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which at a later period were formed from their circle.
In the case of these studies positive knowledge was much more
the immediate object in view, even though it must be granted
that this knowledge was pursued only rarely for its own sake,


and much more for the sake of utility. One studied natural
philosophy and letters in order to become a jurist, physician,
or theologian, or to obtain power over nature. But with this
reservation it is evident that from the beginning these pro-
visionally dependent faculties stood nearer to the scientific
ideal, and formally occupied a higher point of view.

If it is asked what distinctions control this actual division
of scientific labor, it is easily seen that the attention of the
thoughtful mind had directed itself in turn to man and to
nature that surrounds him ; that, as far as his own being is
concerned, man has occupied himself severally with his so-
matic, psychic, and social existence ; and that even more
than these four groups of sciences, he aimed distinctively at
tJie knoivledge of G-od. The accuracy of this division, which
sprang from practical need, is apparent. The principium of
division is the subject of science, i.e. Man. This leads to
the coordination of man himself with nature, which he rules,
and with his God, by whom he feels himself ruled. And this
trilogy is crossed by another threefold division, which concerns
" man " as such, even the distinction between 07ie man and
many, and alongside of this the antithesis between his soynatic
and psychic existence. Thus the subject was induced in the
Theological faculty, to investigate the knowledge of God, and
in the faculty of natural philosophy to pursue the knowledge
of nature ; to investigate the somatic existence of man in the
Medical, his psychic existence in the Philological faculty,
and finally in the Juridical faculty to embrace all those
studies which bear upon human relationships. The boun-
dary between these provinces of science is nowhere absolutely
certain, and between each two faculties there is always some
more or less disputed ground ; but this cannot be otherwise,
since the parts of the object of science are organically re-
lated, and the reflection of this object in the consciousness
of the subject exhibits an equally organic character.

If science had begun with devising a scheme for the divi-
sion of labor, these disputed frontier-fields of the faculties
would have been carefully distributed. Since science, how-
ever, and the division of faculties both, are products of the


oro-auic process of life, it could not be otherwise than tliat
vmcertainty at the boundaries, which is the mark of all or-
ganic division, here also shows itself. Should the Medical
faculty teach psychology for the sake of psychiatry and of the
psychical influences upon the body ? Does the philosophy of
nature and of law belong to the Philological, or to the Psy-
chical and Juridical faculty ? Is the place for Church-law in the
Theological faculty or in the Juridical facult}", which itself
originated from it as the " Decretorum facultas," and which
for many years it claimed in the title of iiiris utriusque doctor f
These questions, together with many others, have all been
solved in a practical way such as is of course open to critical
examination by self-conscious science in its Encyclopedia, but
such as a closer investigation claims an ever-increasing re-
spect for the accviracy that marks the decision of practice.
The Encyclopedia of the sciences is safest, therefore, when it
does not abandon this historic track marked out by prac-
tice. A speculative scheme, in which the organic-genetic
relations of the sciences are fitted to another last, would
have almost no other value than to evoke our admiration
for the ingeniousness of the writer. Thus various titles of
departments would be obtained, for which there are no
departments of study. In our review of the history of
Theologic Encyclopedia,^ it has been seen that, in the study
of Theology also, such speculations have not been spared,
and numerous departments for new and imaginary branches
of study have been formed ; but, meanwhile, practice has
continued the even tenor of its way, and real study has
been best served by this practical division. This would
not be so, if the object and the subject of science, and also
the development of life and of the consciousness of life,
stood in no necessary relation to each other ; but since this
all-sided relation cannot be denied, and the process of sci-
ence and the process of life almost always keep equal step,
history offers us an important objective guarantee of accu-
racy. There is a power that directs the course of our life-

1 In the translation this review of the history of Theologic Encyclopedia,
occupying m the original 432 pages, has been omitted.


process, and there is a power that directs the course of tlie
process of science. This dominion does not rest in the hand
of a single individual, but, for life and science both, is in
the hand of a Spirit who stands above all individuals ; and
since in both realms (in that of life as well as in that of
science) this power is exercised by one and the selfsame
Spirit, the correct idea of the organism of science comes
of itself to light in history, though it be only gradually and
net without fits and starts.

§ 53. The Five Faculties

In the preceding section the Theological faculty was num-
bered with the other four, in order to state the fact that it
was born from the practical needs of life, and that it has stood
behind none of the others in the manner of formation. Its
right of primogeniture among these five can scarcely be
disputed. But however important a weight this fact may
add to the scale, it does by no means yet define the posi-
tion which Theology is entitled to hold in the organism of
science. The fact may not be overlooked, that at more than
one university the faculty of Theology has practically been
abolished ; that at a number of universities it continues
merely as the child of tradition ; and that in this traditional
prolongation of its life it has undergone, more than any other
faculty, so violent a metamorphosis that at length the iden-
tity' of the object of its study has been entirely lost. Not
merely the need, therefore, of judicious criticism, but practice
itself places a very grave interrogation mark after this heri-
tage of history, and compels, with respect to Theology, a
closer investigation into its certificate of birth and its right
of domicile. To do this, however, it is necessary that we
first orient ourselves a little with reference to the other parts
of the realm, in order to obtain a definite conception of the
other four faculties.

Since for our investigation the Philological is the most
important, we will consider that first. This faculty has not
yet attained its self-consciousness. It would have done this
mucli sooner, if the faculty of Natural Philosophy liad

Chap. IV] § 53. THE FIVE FACULTIES 193

been separated from it in Germany as timely as in Holland.
Now, however, this unnatural conjunction has in many
waj's confused insight into the character of Philological
study. Even when the studies of Philology and Natural
Philosophy are separated, every difficulty is by no means yet
surmounted, for then the antithesis is at once encountered be-
tween the studies of Philosophy and Philology in the narrower
sense. It has more than once been proposed to allow Phi-
losophy a faculty of its own and to give it the house in which
Theology lies dying. The Philological faculty would then
become exclusively the faculty of letters, and in an eminent
sense engage itself with all those studies which the littera
scripta gives rise to or renders possible. And from this point
of view a third antithesis appears : viz. the antithesis be-
tween Historical studies and those of Philology proper. If
indeed the criterium for the object of Philology lies in the
littera scripta, then it both can and must investigate the his-
torical documents and the historical expositions, as literary
products, but the real content of History lies outside of its
horizon. In this wise the faculty is more and more reduced,
and at length its only remaining object is that which is written,
which condemns it as an independent faculty. However
highly one may estimate its value, letters can never form
a principal group in the organism of the object ; and to
a certain extent it is even contingent. The object existed
long centuries before literary life manifested itself. Hence
the name Literary faculty can in no case be taken as a start-
ing-point. We owe this name to Humanism, which in this
instance also did not forsake its superficial character. " Philo-
logical'' is therefore in every way a richer and a more deeply
significant name, because the Logos does not refer to the
letter, but to that which the letter serves as body. For a
long time the restricted meaning of word or of language
Avas attached to the logos in " Philology," and consequently
Philology was interpreted as standing outside of Philosophy
and History. This, however, only showed how dimly it was
understood that every faculty must have a principal group
iji the object of science as the object of its investigation. If


word, and language still more, is a wider conception than
that of littera scripta, yet language and word can never
acquire the significance of being a principal group in the
object of science. As a life-expression of man the life of
language is coordinated with the expressions of the ethical,
a3sthetic and material life, and hence for each of these a
separate faculty should have to be created. As long as only
the expression of life is studied the object of science is not
grasped. This is done only when life itself is reached, the ex-
pression of which is observed. This, in the case of the logos,
is, in its general sense, the life of the human consciousness. It
is this life which recapitulates itself in the logos, taken as
thought; expresses itself in the logos, taken as word; and
which for a very considerable part is at our disposal in the
literary product. And thus we have laid our hand upon a
principal group in the great object of science; for not only does
man belong to this object, but is himself the most important
factor in it, and it is in his wonderful consciousness that pres-
ently the whole cosmos reflects itself. If now in this sense
the object of this faculty is understood to be the conscious
life of man, the word conscious must of necessity be taken in
its pregnant sense. Else all science could be brought under
this faculty, even that of nature. But this danger is evaded
if, on the other hand, full emphasis is placed upon the quality
of conscious life, so that in this faculty our life is in question
only from the side of our consciousness. By doing this we
keep in the path first indicated by Boeck and extended so
much farther by my esteemed colleague. Dr. J. Woltjer, in
his Rectoral oration of 1891.^ If Boeck placed thinJcing too
much in the foreground. Dr. Woltjer rightly perceived that
from thinking we must go back to the Logos as reason in
man ; and it is therefore entirely in keeping with the relation
established by him, that in Philology we interpret the word
Logos as indicating that which is conscious in our life.

And thus the view-point is gained, from which the prac-
tice is justified, which has ever united philosophical and
historical studies with that of Letters. Even if language and

1 The Science of the Logos, by Dr. J. Woltjer, 1891.

Chap. IV] § 53. THE FIVE FACULTIES 195

everything that is connected with language is the vehicle of
human consciousness, the study of this vehicle does by no
means end the study of that consciousness itself. That
human consciousness also as such, according to its form and
comprehensive content, must be made the object of investi-
gation, and this necessitates the formal and material study of
philosophy. Above all it should be taken into consideration
that it is not the consciousness of a single individual, but the
consciousness of man as such, and hence of humanity in its re-
lation and continuous process, that is to be known ; and this
gives rise to the task of Histor3^ Hence it is the one Logos,
taken as the consciousness of humanity, which provides the
motive for Linguistic and Historic and Philosophic studies ; so
that no reasonable objection can be raised against the name of
Philological faculty. " Logoi " was indeed the word used
originally for an historical narrative, and this gave historians
the name of Logographers. In this way the combination of
Linguistic, Historic, and Philosophic studies does not lead to
an aggregate, but to an organic unity, which in an excellent
manner locates a principal group of the object of science in
a realm of its own. It is man in antithesis with nature, and
in man his logical, in antithesis with his bodily manifestation,
which determine the boundaries of this realm. The unity
that lies in this may not be abandoned.

Meanwhile let it be observed, that the task of this faculty
should not be extensively, but intensively interpreted. The
object of its existence is not the study of every conceivable
language, nor the investigation of all history, nor yet the
systematizing of the whole content of the human conscious-
ness. The Faculty, as such, must direct its attention to
the consciousness of humanity taken as an organic unity,
and thus must concentrate its power upon that in which the
process of this human consciousness exhibits itself. It does
not cast its plummet into a stagnant pool, but away out in
the stream of human life. Its attention is not riveted by
what vegetates in isolation, but by that which lives and asso-
ciates with and operates within the life of humanity. For
this reason the classical and richly developed languages from


the old world and the new are so vastly more imi:)ortant to
this Faculty, as such, than the defective languages of the
more supine and undeveloped nations. It does not look
upon Literature as an aggregate of everything that has been
handed down in writing, but as an organic conception, which
only embraces that which is excellent in form and content.
History also is only that in which the human consciousness
]ias developed strength to bring the human life to the fuller
unfolding of its idea. And as material Philosophy, it merely
offers that which has advanced the current of human thought,
and has enabled its different tendencies to express themselves
correctly. The proposal to overwhelm this Faculty with the
study of all conceivable languages and peoples and conceptions
must therefore be declined. This deals the death-blow to
this Faculty, makes it top-heavy, and causes it to lose all
unity in its self-consciousness. In order to maintain itself as
a faculty it must distinguish between main interests and side-
issues, and maintain unity in multiformity, and keep its
attention fixed upon that which in continuous process has
ever more richly unfolded the consciousness of our human
race, has enabled it to fuller action, and has brought it to
clearer consciousness. We do not deny that other languages
also, peoples and conceptions may be the object of scien-
tific research, but this sort of study must annex itself to
the work of this faculty, and not consume its strength.
This self-limitation is not only necessary in order that it
may handle its own material, but also that it may not lose
its hold on life, and thus may keep itself from conflict
with practical demands. Duty, therefore, demands that
in the study of the human consciousness it should not
swing away to the periphery, but that it shall take its station
at the centrum, and never lose from sight the fact that the
object of its investigation is the conscious life of our human
race taken as an organic unity. With this in view it inves-
tigates language as the wondrous instrument given as vehicle
to our consciousness ; the richest development which language
has proved capable of in the Clasncal languages of ancient and
modern times ; and the full-grown and ripe fruit vrliieh Ian-

CiiAi'. IV] § 50. THE FIVE FACULTIES 197

guage has produced in classical Literature. Next to this study
of language as vehicle and incorporation of our consciousness,
follows the investigation into the activities of this conscious-
ness in the life of humanity, i.e. the broad study of History.
And then, at length, formal and material Philosophy follow;
the first to investigate conscious life in its nature, and the
laws which govern it ; the second to answer the question,
how the " World-Image " (Weltbild) has gradually formed
itself in this consciousness, and in what form it exhibits
itself at present. This order of succession certainly gives
rise to the objection, that formal philosophy should properly
lead the van ; nevertheless, we deem it necessary to maintain
it, because formal as well as material philosophy assumes a
preceding development of language, and hence also a preced-
ing history.

The Medical faculty being of less importance for our investi-
gation may therefore be more briefly considered. We for our
part do not desire the name of Medical faculty to be changed
into Somatological or Philosomatical faculty. We would not
have the fact lost from sight that this science did not origi-
nate from the thirst after a knowledge of our body, but
from the need of seeking healing for its diseases. For this
implies the confession that our general human condition
is neither sound nor normal, but is in conflict with a destruc-
tive force, against which help from a saving power must be
sought and can be found. This, however, does not weaken
the demand that the medical character of these studies should
not too absolutely be maintained. Obstetrics in itself is
no real medical study. Moreover, medical study has always
assumed the knowledge of the healthy body. And Hygiene,
which demands an ever broader place, is not merely medical-
prophylactic, but in part stands in line with the doctrine
of diet, dress, etc., as tending to the maintenance of the
healthy body. On these grounds it seems undeniable, that
the object of investigation for this faculty is the human
body, or better still, man from his somatic side. Already
for this reason the effort to take up the body of animals


into this faculty should be protested against ; and warnings
should be sounded against entertaining too sanguine expec-
tations from vivisection, and against the altogether too bold
exploits which it adventures. In itself, veterinary surgery
would never have become anything more than an empiric
knowledge ; and the insight it derives from the Medical
faculty is a mercy which from our human life descends to
suffering animals. But Darwinism should never tempt us in
this faculty to coordinate man and animal under the concep-
tion of "living things." If the human body had not been sub-
ject to disease, there would never have been a medical science.
Vegetation also has its diseases and invites medical treat-
ment; but wdio will include the healing of plants in the
Medical faculty? The human body must remain the exclu-
sive object for the complex of medical studies. The pro-
plastic forms also, or preformations which were created for
this body in the vegetable and animal kingdom, must indeed
be investigated with a view to this body, but the studies
which this investigation provokes serve exclusively as sub-
sidiary helps, and should not be permitted to destroy the
boundary between the human body and these preformations.
In the same way the boundary should be guarded wdiich
divides the somatic life of man from his psychical life.
This psychical life is the heritage of the Philological and not
of the Medical faculty. If this boundary be crossed, the
IMedical faculty must subordinate the psychical phenomena
to the somatic life, and cannot rest until, under the pressure
of its own object, it has interpreted this psychical life
materialistically. But neither should it be forgotten that an
uncertain and mingled region lies between the somatic and
the psychic life. Both sides of human life stand in organic
relation. The body affects the soul, and the soul the body.
Hence, there is on one side a physico-psychical study which
must trace the psychical phenomena on physical ground, and
on the other side a psychico-physical study which determines
the influence exercised by the soul upon the ho^j. And
this must serve as a rule, that Psychology derives its physi-
cal data from tlie Medical faculty ; while on the other hand

Chap. IV] § 53. THE FIVE FACULTIES 199

the iMedical derives its psychological data from the Philo-
logical faculty. That the Theological faculty also comes into
consideration here is not denied ; but since it is the very
purpose of this investigation to point out the place in the
organism of science which belongs to the Theological faculty,
we pass it by for the present. Only let the necessary obser-
A^ation be made, that it is contradictory to the peculiar
character of the medical studies to leave the important
decision concerning the imputability of guilt in the process
of punishment to be accounted for by this faculty. Finally
a last boundary must be drawn for the medical faculty on the
side of the juridical faculty. For on that side also medical
science steps constantly beyond the lines of its propriety. It
demands, indeed, that public authority shall unconditionally
adopt the results from medical and hygienic domains into civil
ordinances, and shall execute what it prescribes. This abso-
lute demand should be declined, first, because these results
lack an absolute, and sometimes even a constant character ;
and in the second place, because it is not the task of
medical, but of juridical science to investigate in how far
the claims of the body should be conditioned by the higher
claims of the psychic and social life.

Within these boundaries these medical studies naturally
divide themselves, according to their object, into studies
which investigate the healthy body; Avhich trace the phe-
nomena of disease; and which have for their purpose the
cure of these abnormal phenomena. The study of the body
as such, i.e. in its healthy state, divides itself equally
naturally into the somatical and psychico-somatical, while the
somatic studies divide again into anatom}^ and physiology.
The sciences which have for their object the deviations from
the normal, i.e. the sick body, are pathology and psycho-
pathology. The studies, finally, which direct themselves to
Therapeutics, divide into medical, surgical, and psychiatri-
cal, to which Medicine and applied Medica join themselves.
Only the place of Obstetrics is not easily pointed out, be-
cause a normal delivery, without pain, would not be a path-
ological phenomenon, and to this extent Obstetrics would


not find its motive in the medical, but in the somatical char-
acter of these studies. As such it shoukl belong as a tecli-
nical department to Physiology. From the view-point of
Revelation, however, delivery ivith pain is an abnormal
phenomenon, and to this extent we see no difficulty in coordi-
nating obstetrics after the old style with medical and surgical
science. With the exception of these incidental questions it
is readily seen, meanwhile, that as long as the Medical science
confines itself to these independent studies, it still lacks its
higher unity^ and cannot be credited with having come to a
clear self-consciousness. This would only be possible if it
could grasp the deeper cause of the corruption from which
all diseases originate ; if, on the other hand, it could expose
the relation between this cause and the reagents ; and thus
could crown its labor by the production of a Medical

The Juridical faculty claims a somewhat larger share of
our attention, since it stands in a closer relation to that of
Theology. In the object of science we found its province
in wmw, — not in himself, but as taken in Ids relation to
other men. This, however, must not be interpreted in the
sense that man is merely a social being, and that therefore
juridical study must lapse into sociology. The origin of
this faculty is a protest against this. From the beginning-

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