A. S. (Alpheus Spring) Packard.

Guide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists online

. (page 24 of 29)
Online LibraryA. S. (Alpheus Spring) PackardGuide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists → online text (page 24 of 29)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Montinus, a more diminutive species, was discovered by Mr.
Scudder on the lower half of the barren summits of the White
Mountains. Allied to this last species by their size, are A.
Myrina Cramer and A. Bellona Fabr. found in damp meadows
late in summer.
A. Myrina has
tawny wings bor-
dered with black
above, and ex-
pands from one
and three-fourths
to one and eight-
tenths of an inch.
A. Bellona differs
from the other
species by not Fi s- 183t

having any silvery spots on the under side of the wings. Mr.
Saunders has reared A. Myrina from eggs deposited June 24th,
by a specimen confined in a box. "The egg is pale green,
elongated, shaped something like an acorn, with the base
smooth, convex and the circumference striated longitudinally,
with about fourteen raised striae which are linear and smooth ;
the spaces between are about three times wider than the striae,
depressed, concave- in the middle, and ribbed by a number of
cross lines, fifteen to twenty between each striae, and distinctly
indented. The egg is contracted at the apex, the striae protrud-
ing at the tip all around a little beyond the body of the egg.
The larva hatched in six or seven days, and when fresh from the

* The upper side of the wings are figured on the left side, and the under side
on the right, in this and in FIGS. 184 and 188.


egg was about one-tenth of an inch long. The head is medium
sized, black, and shining ; the body above is dark brown, with
transverse lines of a paler color, especially on the anterior seg-
ments ; it is thickly covered with stout hairs of a pale brownish
color ; between the first and second moult it is one- fourth of an
inch long. The head is bilobed, shining, black and hairy, and
the body above is greenish black, the greenish tinge most
apparent on the second and third segments, with a few small
yellowish dots along each side, and transverse rows of strongly
elevated, black tubercles, emitting numerous short, black hair-
like spines.

' ' The under surface is similar to the upper ; the feet are black
and shining, and the prolegs are black, tipped with a paler hue.
After the second moult there are two fleshy tubercles on the
second segment much longer than the others, being three or
four times their length, which are covered throughout with
small hair-like spines. The yellowish spots along the sides of
the body assume more of an orange tint, and there are one or
two faint, longitudinal streaks of the same color along the sides
close to the under surface, and between the rows of large, raised
tubercles, are many smaller ones which are also black and
appear but slightly raised. August 7th the larva was full-
grown. The head is, at this period, slightly bilobed, black,
shining, and covered with short, fine, black hairs.

"The body above is dark greyish brown, beautifully spotted
and dotted with deep velvety black ; the second segment, has
two long, fleshy horns, yellowish white at base, black above,
covered with minute, blackish, hair-like spines. The third and
fourth segment, have each four whitish spines tipped with
black, those on the sides placed on the anterior portion of
the segment, those above about the middle. All the other seg-
ments have six whitish spines, excepting the terminal one,
which has four. All the spines have fine branches of a black
or brownish black color and are about one-third the length of
the fleshy horns on the second segment. A pale line extends
along each side from the fifth to the terminal segments close to
the under surface. The under surface is brownish black, darker
on the anterior segments ; feet black and shining ; prolegs
brown, with a shining band of brownish black on the outside.



The duration of the pupa stage was ten or eleven da3 T s." The
pupa, received from Mr. Saunders, has two large, conical tuber-
cles in front of the insertion of the antennae, and two acute
tubercles on the pro-
thorax. The thorax is
acutely bituberculated
on the sides, with an
acute thin dorsal ridge,
on each side of which
are two small, sharp
tubercles. Along the
back of the abdomen Fig. 184.

are two rows of tubercles, those on the third abdominal ring
being much larger. It is half an inch long, and pale ash,
with black dots and irregular lines.

Melitcea differs in not having silver spots beneath, while the

caterpillars are covered with
blunt tubercles which give rise
to short stiff bristles. They
feed on different species of
Fig. 185. plantain. The chrysalids are

like those of Argynnis, but spotted with black or brown, and
not with golden.

Melitcea Phaeton Drury (Fig. 184) is found in damp bogs.
We have taken the young larva less than one-half of an inch
long, early in spring under leaves, where it had
doubtless hibernated. The mature larva (Fig.
185, enlarged, the specimen from which the
drawing was made, is too contracted, the head
being drawn in unnaturally ; fig. 186, pupa) is
cylindrical, and the head is slightly angulated.
There are nine rows of black spines which are
fleshy and surrounded at the tips with rather
long, thickset spinules. The head and thoracic
and last three abdominal rings are black ; the rest
of the body being deep orange, with black lines between the
spines, and dots along the side. Towards the last of May and
early in June it changes to a chrysalis, which is white with a
slight bluish tinge, with yellow papillae, and scattered black


spots, gh r ing it a gay and variegated appearance. The butter-
fly rises from cold, swampy places the last of June and early
in July. Its wings are velvety black, with orange red cres-
cents and spots. It expands from two to two and a quarter
inches, being our largest species.

M. Tharos Boisd. and Leconte is a very abundant species in
New England. There are two broods, one appearing in June
and early in July, and the second one late in August and Sep-
tember. It has short, broad wings which are tawny orange
above, with black, irregular lines and spots ; it expands from
one and three-tenths to one and a half inches.

Mr. Saimders has sent us a remarkable and undescribed but-
terfly, under the name of Melitcea Packardii Saunders, with the
following description: "It resembles M. Tharos in size, and
expands 1.42 of an inch. The palpi are pale brown above, yel-
lowish below ; antennae black above, dotted with white and
tipped with red ; below white tipped with red. Head, thorax
and abdomen, black above, clothed with brownish hairs ; white
underneath ; feet brownish yellow ; wings above brown, with a
cupreous tinge, sprinkled with fulvous atoms, with a wide band
of dark brown on the outer margin, faintly edged on each side
with black. The primaries have a fulvous macular band a short
distance from the base, extending nearly across the wings, and
a patch of the same hue a little beyond and towards the front
margin. Beyond the middle is a wide band of the same,
divided by the veins into a series of seven spots ; the upper one
is very small, a mere dot with a whitish hue ; the second is much
larger ; the third and fourth are nearly uniform in size, larger
and more elongated than the second ; the fifth and sixth are the
largest and wider and longer than any of the upper ones ; the
seventh is nearly of the same width as the sixth, but not more
than half the length ; the fringe is dotted with white, especially
about the tip.

"On the secondaries a wide fulvous patch covers the inner
part of the wing, extending from near the base to near the
middle of the wing, and bounded towards the inner margin by
a brown edging ; within this patch are three rounded blackish
spots, one most distinct about the middle, the others near the
inner margin and partly lost in the brown edging of the wing


Beyond this is an imperfect band of fulvous spots, in continua-
tion of those on the primaries ; the upper ones faint and indis-
tinct, and two of the lower ones prominent and nearly round ;
the last small and linear. The inner margin is edged with
fulvous, having a yellowish tinge which encroaches on the outer
brown marginal band at the anal angle. The fringe of the
secondaries is dotted with dull white. The primaries below
are fulvous, with a single wavy, brown line across the wing a
short distance within the outer margin ; base yellowish, costal
margin sprinkled with dark brown atoms, and a streak of the
same along the middle of the wing near the hind margin. At
the tip is a j'ellowish patch, occupying the space between
the brown line and the margin, and within this, one of silvery
white nearly equal in size. Below the white are three indis-
tinct, yellowish patches, the lower one extending to the outer
margin ; a large patch of yellow at the lower corner where the
outer and hinder margins meet. The secondaries below are
yellowish from the base to near the middle, with streaks and
spots of brown ; the yellowish color extending down the inner
to the hinder .margin. Beyond the middle the wings are
silvery white, sprinkled with yellow and brown scales, divided
by the brown veins and partially crossed by an irregular streak
of brown. There are also two brown patches on the hind mar-
gin, the smaller one nearly round and occupying the space
between the first and second median venules ; the larger being
irregular and resting on the median vein, and extending across
the third to the second subcostal venule. It was taken near
Grimsby, Ontario Count} r , Canada."

Melitcea (Enone Scudder is rarely found in Maine and Mas-
sachusetts ; it is pale fulvous above, with blackish brown
markings, and expands from one and three-fifths to one and
four-fifths inches. M. Harrisii Scudder may be readily distin-
guished from M. (Enone by the under surface of the hind wings
being cinnamon-red, with bands and spots of white margined
with black. It expands one and three-fourths inches and is
found in New England, though rather a rare species. The larva
has been reared in Norway, Maine, by Mr. S. I. Smith. It feeds
on Diplopappua umbellatus, pupating from the middle to the
last of June, and remaining in the chrysalis state from ten to


sixteen days ; the butterfly appears from June 20th to Aug.
1st. The larva (Fig. 187) has also been discovered in Vermont
by Mr. P. S. Sprague, and we describe it briefly from an alco-
holic specimen, in the collection of Mr. Sanborn. It is cylin-
drical, with six acute, small tubercles on each side of each
thoracic ring, while on the abdominal rings the four dorsal

tubercles are larger and re-
markably boot-shaped, the
toe being formed by a lateral
prolongation of the tubercle,
Fi s- 187 - and the heel is also well

formed, from which arises a short bristle. The specimen is
dark, with a lighter stripe along the back on each side of the
median line of the body. Its length is .80 of an inch.

M. Chalcedon Doubleday is found in California and the
Rocky Mountains, while M. Anicia Doubleday, the under side
of which is much like that of Chalcedon, occurs not only in
California and the Rock}* 1 Mountains but also in Kansas. M.
Texana Edwards is a Texan species expanding one and one-
half inches.

In Vanessa the wings are notched and angulated or tailed on
the hind edges, while the palpi are long and beak-like. The
larva is cylindrical and stoutly spined, the spines being long
and branched. The caterpillars are gregarious during the early
stages. "The head of the chrysalis is deeply notched, or fur-
nished with two ear-like prominences ; the sides are very angu-
lar ; in the middle of the thorax there is a thin projection, in
profile, somewhat like a Roman nose, and on the back are two
rows of very sharp tubercles of a golden color." (Harris.)
Vanessa Antiopa Linn, is one of our most abundant butterflies,
being much more common in this country than in Europe,
whence it has probably been imported. Its wings are purplish
brown above, with a broad buff yellow border in which is a row
of pale blue spots. The butterfly hibernates, appearing before
the snow is off the ground. It is seen until June, and then
not until the middle of August. The larva is black, spotted
minutely with white, with a row of eight dark, brick-red spots
on the back. The ch^salis is dark brown, with large tawny
spots around the tubercles on the back. The caterpillar defoli-


ates the willow, poplar and Balm of Gilead. Vanessa Mil-
bertfi Godart is much smaller and is rather rare. It occurs
about roadsides in May, July and August. The larva feeds
on nettles. Mr. Saunders informs me that "it was found feed-
ing on the nettle, nearly full grown, July 2Gth. It was from
one to one and one-eighth inches long. The head is black,
thickly covered with line, brownish white hairs, and sprinkled
with many minute whitish dots. The body is black, thickly
sprinkled with whitish dots and with small, fine, white hairs,
each segment, excepting the second, with a transverse row of
branching spines. A greenish yellow lateral line runs close to
the under surface, with a second broken line of a brighter yel-
low color. All the spines and their branches are black, except-
ing the lower row on each side from the fifth to the twelfth
segment, springing from the greenish yellow lines ; these are of
a greenish yellow color. Under surface dull greenish, minutely
dotted with whitish dots. There is a wide, central, blackish
stripe covering anteriorly, nearly the whole of the under sur-
face." V. Californica Boisd. is bright fulvous, with three black
bands on the anterior edge of the fore-wings, and there are no
black crescents in the black border of the wings.

The genus Grapta differs from the preceding in its deeply
incised wings, its smaller size, and red and brown colors.
The under side of the hind wings has usually a silvery or
golden dot and curved line, or both, imitating different punc-
tuation marks. Grapta interrogation's Doubleday is one of the
largest species, and has a golden semicolon beneath. It is found
in May, August, and in autumn. The caterpillars injure the
foliage of the elm and lime trees, and also the hop vine, some-
times defoliating the whole vine. The larva has been found,
by Mr. Saunders, feeding on the hop, August 7th. "When
full grown its length is one and one-fourth inches. The head
is reddish black, flat in front and somewhat bilobed, each lobe
tipped with a tubercle emitting five single, black, pointed
spines ; it is covered with many small, white, and several black-
ish tubercles. The body is cylindrical, black, thickly covered
with streaks and dots of yellowish white ; the second segment
is without spines, but with a row of yellowish tubercles in their
place ; the third segment has four branching spines, all black,


with a spot of dark yellow at their base.; and on the fourth
segment are four spines, as there are on all the others, except-
ing the terminal, which has two pairs, one posterior to the
other. The spines are yellow, with blackish branches, except-'
ing the terminal pair which is black ; and there is a row of
reddish ones on each side. The under surface is yellowish grey,
darker on the anterior segments, with a central line of blackish
and many small, black dots." The chrysalis state lasts from
twelve to fourteen days. It is ash brown, with the head deeply
notched, and eight silvery spots on the back. Grapta c-argen-
teum Kirby (Fig. 188, G. Progne Harris) is a small species
with a silvery L in the middle of the under side of the hind
wings. It is our most common species northward. It appears
the last of summer. The larva lives on the hop and elm.

Grapta comma Double-
day is more common
southward. It is known
by having a silvery
comma in the middle
of the hinder wings.
The caterpillar lives on
the hop and elm. Mr.
W. H. Edwards has
Fig. 188. found the larvae on the

broad-leaved nettle. He says " my attention was first attracted
by observing certain leaves drooping, and more or less eaten.
On the under side of these I usually found the caterpillar
inactive, ajid never more than one upon the same plant. The
half-grown larvae were black, with a yellowish stripe along the
side from the third segment to the tail, and with yellow stripes
across the back, and spots of the same color at the base of
the dorsal spines, which were yellow, tipped with black. The
mature larvae were white, mottled or striped with grey or
ashen, and with red spiracles."

The chrysalis is brownish gray or white, variegated witfr
pale brown, and ornamented with gold on the tubercles. The
fly appears in May, July, August and September. In the colder
and mountainous portions of New England and New York,
these species are replaced by the Grapta Faunus of Edwards,


who states that "comparing Faunas with c-album, the former
is deeper colored by many decrees ; it is one-fifth larger, the
black spots and margins much heavier, and, owing to this and
the depth of the ground-color, the general hue of the surface is
much darker than either c-album or any of the American spe-
cies." The under side of G. Faunus is beautifully marbled in
several colors.

The genus Pyrameis differs from Vanessa in having the
wings simply scalloped, not notched ; beneath, they are not
marked with metallic colors, and the long, tapering palpi curve
upward. The larvae are covered with branched spines, corre-
sponding in size, and often wanting on the first and last seg-
ments ; the head is heart-shaped. They are solitary, hiding
under a rolled leaf or spinning a slight web, and hang by the
hind feet alone when about to transform. The chrysalids are
angular on the sides, with two or three lateral rows of sharp,
golden tubercles, and a short, thick tubercle on the top of the
thorax. P. cardui Linn, feeds on thistles and the sunflower,
the hollyhock, burdock and other rough-leaved plants, in June
and July. It remains in the pupa state twelve days, the but-
terfly appearing in Maine, about the 20th of July. Pyrameis
Huntera Fabr. has much the same habits, while P. Atalanta
Linn, feeds on the nettle. These species are all double-
brooded, first appearing in May and then in July, August
and September.

Junonia is closely allied to Vanessa. J. coenia Boisd. and
Lee. is found in the Southern States, the West Indies, Mexico
and California.

In Limenitis the antennae are very slender, and the hind
wings are scalloped, while on both wings the discal area is
open. The caterpillar and chrysalis are like those of Danais.
L. Misippus Fabr. (Fig. 189) is tawny yellow above, and of a
paler yellow beneath, with a broad, black border, spotted with
white, and black veins. It expands from three to three and a
half inches and flies from June to September. The larva is
pale brown, variegated with white on the sides, and some-
times with green on the back ; the prothoracic ring has two
slender, blackish, spinulated horns, and on the tenth and
eleventh rings are short tubercles. It feeds on the poplar and



willow. The pupa is known by a thin, almost circular, projec-
tion standing out from its back. The young larvae winter in
cases "composed of the leaf of the willow, on which the larva
feeds, neatly joined by its longest opposite margins, so as to
form a cylindrical tube closed at one end and lined with silk."
(Trouvelot.) L. Ephestion Stoll is blue black, with three black
lines on the hind edges, and just within the outer border is a
row of orange colored spots. It lives on the scrub-oak (Quercus
ilicifolia) in June, and also on the whortleberry and the cherry.
Limenitis Arthemis Drury is smaller and has an oblique, broad,
white band, crossing both wings. It is common in the White
and Adirondack Mountains, where it is double brooded, ap-
pearing late
in June, and
again late in

The superb
and regal ge-
nus Morpho
is the Atlas
among but-
terflies. The
broad wings
spread nearly

six inches, and are usually of a brilliant blue above, and brown
beneath, with eye-like spots. Morpho Menelaus Linn., from
Brazil, expands five and a half inches. M. Polyphemus Chenu
is a Mexican species. M. Epistrophis Hubner is of a delicate
pale green, with two rows of lunate brown spots on the hind
wings. The apex of the fore- wings is. brown, and the discal
spot is connected with the brown costa. It inhabits Brazil.

The genus Satyrus, and its allies, Chionobas, Hipparchia and
Neonympka, are wood brown and ornamented, especially be-
neath, with eye-like spots, and have the wings entire, with the
veins of the fore-wings swelled at their base, and the discal
area open on the hind wings. They have a short, quick, jerky
flight. The caterpillars are green and smooth, spindle-shaped,
or cylindrical, tapering at both ends ; the hind end is notched,

Fig. 189.*

*FiGS. 189, 190 and 198, are from Tenney's Zoology.



and the head entire or notched. They live mostly on grasses.
k 'The chrysalis is cither oblong and somewhat angular on the
sides, with the head notched, and two rows of pointed tuber-
cles on the hack, or short and rounded,
with the head obtuse." (Harris). Chio-
nobas is found on Alpine summits and
in the Arctic regions and on subarctic
mountains. C. semidea Say (Fig. 190 ;
Fig. 191, hind wing) lives on the summit
of Mount Washington. It feeds on

Mr. Scudder, has in the accompanying
figures, closely exhibited the differences
between the Alpine and Arctic species
of Chionobas. C. Jutta Moschler (Fig.
Northern Labrador ; it extends as far south as Quebec, accord-
ing to Edwards. C. Chrixus Doubleday, (Fig. 193) is found
on Pike's Peak, Colorado Territory ; C. Calais Scudder (Fig.
194) is found on Albany River, Hudson's
Bay ; C. Bore Schiodte (Fig. 195) we
have collected in Hopedale, Labrador,
as also C. CEno Boisd. (Fig. 196).

Satyrus Alope Fabr. is our largest spe-
cies. It is dark brown, with a broad,
ochre-yellow band beyond the middle.
It is abundant in open fields in July and August,
green larva is striped with dark, the head is round, and the tail
is forked. The chrysalis is rather long, rounded on the sides
and with the head notched. S. Nephele Kirby is the more

Fig. 190.

192) we took


Fig. 192.

The pale

Fig. 193. Fig. 194. Fig. 195. Fig. 196.

northern form, and in the upper Middle States, as about the
('Mt skill mountains, occupies higher ground, according to Mr.
Kdwards, while S. Alope, which prevails southward, is found
in the lowlands and valleys. S. Nephele is smaller, darker, and


there is no yellow band on the fore-wings, though, sometimes,
each eye-like spot is surrounded by a yellowish diffuse ring.

Neonymplia Eurytris Fabr. flies low, with a jerky sort of.
motion, in thick woods, in June and July. The larva is like
that of S. Alope, while the chrysalis is shorter with the head
obtusely rounded. The adult is dark brown, with two black
eye-spots, pupilled with a lead-colored dot, and surrounded
with an ochre-yellow ring. On the hind wing is a smaller, simi-
lar spot. It expands one and seven-tenths of an inch.

The aberrant genus Libytliea, with its long, snout-like palpi,
reminds us of the Pyralids. It is small and the wings are
irregularty notched. L. Bachmanii of Kirtland is not a common
butterfly. It occurs southward, and in Central America and
the West Indies.

The small, delicate Theclas and Lycaenas are often of great
beauty and interest. The palpi are elongated, the wings
entire, and the hind pair are often once or double tailed.
The larvae are slug-like, as when moving on their short feet,
sixteen in number, they seem rather to glide than walk. They
are oval, flat below and rounded above, both extremities being
much alike, with the small head retracted within the body.
The short and thick chrysalids are flat beneath, but very con-
vex above and rounded at each end. Chrysoplianus Ameri-
canus Harris, our most abundant form, is coppery red above.
Its green larva feeds on the sorrel, and there are three broods
of butterflies in the year. The chrysalis is usually suspended
under a stone. One sent by Mr. Saunders, is smooth, with
no fine hairs. The head and thorax, including the wings, is
dull reddish brown, dotted with black ; the abdomen is much
lighter cinereous, with very distinct, and irregular black dots,
and a lateral row of twin black dots, one dot being a little
behind its mate. On the middle of the back are three rows of
smaller black dots. It is .45 of an inch in length. Chryso-
plianus Tlwe Westwood is quite a rare species. Mr. Saunders

Online LibraryA. S. (Alpheus Spring) PackardGuide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists → online text (page 24 of 29)