MAN, THE MICROCOSM,
ABRAHAM COLES, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D.,
WITH PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR AND FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS OF
"AMBROSE PARE," " EDWARD JENNER," "ANDREAS VESALIUS,"
"WILLIAM HARVEY," "PROF. TULP AND HIS PUPILS"
BY REMBRANDT, THE "APOLLO BELVEDERE," THE
" VENUS DE MEDICI," " THEODOR BILLROTH
AND HIS CLINICAL ASSISTANTS," ETC.
EDITED BY HIS SON
JONATHAN ACKERMAN COLES, A.M., M.D.
FIFTH (PHYSICIAN'S) EDITION.
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1892, BY
JONATHAN ACKERMAN COLES.
NEWARK, N. J.
ADVERTISER PRINTING HOUSE,
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, - Page vii
PREFACE, - - Page i
CENTENNIAL ADDRESS, Page 5
THE MICROCOSM, - - Pages 13-79
ANALYSIS, - Page 15
GEOLOGIC PROPHECY OF MAN'S COMING, - - Page 17
SCRIPTURAL ANTICIPATION OF THE DOCTRINE, Page 18
GENERAL VIEW MAN SUPREME, - Page 20
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, Page 21
INFIDEL SCIENCE, Page 22
COMMON SENSE, - - - - Page 23
INVOCATION, - - - - Page 24
FLESH GARMENT SKIN, ITS MORAL CHARACTER, Page 24
PATHOGNOMY, - Page 25
INTERIOR VIEW SKIN DISSECTED, - - Page 27
BLENDING OF CONTRARIES STRUCTURAL DETAILS, Page 28
VOLUNTARY MUSCLES THEIR OFFICE AND WORK, Page 30
MUSCULAR DYNAMICS DIRECTING POWER
WHERE? Page 32
CRANIUM SOUL'S FIRMAMENT BRAIN, - - Page 34
MIND'S ORGAN CITY OF THE DEAD, - - Page 35
THE EYE, AND ITS CORRELATIVE, - Page 41
LIGHT HAS NO MANIFESTING POWER WITHOUT
THE EYE, Page 41
LIGHT LOST IN THE EYE REAPPEARS IN THE
CONSCIOUSNESS, - - - Page 43
TEARS SLEEP, ITS RESUSCITATING POWER
ORGANIC LIFE, - - - Page 44
SPIRITUAL ANALOGIES, - ..- Page 47
CONGENITAL BLINDNESS AWARDS. OF THE LAST
DAY, Page 48
ASYLUMS FOR THE BLIND, - Page 49
ASYLUMS FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB, - - Page 50
HEARING POWER OF SOUND Music OF NATURE, Page 51
Music OF ART INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL, - Page 52
VOICE AIR OF EXPIRATION, ITS TRANSMUTA-
TIONS, Page 53
SPEECH, ACCOUNTABLE SELF-RECORDING MATH-
EMATICAL PROBLEM, Page 55
ITS SOCIAL USES THE WORD MADE FLESH, Page 56
ARTICULATION NOSE MOUTH SMELL TASTE, Page 57
SMELL ODORS, THEIR SUBTLETY AND IMPON-
DERABILITY, - Page 58
BREATH OF LIFE, NATURAL AND SPIRITUAL, Page 59
THEOPNEUSTY, Page 59
TASTE ELIMINATION AND WASTE NOTHING
LOST, Page 60
HUMAN WANT AND DIVINE SUPPLY, - - Page 62
LORD'S PRAYER HODIERNAL BREAD HYGIENIC
WISDOM, Page 64
INGESTION DIGESTION ASSIMILATION, - Page 65
H EART CIRCULATION NUTRITION BLOOD EX-
HILARATIONS, Page 67
HEART SEAT OF THE AFFECTIONS VISCERAL
MODIFICATIONS, Page 69
WOMAN SEX UNITY IN DIFFERENCE, - - Page 70
LOVE OF THE SEXES ENDS ANSWERED, - Page 71
TRUE LOVE SPURIOUS LOVE, - Page 73
CHARITY PHYSICIAN OPIFERQUE PER ORBEM
DICOR, Page 75
NOSOLOGY AUSCULTATION OF HEART AND
LUNGS, Page 76
PHYSICIAN'S CHARACTER AND AIMS SCIENCE
PROGRESSIVE, Page 77
SPIRITUAL MALADIES CHRIST THE GREAT PHY-
SICIAN, - ... Page 78
DEATH IMMORTALITY, Page 79
WORKS OF ABRAHAM COLES, Page 81
CRITICS AND CRITICISMS, - Page 87
Richard Grant White; Rev. Samuel Irenseus Prime, D. D.; Wm.
Cullen Bryant; James Russell Lowell; "Christian Quarterly Re-
view;" "The Boston Transcript;" Lady Jane Franklin; William
C. Prime; Rev. Philip Schaff, D. D.; "The Republican," Spring-
field; George Ripley, the New York "Tribune;" Rev. James
McCosh, D. D.; Hon. Richard Stockton Field; Newark "Adver-
tiser;" Edmund C. Stedman; Rev. Robert Turnbull, D. D.; John
G. Whittier; Rev. S. I. Prime, D. D.; George Ripley, New York
"Tribune;" Rev. James McCosh, D. D.
Gov. Daniel Haines; Rev. George Dana Boardman, D. D. ; Rev.
Charles Hodge, D. D. ; Hon. Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen;
Prof. Robert Lowell, D. D.; Prof. Stephen Alexander; Oliver
Wendell Holmes; William Cullen Bryant; Chancellor Henry Wood-
hull Green; Charles H. Spurgeon.
Hon. William Earl Dodge; Thomas Gordon Hake, M. D.; New
York "Observer;" the New York "Times;" "The Critic;" John
Y. Foster; Hon. Justin McCarthy; the "Examiner and Chronicle;"
Hon. Horace N. Congar; Rev. William Hague, D. D.; Newark
"Advertiser;" Rev. George Dana Boardman; Rev. A. S. Patton,
D. D.; Hon. Joseph P. Bradley; John G. Whittier.
The Rt. Hon. John Bright, M. P.; Rev. H. G. Weston, D. D.;
Rev. Horatius Bonar, D. D.; Rev, Alexander McLaren, D. D.;
Adele M. Fielde; Elizabeth C. Kinney; "The Book Buyer,"
Charles Scribner's Sons; Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler, D. D.; the New
York "Tribune;" Rev. Frederic W. Farrar, D. D., F. R. S. ; Rev.
A. H. Tuttle, D. D.; Rev. Charles S. Robinson, D. D.; Hon.
George Hay Stuart; Rev. D. R. Frazer, D. D.; Charles M. Davis;
Rev. A. H. Lewis, D. D.; S. W. Kershaw, F. S. A.; J. K. Hoyt;
Rev. George Dana Boardman, D. D. ; Rev. Lewis R. Dunn, D. D.;
Rev. Asahel C. Kendrick, D. D. ; George MacDonald; Rev. Philip
Schaff, D. D.; the " New York Tribune;" the "Newark Daily
Advertiser ;" the Rev. Robert S. Mac Arthur, D. D.; the Rev. Ed-
ward Judson, D.D.; Bishop John H. Vincent, D.D., LL.D.; the Rt.
Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D., LL.D.; the Rt. Rev. John Williams,
STEEL ENGRAVING OF DR. ABRAHAM COLES,
by Alexander Hay Ritchie, - Frontispiece
THE APOLLO BELVEDERE. Artotype copy of the origi-
nal. OpP- page 20.
This celebrated marble statue was found in the Fifteenth Century,
at Antium (Capo d' Anzo), Italy, the birthplace of the emperor
Nero, who is believed to have brought it to Antium from the
Sacred Shrine at Delphi. Delphi, situated on the southern side
of Mount Parnassus, was, to a certain extent, protected by the
sanctity of its oracle and the presence of its god. According to
Herodotus, the vast riches accumulated in the temple at Delphi
(City of the Sun) led Xerxes, after having forced the pass of Ther-
mopylae, to attempt its capture. The effort, however, is said to have
failed, by reason of the intervention of Apollo. The sculptor of
this wonderful statue is unknown. It was placed through Michael
Angelo in the Belvedere of the Vatican. It was taken by the French
to Paris in 1797, but was restored to Rome in 1815.
ANDREAS VESALIUS, Opp. page 24
He was born in Brussels in 1514; began his studies in Louvain
and prosecuted them in Italy. He made himself master of Hebrew,
Greek and Arabic at the age of twenty. When only twenty-eight
years old, he published his great work on Anatomy, De Corporis
Humani Fabrica. Senac calls it the discovery of a new world; and
Haller speaks of it as "an immortal work by which all that had been
written before was almost superseded." In it he exposed the
errors of the Galenian school, and broke the spell which for so many
ages had held the medical world in thraldom. The work met with
viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
the fiercest opposition, but the author's reputation steadily increased.
In 1544 he was made chief physician to the Emperor Charles V, and
afterwards to Philip II. In 1563 or 1564 he suddenly left Madrid to
make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, for reasons not certainly known.
The common story is that while he was examining the body of a
Spanish nobleman who had died under his charge, as he laid open
the chest, the bystanders imagined they saw a tremulous motion of
the heart, whereupon he was denounced to the Inquisition as guilty
of murder and impiety. Where superiority of knowledge was
esteemed a crime, however innocent, he was sure to be condemned,
but through the influence of Philip, his punishment was commuted
to a pilgrimage. On his voyage back to accept the Paduan profes-
sorship of Anatomy, tendered him by the Venetian senate, he was
wrecked on the Island of Zante, where, it is said, he died of starva-
tion, October 15, 1564.
The original painting is the work of the French artist, F. Ham-
man. Its design, as we construe it, is to illustrate the pious spirit
in which the great anatomist was accustomed to begin his investiga-
tions. With eyes turned reverently upward to a crucifix on the
wall, he prefaces the work of dissection with devout prayer to the
Divine Redeemer, the Incarnate Word, Maker of all things, Lord
of life, Lord also of the Sciences, and ' 'that True Light which lighteth
every man that cometh into the world." This view of the design of
the picture makes its accommodation to the purposes of the entire
poem obvious and easy. Possibly, by a stretch. of courtesy, the
invocation found on the twenty-fourth page may be allowed to
stand for the prayer supposed to be offered.
" Dear God! this body, which, with wondrous art," &c. P. 24.
REMBRANDT'S " LESSON IN ANATOMY." Prof. Tulp and
his Pupils. All Portraits. 1632. - Opp. page 31.
The original of this picture is found at the Hague. It formerly
stood in the Anatomy School of Amsterdam, but was purchased by
the King of Holland for 32,000 guilders (^"2,700). It is described as
a "most wonderful painting and one of the artist's finest works."
Sir Joshua Reynolds remarks: "To avoid making it an object dis-
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ix
agreeable to look at, the figure is but just cut at the wrist; showing
\hz. flexor muscles of the fingers. There are seven other portraits,
colored like nature itself, fresh and highly finished; one of the
figures behind has a paper in his hand on which are written the
names of the rest, with Rembrandt's own, and the date 1632. The
dead body is perfectly well drawn (a little foreshortened) and seems
to have been just washed. Nothing can be more truly the color of
dead flesh. The legs and feet, which are nearest the eye, are in
shadow; the principal light which is on the body is by that means
preserved of a compact form."
" The subject MUSCLES, girded to fulfill
The lightning mandates of the sovereign will,
Th' abounding means of motion, wherein lurk
Man's infinite capacity for work."
HARVEY DEMONSTRATING TO CHARLES I HIS THEORY OF
THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, - Opp. page 67.
William Harvey was born in Folkstone, England, April i, 1578;
died in London, June 6, 1657. In 1628, he published his great dis-
covery, made, it is said, but not matured, nine years before, in a
work entitled Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in
Animalibus, and dedicated it to Charles I. He lived to be considered
as the first anatomist and physician of his time, and to see his dis-
covery universally acknowledged.
The original of the above picture is by an English painter
" Make room, my HEART, that pour'st thyself abroad,
Deep, central, awful mystery of God!
Where Auricle and Ventricle with power
Repeat their grasp five thousand times an hour."
THE VENUS DE MEDICI. By Cleomenes, the Athenian.
B. C. 200. Opp. page 70.
This famous antique marble statue was exhumed in the villa of
Hadrian, near Tivoli, in the Seventeenth Century, in eleven pieces.
After remaining for some time in the Medici palace at Rome, it was
X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
taken to Florence and is now in the " Tribune." It was in the
Louvre at Paris from 1796 to 1815. " From its exquisite proportions
and perfection of contour, the Venus de Medici has become the
most celebrated standard of female form extant."
The following rules obtained by measurements of Greek statues
are adopted by sculptors:
"FIRST As to height, tastes differ, but the Venus de Medici is
about five feet five inches in height. This is held by many sculptors
and artists to be the most admirable stature for a woman. For a
woman of this height, one hundred and thirty-eight pounds is the
proper weight, and if she be well formed she can stand another ten
pounds without greatly showing it. When her arms are extended
she should measure from tip of middle finger to tip of middle finger
just five feet five inches, exactly her own height. The length of
her hand should be just a tenth of that, and her foot just a seventh,
and the diameter of her chest a fifth. From her thighs to the ground
she should measure just what she measures from the thighs to the
top of the head. The knee should come exactly midway between
the thigh and the heel. The distance from the elbow to the middle
finger should be the same as the distance from the elbow to the
middle of the chest. From the top of the head to the chin should
be just the length of the foot, and there should be the same dis-
tance between the chin and the armpits. The waist measure twenty-
four inches, and the bust thirty -four inches, if measured from under
the arms, and forty-three if over them. The upper arm should
measure thirteen inches and the wrist six. The calf of the leg
should measure fourteen and one-half inches; the thigh, twenty-
five, and the ankle, eight. There is another system of measure-
ments which says that the distance twice around the thumb should
go once around the wrist; twice around the wrist, once around the
throat; twice around the throat, once around the waist, and so on.
As for coloring and shape, here is the code laid down by the
Arabs, who say that a woman should have these things: BLACK
Hair, eyebrows, lashes and pupils. WHITE Skin, teeth and globe
of the eye. RED Tongue, lips and cheeks. ROUND Head, neck,
arms, ankles and waist. LONG Back, fingers, arms and limbs.
LARGE Forehead, eyes and lips. NARROW Eyebrows, nose and
feet. SMALL Ears, bust and hands."
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. x i
AMBROSE PARE (1509-1590). "The Father of French
Surgery," Opp. page 75.
Brantoine relates that Henry III took good care to shield his
surgeon (Pare), who was suspected of being a Huguenot, from the
dangers of St. Bartholomew's night, keeping him in his own room
and motioning him not to move therefrom. Theodor Billroth says
Fare's treatises on the treatment of gun-shot wounds are classical,
and he has rendered himself immortal by the introduction of the
ligature for bleeding vessels after amputation.
EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823), - - Opp. page 77.
Edward Jenner had his attention directed to the discovery of
vaccination as a preventive of smallpox by hearing a young milk-
maid say she could not take the disease because she had already
had the cowpox. Upon investigation, he "satisfied himself of the
efficacy of inoculation with the virus of the cowpox to prevent
smallpox, and next ascertained, with equal certainty, that the
former disease could be communicated from one human being to
another, without having recourse to the original vaccine matter."
In 1858 a statue of Jenner was placed in Trafalgar Square, London.
PROF. THEODOR BILLROTH, M. D., AND HIS CLINICAL
ASSISTANTS, Vienna. Opp. page 78.
"Each year adds something many things ye know
Your sires knew not a hundred years age." Page 78.
following Address and Poem were delivered
before the Medical Society of New Jersey at its
Centennial Meeting, held in Rutgers College, New
Brunswick, N. J., January 24, 1866, and published with
its Transactions. Prepared amid the hurry and distrac-
tions of other duties, and with special reference to the
demands and limitations of the occasion, the Poem, as
originally delivered, fell short of the author's design,
which was to produce, if possible, a tolerably complete
compendium of that noblest, most necessary, and yet,
strange to say, that most neglected of all the sciences
Anthropology relieved of some of the dryness belong-
ing to the ordinary modes of presentation.
The hope of supplying in some measure existing
deficiencies, led the author, after the manuscript had
passed into the hands of the printer, to avail himself of
the short intervals which transpired between the receiv-
ing and returning of the proofs, to castigate some parts
and expand others not sufficiently developed, so that
besides alterations there have been additions to the
amount of two hundred lines and more since that first
reading. He regrets that the hurry of the press joined
to the hurry arising from other causes, afforded so little
opportunity for putting in practice the sound inculca-
tion of Horace, concerning the duty of delay and care-
ful finish: limce. labor et mora. With more time at his
disposal, he thinks he could have done better justice to
the fine capabilities of a subject, which the writers of
verse, ransacking heaven and earth for a theme, have
hitherto for the most part strangely overlooked. This
remarkable omission is the more to be wondered at,
because many of our best poets have been physicians;
and for some reason or other
" the wise of ancient days adored
One power of Physic, Melody and Song."
Dr. Armstrong's well-known Poem in four books,
written in blank verse, and first published in 1744,
entitled, " The Art of Preserving Health," does, indeed,
treat partially and incidentally of physiological
matters, and may therefore be regarded as forming
in some sort an exception to the general rule of
neglect affirmed above. It has for its topics Air,
Diet, Exercise and the Passions discussed of course,
in conformity with the design of the Poem, according
to their sanitary bearings, each forming the subject
of a separate book. The work was everywhere read
and admired; and remains to this day, according to
the poet Campbell, " the most successful attempt in our
language to incorporate material science with poetry."
While the critic admits that "the practical maxims of
science, which the Muse has stamped with imagery and
attuned to harmony, have so far an advantage over
those delivered in prose, that they become more agree-
able and permanent acquisitions of the memory," he, in
common with others, seems to think, that there inhere
in such subjects, nevertheless, difficulties of a most
formidable kind, a perversity and stubbornness of
nature, which are never overcome except by some rare
felicity of fortune or surprising exertion of genius.
Hence he says: "the author's Muse might be said to
show a professional intrepidity in choosing her subject;
and, like' the physician, to prolong the simile, she
escaped on the whole with little injury. * * * What
is explained of the animal economy is obscured by no
pedantic jargon, but made distinct and to a certain
degree picturesque to the conception." So too in his
final summing up of the merits of the Poet, he does not
fail to emphasize that special one, due " to the hand
which has reared poetical flowers on the dry and dif-
ficult ground of philosophy."
But there is another and much older example of this
morganatic marriage, as some might call it, between
poetry and natural science one antedating the Chris-
tian era and the time of Virgil. Lucretius, born in the
year before Christ 95, composed a Latin poem in heroic
hexameters, entitled De Rerum Natura. It is divided
into six books; and is based on the doctrines of Epi-
curus, who taught that the world was formed from a
fortuitous concourse of atoms.
The first two books expound the nature and proper-
ties of these ultimate atoms or seeds of things, varying
in shape and infinite in number, moving in void space
infinite in extent, with great swiftness, some in right
lines, others declining therefrom, until united to each
other after innumerable tentative contacts, all the ob-
jects in the universe are generated which objects form
the subject matter of the remaining four books.
The third book is taken up with a description of the
mind (animus) and soul (anima) maintaining that both
are corporeal, acting on the body by material impact ;
that the substance of the mind and soul is not simple,
but composed of four subtle elements heat, vapor, air,
and a nameless fourth substance on which sensibility
depends, and is, so to speak, the soul of the soul; that
the soul cannot be separated from the body without
destruction to both, and that death is the end of man.
The fourth book treats of the senses, averring that
images* of exquisite subtlety are constantly emitted
(shed, peeled off as it were) from the surface of objects,
* Democritus first, Epicurus afterwards called these eidula ical
rvTTovf, i. e. eidola and types; Cicero, images; Quintilian, figures;
Catius, spectres; Lucretius, 'effigies, images, simulacra, species,
figures, exuviae, spoils, quasi membranes, cortices, etc. Epicurus
and Lucretius supposed spectres of the dead to be pellicles thrown
off from corpses which were so thin as to pass through coffins and
all other obstructions.
which flying everywhere and impinging on the organs
of sight produce vision; that voice and sound are cor-
poreal images, (as proved by their abrading the throat
after long or loud speaking,) which strike the ear and
produce hearing. Taste and odors are accounted for;
and imagination and thought traced to images which
penetrate the body through the senses. Sleep is next
spoken of, and the various causes of dreams the book
closing with a discourse on love and matters pertaining
The fifth book treats of the origin of the world
land, sea, sky, sun, stars, the movements of the heavens,
the changes of the seasons and the progress of man,
society, institutions and sciences while the sixth
book, being the last, attempts an explanation of the
most striking natural appearances, such as lightning,
thunder, clouds, rainbow, snow, wind, hail, earthquakes
and volcanoes, concluding with a discourse on diseases,
and a learned and elegant description of a pest which
in the time of the Peloponnesian war desolated Athens.
The philosophy of this celebrated Poem is of course
false and absurd, but in regard to its poetical merit
there can be but one opinion. The poet's mastery over
his materials is complete. Under his magic touch,
speculations the most abstruse and technicalities the
most refractory, lose their intractableness, and are con-
verted into forms of exquisite beauty and grace. Great,
undoubtedly, are the attractions of a virgin theme. It
added to the rapture of Milton, " soaring in the high
reason of his fancy with his garland and singing robes
about him," the knowledge that he pursued
"Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme."
So Lucretius, in the opening lines of the fourth book,
does not conceal his satisfaction that he is first in the
"Avia Pieridum peragro loca, nullius ante
Trita solo: juvat integros adcedere funteis
Atque haurire; juvatque novos decerpere flores,
Insignemque meo capiti petere inde coronam,
Unde prius nulli velarint tempora Musae."*
* The Muses' pathless places I explore,
Worn by the sole of no one's foot before :
'Tis sweet to untouched fountains to repair
And drink; 'tis sweet to pluck new flowers; and there
To seek a famous chaplet for my brow
Whence have the Muses veiled no head till now.
The literalness of this translation must atone for its lack of elegance.
The author of the Microcosm, enjoying, in common
with these great masters of song, the felicity of a sub-
ject unprofaned by previous handling, regrets that he
does not possess their power to do it justice. He thinks
it strange -that while amid the ignorances and the vani-
ties of a false philosophy two thousand years ago, the
poet's heart, instinctively discerning the excellent
beauty there is in God's works, veras pulchritudines rerum;
Was stirred to sing, and in such a manner as to charm
the ear of the world
" Principio coelum ac terras, camposque liquentes,
Lucentemque globum lunae, titaniaque astra
Spiritus intus alit; totamque infusa per artus
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore miscet "-
no one has been found in these last days, after so long
Waiting, sufficiently kindled and inspired by the excit-
ing discoveries and revelations of modern science, to
undertake the task of lifting them into the sphere of
poetry, and glorifying them with its light. If there is
nothing so mean but it has a divine side if materials
for poetry be not wanting in the most common things,
a floating cloud, a spear of grass, or a handful of dust
PREFA CE. lx
even how much more may this be said of so lofty a
subject as Man, " the mirror of the power of God "
reflecting His Maker's image in every part, in the
minutest blood-disk and elementary cell, no less than
in the complex whole of his most wonderful organism!
In short, if it be the proper business of Poetry to deal
with subjects of human interest, what can be more
human than humanity itself? Or if its high aim be to
discover throughout creation the dazzling tokens of the
Beautiful, the to uot\ov which is only another name for
the Divine, where else in all the universe do the shin-
ing footprints of the First Good and the First Fair
appear so radiant or so recent as in His last and crown-
ing work, the Human Form ? The failure of the