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sure, some slight breach of proportion in the disposition of
the material and possibly some trenching upon the domain of
Dogmatics, for which the author duly makes his apologies :
but bringing so great a gain to the reader that he will
find himself especially grateful for just this section. The
third volume contains the treatment of the several divisions
of theology, which is carried through in a wonderfully fresli
and original fashion. It is to be hoped that the reception
accorded the present volinne will be such as to encourage the
translator and publishers to go on and complete the work in



INTRODUCTORY NOTE XIX

its English form, and thus that thij> vohune will prove to
be, in the literal sense of the word, but the introduction of
Dr. Kuyper to English readers. I cannot but feel assured
from my own experience that he who reads one treatise
of Dr. Kuyper's cannot fail to have his appetite whetted for
more.

BENJAMIN B. WARFIELD.

Pkinceton, June 16, 181)8.



CONTENTS



§1-

§2.
§3.
§4.
§5.
§6.
§7.



FIEST DIVISION

THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA

CHAPTER I

The Name Encyclopedia

Significance of the Name

Use in the Greek Classics

Transition among the Fathers ....

Usage in the Period of the Reformation

Usage of the Word after the Seventeenth Century

Usage of the Word in our Centm-y

Conclusion



1
2
4
6
9
11
12



CHAPTER II
The Idea of Encyclopedia



§ 8. The First Appearance of this Idea

§ 9. Development of the Organic Idea

§ 10. Victory of the Organic Idea .

§ 11. The Break in the Process

§ 12. Provisional Result ...



15
17
19
20

90



CHAPTER III
The Conception of Encyclopedia



§ 13. Forming of the Conception

§ II. Critical Demand

§ 15. Encyclopedic Necessity .

§ 16. Scientific Character

§ 17. Limitation of the Conception

§ 18. Subdivision of Philosophy

§ 19. Methodology and Hodegetics



24
26
27
28
31
32
33



xxii CONTENTS



§20
§21
§22
§23
§24
§25
§ 20



PAGE

" Wisseiiscliaftslehre " 36

Organic Chanicter ;37

Still Incomplete ;j!)

A Threefold Task 41

Method of Encyclopedia 42

Purely Formal 42

Ivesult ■ 4:j

CHAPTER IV

The Coxceptiox of TiiEOLO(iicAL Encyclopedia

§ 27. Two Difficulties 45

§ 28. The First Difficulty 46

§ 29. The Second Difficulty 47

§ 30. No Onesidedness 4!)

§ 31. View-point here taken ' . 50

§ 32. Compass of its Task 52

§ 33. Its Relation to Methodology 53

§ 34. Its Aim 54

§ 35. Result 54



SECOND DIVISION

THE ORGANISM OF SCIENCE
§ 36. Introduction 56

CHAPTER T <

The Conception of Science

§ 37. Etymology and Accepted Use of the Word . . . . .59

§ 38. Subject and Object 63

§ 39. Organic Relation between Subject and Object . . .67

§ 40. Language 84

§ 41. Fallacious Theories 80

§ 42. The Spiritual Sciences ,92

CHAPTER II >♦

Science impati:ki> isv Sin

§ 43. Science and the Fact of Sin 106

§ 44. Truth 1 14



CONTENTS XXIU

PAGE

§ 45. Wisdom 119

§ 46. Faith 125

§ 47. Religion 146

CHAPTER III

The Twofold Development of Science

§ 48. Two Kinds of People 150

§ 49. Two Kinds of Science 155

§ 50. The Process of Science 176

§ 51. Both Sciences Universal 181

CHAPTER IV
Division of Science

§ 52. Organic Division of Scientific Study 183

§ 53. The Five Faculties 192

CHAPTER V
Theology in the Organism of Science

§54. Is there a Place for Theology in the Organism of Science ? . 211
§ 55. The Influence of Palingenesis upon our View of Theology

and its Relation to the Other Sciences . . . .219



THIRD DIVISION
THEOLOGY

CHAPTER I

The Conception of Theology

§ :^C■,. The Name 228

§ 57. The Theological Modality of the Conception of Theology . 235

§ 58. The Idea of Theology 241

§ 59. The Dependent Character of Theology 248

§ 60. Ectypal Theology the Fruit of Revelation . . . .257

§61. The Conception of Theology as a Science . . . .292-



XXIV



CONTENTS



§ 62. Degenerations of Theology as " Knowledge of God "

§ 63. Falsifications of the Conception of Theology

§ 64. Deformations of Theology

§ 65. The Relation of Theology to its Object .

§ 66. Sancta Theologia (Sacred Theology)



PAGE

300
306
319
327
333



CHAPTER II

The Fundamental, Regulative, and Distinctive Principle
OF Theology, or Principium Theologiae



§67.
§68.

§69.
§70.

§71.

§72.
§73.

§74.
§75.
§76.
§77.
§78.
§79.
§80.
§81.
§ 82.
§83.
§84.
§85.
§86.



341



What is here to be understood by Principium

Different Representations of the Workings of this Prin-
cipium

The Relation between this Principium and our Consciousness

Relation between this Principium and the Natural Prin-
cipium

Is the Natural Principium able to summon the Special Prin-
cipium before its Tribunal ?

Universality of this Principium

This Principium and the Holy Scripture ....

The Special Principium and the Writteji Word

Inspiration : its Relation to the Principium Essendi .

Inspiration in Connection with Miracles ....

Inspiration according to the Self -testimony of the Scripture

The Testimony of the Apostles

Significance of this Result for the Old Testament

Inspiration of the New Testament

Unity and Multiplicity

The Instruments of Inspiration

The Factors of Inspiration

The Forms of Inspiration

Graphical Inspiration 544

Testimonium Spiritus Saucti, or the Witness of the Holy Spirit 553



348
355

368

380
389
397
405
413
420
428
441
453
460
473
481
504
520



CHAPTER III

The Method of Theology

§ 87. What is demanded by the Nature of this Principium

§ 88. The Principium of Theology in Action

§ 89. Relation to the Spiritual Reality .

§ 90. Spiritus Sanctus Doctor .

§ 91. The Church and the Office .

§ 92. The Liberty of Scientific Theology



564
571

578
583
587
593



CONTENTS XXV

CHAPTER IV

The Organism of Theology



FAOB



§ 03. Part of an Organism 600

§ 94. In the Organism of Science Theology is an Independent

Organ 603

§ 95. The Boundary of Theology in the Organism of Science . 60.5

§ 96. Self-determination of the Organism of Theology . . 615

§ 97. Organic Articulation of Propaedeutics 617

§ 98. Organic Articulation to the Spiritual Reality . . . 624
§99. The Organism of Theology in its Parts . . . .627

CHAPTER V

The History of Theology

§ 100. Introduction 637

§ 101. The Period of Naivety 639

§ 102. The Internal Conflict 646

§ 103. Triumph claimed Prematurely 652

§ 104. The Development of Multiformity 658

§ 105. The Apparent Defeat 668

§ 106. The Period of Resurrection 672

INDEX 681



DIVISION I
THEOLOGICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA



o>*ic



CHAPTER I

THE NAME ENCYCLOPEDIA

§ 1. Significance of the Name

Since the encyclopedic, scientific and theological view-
point of this Theological Encyclopedia differs in more than
one respect from the ideas that are most widely accepted in
our times, even among " believing " theologians, clearness
demands that we indicate this difference and give an account
of it. The conception of '•'•Theological Eiieyclopedia'''' itself
should therefore be investigated first, and this investigation
should be preceded by the definition of the general concep-
tion of Encyclopedia.

This definition starts out with the etymological explana-
tion of the word which is used as the name of this depart-
ment of science. Not as evidence from etymology ; this is
excluded b}- our plan : but because the indication of the
first activity in the human mind which has given rise to the
origin of any department is frequently found in the his-
torical choice of the name. This is not always so. To
our Western consciousness Algebra is a meaningless term,
however capable it may be of an etymological explanation
in its original. Metaphysics originated by mere accident.
Anemology is an artificially fabricated term. But as a rule
there is a history in a name, which it will not do to pass
by. And this is the case in a special sense with the name

1



2 § 2. USE IN THE GREEK CLASSICS [Div. I

Encyclopedia. To exclude arbitrariness, and to keep our-
selves from ideal subjectivity, the conservative path must
again be discovered, at least to this extent — that no defi-
nition of any concejjtion should be admitted, which does
not take account of what went on in the human spirit (even
though with no very clear consciousness) when the germ
of this conception first originated. (See Dr. Georg Runze,
Die Bedeutung der SpracJie fur das wissenschaftliche Er-
ken7ien, Halle, 1886.)

§ 2. Use in the GrreeJc Classics

As for most scientific conceptions, the germ of the con-
ception of " Encyclopedia " also is found among the Greeks.
They were the people who, in contrast with the intuitive
powers of the Eastern nations on the one hand, and in dis-
tinction from the limited form of the life of the spirit in
Rome on the other hand, were divinely endowed with the
disposition, tendency and talent of extricating its thinking
consciousness from the world of phenomena and of soaring
above it on free wings. And yet, as far as we know, the
word Encyclopedia in its combination was unknown to them.
The first trace of this combination is discovered in Galen,
the physician and philosopher, who died about two hundred
years after the birth of Christ. ^ The Greeks left the two
parts of the word standing side by side, and spoke of 'Ejkv-
/cXio? TTaihela.

The sense of TratSeia in this combination needs no further
explanation. UaiSeia means instruction, training, educa-
tion ; that by which a Trat? becomes an avi]p. The difficulty
lies in the definition which makes this iraiheCa, i>yKVK\Lo<i.
In its simplest sense, iyKVKXio<i is all that which presents
itself to you as being included in a KVKXo'i, i.e. a ring or
circle. But this idea admits of all sorts of shades, accord-

1 In his Ilept diairrji o^^cov, i.e. de victus ratione in morbis acntis, c. II.
I have named Galen as the first Greek writer. It is also found already iu
Pliny, Natur. hist. § 14 : iam omnia attingnnt, quae Graeci rrjs iyKVK\oTrai5elas
vocant, et tamen ignota aut incerta ingeniis facta, alia vero ita multis prodita
ut iu fastidium siut adducta.



Chap. I] § 2. USE IN THE GREEK CLASSICS 3

ing as it indicates something that forms a circle by itself ;
something that lies in a sphere or circle, or within a certain
circumference, and is thus included in it ; or something that
moves within such a circle. A round temple was called Upov
ijKVKXcov, because such a temple forms a circle. The hUaia,
or common civil rights, were called iyKVKXia, because they
reside in the circle of citizens, and confine themselves
to its limits. In Athens, the Xeirovpyiai, were called iy-
KVKXtat, and they spoke of iyKVKXta avaXco/jbara, eyKvuXiat
BaTrdvai, ijKVKXta hiaKovrjpiaTa, etc., to indicate services in the
interest of the state which are rendered in turn, expenses that
returned periodically, or activities that constantly changed
after a fixed programme of rotation. Aristotle (^Polit. II.,
p. 1269^ 35) calls even the daily, and therefore periodically,
returning task, ra iyKVKXta. Thus unconsciously the idea
of that which was of a daily occurrence, and in a certain
sense ordinary and normal, was included under eyKVKXio'i ; ^
and it was in this process of thought that iyKVKXio'? was
added to waLheca by which to indicate that kind and that
measure of instruction or knowledge which was deemed
indispensable for a normally developed Athenian citizen ;
in part, therefore, in the same sense in which Demosthenes
calls the legal rights that are common to all citizens, iyKVKXia
Bi/caia (XXV. 74) ,2 or, in a better sense still, Aristotle
wrote his iyKV/cXia ^LXoao(^r)ixaTa, i.e. popular philosophy.
It is a mistake, therefore, to interpret eyKvicXio<i jraiSeia as
a group of sciences which in the abstract formed a circle
or a whole, and it is equally ill-advised to understand by
it nothing more than "everyday matters of knowledge."
The idea of a circle or rotation must certainly be main-
tained ; only the definition of what falls within this circle
must not be derived from the mutual connection of these
departments of knowledge as such, but from their connec-
tion in relation to the forming of the young Greek.

The explanation of Quintilian (I. 10) : oj'bis doctrinae,

1 Isocrates describes it even as rd Kara ttjv Tjixipav ^KaffT-qv yiyvdfjLeva (III. 22).
^ w yap ov5^ tG)v icrQiv ovbi tGiv eyKVKXlwv 5cKaiii}v /JLeTovcriav diddacnv oi vdfjioi,

OVTOi Tlil' a.Vr]Ki(JT(jJV ST^pOVS aiTiOS yiyVCTOA oi'K Opduli K.T.\.



4 § 3. TRANSITION AMONG THE FATHERS [Div. I

qiiem (xraeci i'yKVKXiov TraiBeiav vocaiit, is based :n a mis-
understanding, as is also that of Vitruvius I. 6, praef., and
I. 2, encyclios disciplina uti corpus unum ex his meynhris com-
positum est : in so far as both evidently argued from the
general significance of the word ijKVKXto';, instead of asking
themselves the question how it was actually used by the
Greeks in connection with iraiSeia. This use referred
chiefly to what was normal, as Hesychius also interprets it
by saying, ra ijKVKXov/xeva tw /3t&) koI avvrjOr] ; and Strabo,
who writes that we should not call "him who is wholly
uneducated a statesman, but him who partakes of the all-
round and customary training of freemen." We should
say : the normal measure of knowledge which a civilized
citizen has at command. But Quintilian and Vitruvius
were correct in so far as they showed themselves im-
pressed with the fact that there was a reason why the
Athenians did not speak of (Tvvr)6ri<i iraiBeia, but purposely
spoke of iyKVK\Lo<i iraiheCa. The Greek language was not
a crystallized one, like the Latin. A Greek understood and
saw through the word ijKVKXio'i, and, when he used it in the
sense of normal, he did not abandon the original significance
of kvk\o<;. With reference to his conception of it, the use
of this word in connection with TraiSeta plainly shows :
(1) that from the knowledge of his times taken as a
whole he separated certain parts ; (2) that he did not
choose these parts arbitrarily, but that he arranged them
after a given standard ; and (3) that he derived tliis stand-
ard from a circle of life, and that, in connection with this
circle of life, he grouped his separated parts of human kno^\l-
edge so as to form one whole. And this threefold action of
his mind assumed, at the same time, that i;e had more or less
objectified for himself the whole of human knowledge.

§ 3. Transition among tl'e Fathers

In every distinction lurk> an antithesis. Tlie iyKv/c\Lo<i
TracSeia, which was also called iyKVKXta ixaOrjfiara, Traihev-
/xara, or more simpl}' still ra iyKvjcXia, did not st.ind in
antithesis to what was beneath it, — he who had no ijKV-



Cmai'. T] § 3. TRANSITION AMONG THE FATIIKRS 5

«Xto9 Traiheia was simply called airaihevTo^i, — ■ but to the
Jdgher development of the philosopher and tlie knowledge
necessary for a given profession or calling. This excelled
the common icvK\o<i of the life of the citizen. Thus iyKvicXio'i
iraiheia was the loiver and ordinm-y in antithesis to what was
reached by higher knowledge.

When the higher knowledge of the Christian Religion came
out of Israel into the Roman-Grecian world, it was but natu-
ral that Christian scholars should class the entire heathen-
classical development witli what was lower and common, in
antithesis to the higher yvcoai'; of the Holy Scriptures. This
readily explains the fact that, as we are told by Suicer (see
his Thesaurus in voce), in the Greek of ecclesiastical liter-
ature iyfcvKXio<; iraiSeia gradually obtains a modified signifi-
cance and comes to mean the knowledge or science which
covered the entire circle of the heathen-classical life ; over
against which stood OeoXoyia, OecopLa, or f^voiai^ as higher
knowledge. Suicer infers this from what Eusebius writes
in his Qhurch History, VI. 18, concerning Origen ; viz.
that he trained the youth in ra rrf'i 'i^codev (f)LXo(TO<f)La'i and
instructed them in the iyKVKXia, showing them tlie subse-
quent benefit they should derive from this later on for
sacred studies. In the same sense Hesychius would explain
iyKVKXia as being ra €^co ypafifxaTa, which means that the
€yKVKXio<i iratSeia formed a circle to the heathen Greek, in
which he himself was included and of which he formed the
centre ; while to the Christian Greek ra ecrco were the mys-
teries of the Christian religion, and the iyKVKXto<; iraiSeia
came to him e^wOev, i.e. from without his circle of life.
Thus, if a closer investigation confirms us in this view,
this transition was gradual and led to iy/cvKXLo<; iraiheCa,
no longer signifying the common instruction given to the
ordinary citizen, but the whole realm of worldly science in
distinction from Sancta Theologia. As Zonaras states it :
"Simply ever}' art and science."



6 § 4. USAGE IN THE [Div. I

§ 4. Usage in the Period of the Heformation

With the decline of Greek culture the use of iyKVK\io<;
iraiheia in its pregnant sense fell away. In the scholastic
and ecclesiastical use of the word, which formed itself under
Western influence, the original conception of the iy/cvK\io<i
iraiheCa was expressed by Triviam et Quadrivium ; and the
later conception of ra e^oo 'ypd/ub/xara either by litterae j^f'O-
fanae or artes liherales. We read nothing of Encijclopedia
in the Middle Ages. In ordinary conversation, even in that
of the " clergy," the word was lost, and only after the rise of
Humanism in the sixteenth century does it appear again ;
and then according to the interpretation of Quintilian, as the
circle of sciences. Thus Elyot writes, in 1536 : " Whiche of
some is called the ivorlde of science., of others the circle of
doctrine., whiche is in one word of Greke : Encj/clopcedia."
(The Crouvernor, quoted in the Encyclopedia Britannica, un-
der the word Encycl.') Evidently the use of the word by
the Greeks is here not inquired into ; the sense of the word
is indicated by the sound ; and in the wake of Quintilian,
Elyot also does not understand the kvkXo'? to be the circle
of citizens, but the circle of sciences, — the orbis doctri7iae.

This cleared the way for a new transition of meaning.
In the latter part of the sixteenth and beginning of the
seventeenth century the name Encyclopedia passed from
the world of science to the hook in which this " world of
science " was contained. The naive assumption that the
knowledge of the several sciences was already as good as
complete easily accounts for the several efforts that were
made during the Middle Ages to embody in one single
volume the collective knowledge with which they were sat-
isfied and for which they were grateful. This sort of book
was given the name of Speculum., Compendium, Syntagma., or
Systerna; and the effort to give manuals of this sort a
methodical arrangement met with increasing success. And
when attention was again called to the word Encyclopedia,
and this was taken as the Orbis doctrinae, it was but natural
that Encyclopedia should be considered a very proper name



Chap. I] PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION 7

for such a vade-mecum. Ringelberg seems to have been the
first to choose it as such for the title of his Lucuhrationes vel
potius absolutissima KVKko'jraiheia^ published at Basle in 1541.
After him the Hungarian, Paul Scalichius de Lika (Paulus
de Scala), used it for the title of his work : Epistemon Ency-
clopediae s. orbis disciplinarum turn sacrarum turn profanarmn
Bas. 1559. And when it was once adopted, Encyclopedia
seemed to meet with so much favor for manuals of this sort
that when, in 1584, the Margarita pMlosophica by Reisch,
which had been published in Freiburg in 1503, went through
a second edition, the editor inserted also the name of Ency-
clopedia on the title-page of this work. Matthias Martinius,
the well-known Reformed theologian of Bremen (|1630), imi-
tated at once the example of the publishers of Basle in his
Idea methodicae et brevis Encyclopediae sive adumbratio uni-
versalis (1606). And when also the Reformed theologian,
Joannes Henricus Alstedt, chose the same name for his Oursus
philosophicus, especially for his renowned quarto of over 2000
pages, the modified use of the word Encyclopedia became
established. In a smaller form this work was published as
early as 1608, but was republished on a much larger scale in
1620, at Herborn, and received the title, Cursus pMlosojfhi-
cae Encyclopediae ; the third volume of which also appeared
separately under the title, Septem artes liberales. This work
of Alstedt was for many years the standard work for the
study of general science, which is the more evident from
the fact that in 1649 it was reprinted, at Leyden, in four
octavo volumes. The edition of 1620 was dedicated to the
States-General of the United Netherlands.

A short sketch of Alstedt's work is here given, so that
it may be clearly seen what was understood by Encyclo-
pedia in this third significance. First we have a Compen-
dium Encyclopediae philosophicae, or a catechetical resume
of the whole work. Then follows the first volume of
the real work, which is a treatise on the four Praecognita
philosopJuca, to wit : (1) Archeology, or the doctrine of prin-
ciples ; (2) Hexiology, or the doctrine of intellectual charac-
teristics ; (3) Technology, or the doctrine of the sciences ; and



8 § 4. USAGE IN THE [Div. I

(4) Didactics^ or the doctrine of methods. These constitute
the prolegomena, and then come in turn the sciences them-
selves, divided into theoretical^ practical and poetical. The
theoretical are twelve in number, to wit : Metaphysica. Pneu-
matica, Physica, Arithmetical, Greometria, Cosmographia, Ura-
noscopia, Greographia, Optica, Musica and Architectonica. The
practical sciences are these five : Mhica, Oeconomica (the
doctrine of the family), Politica, Scolastica (pedagogy)
and Historica. And finally the disciplinae poeticae, or the
Arts, are seven in number : (1) Lexica, (2) Grammatica,
(3) Rhetoriea, (-i) Logica, (5) Oratorica, (6) Poetica,
(7) Mnemonica.

From this sketch it is evident that under the name of
Encyclopedia Alstedt virtually embraced all the sciences,
and was bent on establishing them mutually in technical re-
lations. What he offers is no medley or hodge-podge, but
a well-ordered whole. And yet this systematizing of the
several disciplinae is merely accidental with him. His real
purpose is to collect the peculiar contents of these sciences in
a short resume, and that to such an extent that in the divi-
sion Lexica he places before you successively a Hebrew, Greek
and Latin dictionary ; that under the rubric Historica he
furnishes a fairly extensive universal history ; and that under
the title of Mathematica, Musica, etc., he presents you on
each occasion with a brief manual of these sciences. But
being a man of systematic thought, he presents these col-
lected contents not merely in a well-ordered succession,
but even with an introduction that throws light upon
the character of the department and upon its relation to
the other departments. When, for instance, he passes on
from Ethiea to Oeconomica, Politica and Scolastica, he directs
your attention to the fact that the three last named together
form the Symhiotica, i.e. the disciplinae of social life, and
how they flow from the principles of Ethiea. And since
from the comprehensiveness of the book the impression of the
relation of the several parts is of necessity somewhat lost, he
introduced the work itself with his Comjjendium Encyclopediae,
in which he treats exclusivelv the mutual relations of the



Chap. I] PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION 9

whole and the parts. For which reason Alstedt's Encyclo-
pedia stands for his times really very high. It is evidently
his purpose to exhibit before our eyes the body of the sciences
(^Corpus Scientiarum) as one whole ; and he seeks to reach
this end on the one hand by giving us a description of the
members of the body, but also on the other hand by direct-
ing our attention to the skeleton and the network of nerves
and veins that unite these parts.

But even with Alstedt the word Encycloijedia as such has not
received a pregnant significance. In his introduction he him-
self tells us that his Encyclopedia has the same end in view
as was held by Petrus Ramus in his Professio regia, by Gre-
gorius Thoiosanus in his Syiitaxis artis mirabiUs, and by
Wower in his Polymathia. To him, therefore, Encyclopedia
is but a convenient name for what had been furnished by



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