung und Entwickelung des Flusskreb-

ses, Leipzig, Voss. 1829, Fol. mit 5 Taf.
. Znr Morphologic, Reisebemerkungeii aus Taurien. Riga, 1837, 4to, mit 5

Ilerold, J. M. Exercitationes de animalium vertebris carentium in ovo formatione

I. De generatione A ran earn m in ovo. Untersuchungen liber die Bildungsge-

schichte der Wirbellosen Thiere im Ei. 1. Th. Yon der Erzeuguug der Spinnen

im Ei. Marburg, Krieger, 1824, fol. mit 4 Taf.
Disquisitiones de animalium vertebris carentium in ovo formatione. De

generatione Insectorum in ovo. Fasc. I, II, Frankfurt a Main, 1835-38, fol.
Kolliker, A. Observationes de prima Insectorum genesi, adjecta articulatorum

evolutionis cum vertebratorum comparatione. Dissert, inaug. Turici, Meyer et

Zeller, 1842, 4to c. tab. 3.
Zaddach, G. Untersuchung liber die Entwickelung und den Bau der Gliederthiere.

Heft 1. Die Entwickelung des Phryganiden-Eies. Berlin, Reimer. 1854, 4to, c.

tab. 5.
Leuckart, E. Die Fortpflanzung und Entwickelung der Pupiparen nach Beobach-

tungen an Melophagus ovinus. (Abhandl. d. naturf. Gesellsch. zu Halle IV, 1858

S. 145-220.)
Huxley, T. On the agamic Reproduction and Morphology of Aphis (Transact.

Linnean Soc. of London, XXII, p. 193-230.)
Lubbock, J. On the Ova and Pseudova of Insects (Philosophical Transactions

of the Royal Soc. 1859, p. 341-309.

Claparkde, E. Recherches sur 1'evolution des Araignees. 4to. Utrecht, 1802.
Weismann, A. Ueber die Entstehung des vollendeten Insekts in Larveund Puppe.

Ein Beitrag zur Metamorphose der Insekten, Frankfurt a Main, 1803, 4 to.
. Die Entwickelung der Dipteren im Ei, nach Beobachtungen an Chirono-

mus, Musca vomitoria und Pulex canis (Zeitschrift fur Wissenschal'tliche Zo-

ologie XIII, p. 107-204.)
. Die nachembryonale Entwickelung der Musciden nach Beo.bachtungen an

Musca vomitoria und Sarcophaga carnaria. (The same, XIV, p. 187-336.)


Giebel, C. Fauna der Vorwelt mit steter Beriicksichtigung der lebenden Thiere.
2. Bd. Gliederthiere. 1. Abtheilung. Die Insekten und Spinnen der Vorwelt mit
steter Beriicksichtigung der lebenden Insekten und Spinnen. Leipzig, 1850, 8vo.

Eerendt, C. G. Die im Bernstein befindlicheii organischen Reste der Vorwelt, ge-
sammelt und in Verbindung mit Mehreren herausgegeben. 1. Band. 2, Abth.
Die im Bernstein befindlichen Ci - ustaceen,Myriapoden, Arachniden und apteren
der Vorwelt, bearbeitet von C. L. Koch und C. G. Jlerendt.2. Band. Die im
Bernstein beflndlichen Hemipteren, Orthopteren, und Neuropteren der Vorwelt,
bearbeitet von E. F. Germar, F. J. Pictet, und //. Hagen. Berlin, 1854-50, fol.

Heer, O. Die Insecten-faunader Tertiaergebilde von CEningen und Radoboj. Leip-
zig, 1849, 4to, 3 vols.

Scudder, S. H. An inquiry into the Zoological Relations of the first discovered
Traces of fossil Neuropterous Insects in North America. From the Memoirs of
the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 1, 1807, with a plate.


PERIODICAL WORKS (now in course of publication).

J-:dir<tr*lx, }}'. II. Butterflies <>1 'North America. Colored plates. Commenced 1868.

Annul** (It- la Soi-ictc entoatologk}ll6 de Franco, Paris. Commenced 1832.

Truii*u*-ti<>n* of tin- Kntomological Society of London. Commenced 1834.

/, Insi'fto/oi/ii' Ai/r'K'ole, Monthly Journal, Paris. Commenced 18G7.

Ziitninj. Kntomotogische Verein, .Stettin. Commenced 1840.

Liiniu'u ditoi/ioloijicu. Entomologischo Verein, Berlin. Commenced 1846.

Zi-it.n-hrift. Kntomologische Verein, Berlin. Commenced 1857.

Annul*'* de la societ ; entomologique Beige, Brussels. Commenced 1857.

I'm, -ni/iii//* ol' the Academy ol' Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Commenced 1819.

Jiinniu/ of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Commenced 1817.

Trun*u<'ti*>n* of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Commenced

1'i-tii-i-i'ifiiif/K of the Boston Society of Natural History. Commenced 1834.

./nitfii il of the Boston Society of Natural History. Commenced 1834.

.liiiiul* of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. Commenced 1824.

/ro'-odinu* <ni*l Trun*u*'tion.x of the American Entomological Society, Philadel-
phia. Commenced 1801.

Proceeding* and Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem. Commenced 1848.
X.itttrtdist, Salem. Commenced March, 18G7.

ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL. Every collector should keep a
daily journal of his captures and observations, noting down
every fact and hint that falls under his notice. In this book,
commenced as soon as the season opens in early spring, can
be placed on record the earliest appearance, the time of great-
est abundance, and the disappearance of e"very insect in any of
its stages. Also the descriptions of larvaj, with sketches, and
observations upon their habits ; though drawings had better
be kept upon separate pieces of paper for easier reference.
The insects, when captured and unnamed should be numbered
to agree with corresponding numbers in the note-book. At
the close of the season one will be surprised to see how much
material of this kind has accumulated. He can then make a
calendar of appearances of perfect insects and larvae, so as
to have the work of the next season portioned out to him ;
he will thus know when and where to look for any particular
insect or caterpillar.

that the Insects comprise four-fifths of the whole animal king-
dom. While there arc about 55,000 species of animals known,
excluding the Insects, the number of this last single class
amounts to upwards of 190,000 known species, according to


Gerstaecker's estimate. He reckons that there are at least
25,000 species of Hymenoptera, from 22,000 to 24,000 Lepidop-
tera, about 24,000 Diptera, and 90,000 Coleoptera ; the number
of the other suborders cannot be easily estimated. Besides
these there are about 4,600 Arachnida, and 800 Myriapocls.

fore beginning an account of the Six-footed Insects, we
present the .following tabular view of the Classification of In-
sects. The idea that the Myriapods, Spiders, and Six-footed
Insects formed orders and not classes was first proposed by R.
Leuckart in 1848, and afterwards supported by Agassiz and
Dana. The arrangements proposed by these and other authors
are put in tabular form on page 106.


Order I. Segments grouped into three distinct re-
gions ; eyes compound and simple ; two pairs of
wings:* three pairs of thoracic legs; one pair of
jointed abdominal appendages. A more or less
complete metamorphosis,

Order //.Segments grouped into two regions, a
false cephalothorax f and an abdomen ; no antennas ;
eyes simple ; wingless ; four pairs of thoracic legs ;
three pairs of jointed'abdominal appendages (spin-
nerets) often present. No metamorphosis, .

Order III. Body C3 r lindrical, worm-like. Segments
not grouped into regions (except in the recently
hatched young). Head free; eyes simple; an-
tenna? present; wingless; yelk-sac present for a
short period after hatching. No metamorphosis,

(Six-footed In-






First and higher series. Body usually cylindrical ; )

prothorax small; mouth-parts more* generally | HYMENOPTERA.
haustellate (formed for sucking) ; metamorphosis }>LEPIDOPTERA.
complete ; pupa inactive ; larva usually cylindri- | DIPTEHA
cal, very unlike the adult, . . . . . }

Second and lower series. Body usually flattened ; "| r

prothorax large and squarish ; mouth-parts usually | V T ,. PT '
adapted for biting; metamorphosis incomplete; ^Arjr
pupa often inactive ; larva flattened, often resem- i ^
bling the adult, . . . . . . . J NEUROPTERA.

* The number of wingless forms is comparatively few. The Diptera have but
one pair. 4

tThe so-called " cephalothorax" of Spiders is not like that region in the Crabs,
the head being much freer from the thorax.

JLeuckart's classification is an advance on others in his considering the Hexa-
poda, Arachnida, and Myriapoda as orders instead of classes, but he says nothing



The following diagram shows, in a rude way, the relative
rank and :if Unities of the seven suborders, and of the two
series of Six-footed Insects.


Through Lepisma, and Podura which are wingless Neuropter-
insects, the lower series is connected with the Myriapods,
the minute degraded myriapod, Pauropus of Lubbock, per-
haps forming the connecting link ; and through the wingless
flieSj Braula, Chionea, and Nycteribia, the Diptera, belonging
to the higher series, assume the form of the Spielers, the head
being small, and sunken into the thorax, while the legs are
long and slender. The first and highest series culminates in
Apis, the Honey-bee ; and the second, or knyer, in Cicindela,
the Tiger-beetle.

regarding the rank and value of the minor groups. Professor Agassiz extended
Lcuekart's views in considering the seven grand divisions of the order of Hexapods
as suborders. In 18G3 (How to Observe and Collect Insects, Maine Scientific Sur-
vey, and Synthetic Types of Insects, Boston Journal of Natural History), we
proposed a new classification of these suborders, by which they are thrown into
two main groups headed by the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera respectively. These
two groups, as represented in the diagram, are nearly equivalent in value, and
stand in a somewhat parallel relation. There is nothing like a linear series in the
animal kingdom, but rather a net-work. The higher series of suborders form more
of a linear series than the lower series, so that in the diagram the Neuroptera,
Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera form a more broken series than the Hy-
menoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. A Bee, Butterfly, and House-fly are much
more closely allied to each other than' a Beetle, a Squash-bug, a Grasshopper,
and a Dragon-fly are among themselves. The Neuroptera are the mo?t indepen-
dent, and stand at the bottom of and between the two series, though by the Orthop-
tera they are very intimately linked with the Hemipteru and Coleoptera.



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Suborders 1

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IIYM i:\OlTKi; A. 1Q7


THE Bees, Wasps, Saw-flies, Ants, and other members of this
suborder differ from all other insects in having, in the higher and
more typical forms, the basal joint of the abdomen thrown for-
ward upon and intimately united with the thorax. The head
is large, with large compound eyes, and three ocelli. The
mouth-parts are well developed both for biting, and feeding on
the sweets of plants, the ligula especially, used in lapping
nectar, being greatly developed. The other regions of the
body are more distinct than in other insects ; the wings are
small but powerful, with comparatively few and somewhat
irregular veins, adapted for powerful and long-sustained flights ;
and the genital appendages retracted, except in the Ichneu-
mon parasites and Saw-flies, within the body, are in the female
modified into a sting.

The transformations of this suborder are the most complete
of all insects ; the larvae in their general form are more unlike
the adult insects than in any other suborder, while the pupae,
on the other hand, most clearly approximate to the imago.
The larvae are short, cylindrical, footless (excepting the young
of the Saw-flies, the lowest family, which are provided with
abdominal legs like Lepidopterous larvae), worm-like grubs,
which are helpless, and have to be fed by the prevision of the
parent. The pupa has the limbs free, and is generally contained
in a thin silken cocoon ; that of the Saw-flies, however, being

The Hymenoptera exhibit, according to Professor Dana, the
normal size of the insect-type. "This archetypic size is be-

NOTE to page 100. Ray divided the Hexapods into Coleoptera, and Aneloptera,
the latter division embracing all the other suborders except the Coleoptera. His
Amctamorphotd Hexapoda contained the wingless hcxapoda; while the Ametamor-
phota polypoda comprise the Myriapods, and the A. octopoda the Arachnids. Lin-
n:ni-' Apttra (with numerous 1'eet) are equivalent to the Myriapods,and his Aptera
(with 8-14 feet) to the Arachnids. In Fabricius' system the Kleutherata are equiva-
lent to the Coleoptera; the Ulonata to the Orthoptera; the Si/n istnta to the Neurop-
tera; the I'ieznta to the Hymenoptera; the Odonata to theLibellulidae; the Glossata
tu the Li'pidoptera; the Jlliynr/otu to the Hemiptera; the Antlintn to the Diptera.
The Mitoxntd are the Myriapods, and the Unoyata, the Arachnids. In Latreille's
system the Suctoria, or Fleas, are now referred to the Diptera; Jhe Parasite or
Lice, to the Hemiptera, and the Thysanura to the Neuroptera.


tween eight and twelve lines (or twelfths of an inch) in length,
and two and a half and three lines in breadth." This size is
probably a smaller average than in any other suborder ; thus the
Hymenoptera while being the most cephalized, consequently
comprise the most compactly moulded insectean forms.

Besides these structural characters, as animals, endowed
with instincts and a kind of reason differing, perhaps, only in
degree from that of man, these insects outrank all other Articu-
lates. In the unusual differentiation of the individual into males

Online LibraryA. S. (Alpheus Spring) PackardGuide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists → online text (page 10 of 29)