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with righteous indignation this spirit of duhiess and su-
perficiality. But the churches and the universities them-
selves were caught in the meshes of this unholy spirit, and
men soon saw in Rationalism the caricature of what Christian
theologj'- ought to be. And this in turn was attacked by
Supernaturalism in such a way as to make the entire defeat
of Christendom still more humiliating. Pietistic circles, to be
sure, were maintained in Lutheran lands, and mystical and
methodistical circles in Reformed lands, which hid the salt of
the Gospel, lest it should lose its savor, but these spiritually
attuned circles failed of exerting any saving influence upon
official churches and official theology. The ground on
which this Deism and this Aufklarung offered battle was no
ground on which the Christian Church or Christian theology
could join battle. The thrusts given did not carry the sting
sufficiently deep to reach the deepest life-consciousness.
Thus it remained a mere skirmishing, a constant skirmishing
on the outer lines, and no one seemed to realize into how
shameful a corner they were being pushed. It was no longer
the Church against the world, nor theology against the wis-
dom of Paganism ; but it was the world in the Church, and
it was theology irrecognizably metamorphosed under ration-
alistic and naturalistic influences into a caricature of itself.

But, however feebly, the antithesis continued to be felt.
Rationalism over against Supernaturalism certainly implied
that the scientific consciousness of unregenerate humanity
refused to undergo the influence of Revelation, and therefore
demanded that the treasure of Revelation should first be
examined at the frontier by reason. And, on the other
hand, the very appearance of Supernaturalism as such im-
plied an effort to make certain demands for the scientific con-
sciousness of regenerate humanity, by which Revelation might
escape from testing by the reason. The deepest antithe-
sis between theology and the wisdom of the woi-ld was cer-
tainly present in this almost fatal conflict ; only it received
no special emphasis as such from either side. Rationalism
did not appear against the Church, but in the Church, and

Chap. V] § 105. THE APPARENT DEFEAT 671

adapted itself, therefore, to forms which often did not fit
in with its principle, and weakened itself by its utter want
of piety. But Supernaturalisra also was not able to array
itself for a conflict of principles. It betrayed somewhat more
of a religious sense, but of a kind which never reached the
warmth of the mystical life of communion with the Infinite ;
which, therefore, scarcely noticed the psychological antithe-
sis; and being almost more hostile to Pietism than to Ration-
alism, it, for the most part, sought strength in sesquipedalian
words and in lofty terms ; and deemed its duty performed by
the defence of faith in the great facts of Revelation, indepen-
dently of their spiritual significance.

As a result of this wrong attitude, theology lost in less than
half a century almost all the authority it had exerted in
the circles of science and public opinion. It was no longer
thought worth while to continue a conflict which, from both
sides, was carried on with so little tact and spirit. It soon be-
came evident that the interval which separated Rationalists
and Supernaturalists grew perceptibly less. He who was
still bent upon making a name for himself as a theologian,
withdrew into some side study of theology, in which at least
there were historical and literary laurels to be gathered. The
Church life went into a decline. The life of the clergy par-
took somewhat of the character of the times when " priest
laughed at priest " in the days of Imperial Rome. And it was
very clear, as early as the middle of the eighteenth century,
that theology had nothing more to say with respect to the
great problems which were presenting themselves. Thus the
French Revolution came, without thinking it worth her while
to assume any other attitude toward the Church than that of
disdain. The " Italia fara da se," which was a proverb con-
cerning Italy's future in the daj's of Cavour could then have
been prophesied concerning Philosophy : Filosofia fara da se ;
i.e. "Philosophy will have her own way." Theology could
exert an influence in three ways : at her frontiers she could
give battle to the spirit of Paganism, or she could make a
deeper study of the faith of the Christian Church, as had
been done in the fourth and sixteenth centuries, or, finally.


she could make the mystical and practical life of the Church
express itself iu conscious action. But when theology did
none of these three, but squandered her time in a skirmish,
which scarcely touched upon the first antithesis, which went
outside of the mysteries of the faith, and had no connection
with the mystical-practical life of believers, she herself threw
her once brilliant crown down into the dust, and the opponent
could not be censured for speaking of theology as an antiquity
no longer actual.

^ 106. The Period of Resurrection

The nineteenth century is far superior to the eighteenth,
not merely in a cosmical, but also in the religious sense.
Here also action effected reaction. The bent-down spring
rebounded at last. And it will not readily be denied, that in
our nineteenth century a mystical-religious movement has
operated on the spirit, which may be far from comparable
to the activity of the Reformation, but which, leaving out
of account the Reformation period, seeks to rival it in recent
history. Revivals of all sorts of tenets belong to the order
of the day, in Europe as well as in America. In spite
of its one-sidedness. Perfectionism has gained a mighty fol-
lowing. Methodist and Baptist churches have developed an
activity which would have been inconceivable in the eigh-
teenth century, and which affords its masterpiece in the Sal-
vation Array. Missions have assumed such wide proportions,
that now they have attained a universal, historical signifi-
cance. New interests have been awakened in religious and
churchly questions, which make manifest how different a spirit
had come to the word. Even negative tendencies have found
it advisable, in their way, to sing the praises of religion. And,
however unfavorably one may judge of Mormonism, Spiritism,
etc., it can scarcely be denied that their rise and temporary
success would not have been possible, if the problem of reli-
gion had not taken a powerful hold upon the general mind.
If then, after the shameful defeat of theology in the period
of the " Illumination " ( Aufkliirung), we may affirm an un-
deniable resurrection of theology in the nineteenth century,


let it be said that this is owing, first of all, to the many mys-
tical influences, which, against all expectation, have restored
once more a current to the religious waters. A breath of
wind from above has gone out upon the nations. By the
woes of the French Revolution and Napoleon's tyrannies the
nations were prepared for a new departure in an ideal di-
rection. The power of palingenesis has almost suddenly
revealed itself with rare force. By the very radicalism of
the revolutionary theory the sense of a twofold life, of a two-
fold effort, and of a twofold world-view has come to a clearer
consciousness in every department. Moreover, it may not
escape our notice, that it has pleased God, in almost every
land and in every part of the Church, to raise up gifted per-
sons, who, by Him "transferred from death into life," as
singers, as prophets, as statesmen, as jurists, and as theolo-
o-ians, have borne a witness for Christ such as has not been
heard of since the days of Luther and Calvin.

It would, however, be a great mistake to explain the resur-
rection of theology from this powerful revival alone. It
may not be overlooked that this mystical-pietistical revival
was more than indifferent to theology as such. As far as it
called into life preparatory schools for ministers and mission-
aries, this revival lacked all theological consciousness, and
undertook little more than a certain ecclesiastical training for
its students ; a sort of discipline more bent upon advancing
a spirit of piety and developing a power of public address,
than upon theological scholarship. It was more the " passion
of the Soul," and the desire after religious quietistic enjoy-
ment, that inspired general activity, than the purpose, cher-
ished even from afar, to give battle in the domain of thought,
or to maintain the honor of Christ in the intellectual world.
The life of the heart, or emotions, and the life of clear conscious-
ness were looked upon more and more as separate and dis-
tinct, and religious activity, which found itself strong within
the domain of the emotions, but very weak on intellectual
ground, deemed it good tactics to withdraw its powers within
the domain within which it felt itself to be invincible. If
this reveil had been left to itself, the vocation of Christianity



to take up the content of Revelation also into the thinking
consciousness, and from this to reproduce it, would readily
have passed into entire forgetfulness. And it is Philosophy
which has been used by the King of the Church as a means
of discipline to force His redeemed once again to enter upon
that sacred vocation.

It was only when the Christian Church had lost her
authority completely and theology lay in the sand as a con-
quered hero, that in Kant and his epigones the men arose
who, anew and more radically than their predecessors, re-
sumed the ancient conflict of the Greek-Roman Philosophy
against the Christian religion, which had been broken off
rather than decided in the third century. The logic of
principles demanded this. Where two contrary principles
come to stand over against each other, it is of no avail that
the conflict between them is abandoned after the manner
of Constantine, or that, as was done in the Middle Ages
and in the first period of the Reformation, it is suspended
and limited by the preponderance of churchly authority.
Such contrary principles but await the first favorable oppor-
tunity to take new positions from both sides, and to continue
their inevitable conflict, if possible, still more radically. Car-
tesius, Spinoza and Locke began this conflict from their side
at a somewhat earlier date, but without making the Christian
religion feel that it was a conflict of life and death. And
only when the " Illumination " (Aufklarung) had depleted
the Christian religion entirely of her honor, did Philosophy
obtain the chance to come forward in full armor. For though
it cannot be denied, that with such men as Kant and Fichte,
and especially Schelling, and in part also with Hegel, Phi-
losophy did by no means tread the Christian religion under
foot, but rather tried in its way to restore the honor of the
Christian mysteries, which the Church had shamefully aban-
doned ; yet it would but betray color-blindness if we refused
to recognize how the gigantic development of modern Phi-
losophy has revived most radically the ancient and necessary
conflict between the unregenerate consciousness and the prin-
cipium of palingenesis, and with ever greater precision places


the pantheistic starting-point over against Christian Theism
— even though its first ardor is now followed by a period of

The greatest step in advance effected by this consisted in
the fact that Kant investigated the thinking subject, and
thereby gave rise to a riper development of the organic con-
ception of science. The principle and method of science had
been made an object of study before, but in the sense in
which at present we recognize an organic whole of science
it was still entirely unknown, even in the days of the Refor-
mation. At that time men still produced piece-work, each
in his own domain, and effected certain transitions at the
boundaries by the construction of temporary bridges ; but
the subject, as the organic central point from which went
forth the whole activity of science as in so many beams of
one light-centre, was not yet apprehended. Hence the earlier
theology, however richly furnished within its own domain,
makes an impression which is only in part truly scientific.
Before Kant, theology had as little awakened to a clear con-
sciousness of itself as any other science, and much less had the
position of theology in the organism of science been made clear.
However much Kant and his contemporaries and followers
intended injury to the Christian religion, the honor is theirs
of having imparted the impetus which has enabled theology
to look more satisfactorily into the deepest problems that face
it. Schleiermacher has unquestionably exerted the most
preponderant influence upon this resurrection of theology.
This, apart from his titanic spirit, is owing more especially
to the fact that in Schleiermacher the mystic-pietistic power
of the life of the emotions entered into so beautiful and
harmonious a union with the new evolution of Philosophy.
At however many points his foot may have slipped, and in
however dangerous a manner he cut himself loose from ob-
jective Revelation, Schleiermacher was nevertheless the first
theologian in the higher scientific sense, since he was the
first to examine theology as a whole, and to determine in
his way her position in the organism of science. That the re-
sult of his work has nevertheless been more destructive than


constructive, must be explained from the fact that he did not
perceive that the conflict did not involve the triumph of Theol-
ogy over Philosophy, or the victory of Philosophy over The-
ology ; but from each side a first principle was in operation,
which necessarily on the one side gave rise to a Philosophy
entirely naturalistic, seconded by a religion both pantheistic
and mystical, while in opposition to this a proper Christian
Philosophy must needs construct its conception of the whole
of science, and in this organism of science vindicate the
honor of a theistical theology. By this, however, the fact is
not altered that Schleiermacher has given theology back to
herself, has lifted her out of her degradation, has inspired her
with new courage and self-confidence, and that in this formal
sense even confessional theology, which may not hide the
defeat of his epigones, owes to him the higher view-point at
present occupied by the whole of theology, — a merit the
tribute of gratitude for which has been paid to Schleier-
macher by even Romish theology in more ways than one.

It is to be regretted, however, that with the awakened
desire to orient itself in the organism of science, theology
has suffered so greatly from the want of self-limitation.
The intensive power with which theology studied and dis-
sected the content of Divine mysteries in the fourth and
fifth centuries, partly also in the thirteenth, but more espe-
cially still in the sixteenth century, was entirely exhausted.
There have been many who could scarcely imagine how so
much ado could have been made over the rjv ore ovk yp of
Arius, or over the " This is my body," in the conflict over the
sacraments. Is not that which one confesses in common with
all Christians, at least with all Protestants, of tenfold greater
importance ? Moreover, would not the strength of resistance
in defence of the Christian religion increase, in proportion
as these interconfessional differences are buried deeper in the
dust of f orgetfulness ? Thus, in a sense more dangerous than
in Calixtus' days, there arose a syncretistic reaction against
the multiformity which, under the ordinance of God, had un-
folded itself in the Reformation. This reaction was certain
either to force a return to the unity of Rome, or to lead to


such an extinction of the conception "Christian," that at
leno-th even Buddhism becomes " Christian." It lay in the
nature of the case that every " Union " was and could be noth-
ing but a " machine," so that those of a more practical turn
of mind could think of no other unity except tliat which
had existed historically before multiformity came into being.
While, on the other hand, when the conflict was interpreted
as a defence of the good right of religion over against the
intellect, piety had to be generalized, till at length all kinds
of religious utterances were classed under one and the self-
same conception. The result of this has been that a certain
Romanizing tendency has met with a wide reception, espe-
cially through Schleiermacher's emphasis put upon the Qhurch,
which led to Romanticism on a large scale in Germany, and
in England to High-OhurcUsm. A second result was that
theology, which ever pursued an arbitrary " Conception of
Union," involuntarily entered in the Vermittelungstheologie
upon an inclined plane in which it would readily lose all
mastership over itself. And as another result no less, a
third tendency appeared, which transmuted that which was
positively Christian into the idea of the piously religions,
and thus prepared the transition of theology into the sci-
ence of religion.

That this last tendency, even though it is still called
theological, furnishes no theology, needs no further proof.
Tlie science of religion is an anthropological, ethnological,
philosophical study, but is in no single respect theology.
And when it presents itself as such at the several univer-
sities, it plays an unworthy, because untrue, part. Ver-
mittelungstheologie also is more and more disposed to put
away its theological character. We desire in no way to
minimize its value, especially in its earlier period. It has
furnished excellent results in many ways, and in many
respects it has brought lasting gains. But in two ways it
has lost ground. Not perceiving that by the side of the-
ology a Christian Philosophy was bound to arise, it has
theologized philosophy too greatly and interpreted theology
too philosophically. On the other hand, it has sought its


point of support too one-sidedly in the mystical life of the
emotions, and thus it has deemed itself able to dispense with
the objective foundation in the Word of God and in the insti-
tuted Church. By virtue of its character, therefore, it occu-
pied no definite view-point. Chameleon-like, it has lent itself
to all kinds of divisions into groups and individual variations.
But it has never denied its general feature, of feeling stronger
in its philosophical premises than in historic theology, and so
it has preferred to turn itself irenically to the left, while it
shrank from confessional theology as from an unwelcome
apparition. It has also prosecuted no doubt the study of
history, especially history of dogma, but ever with this pur-
pose in view — viz. to dissolve it, in order presently, by the
aid of the distinction between kernel and form, to put its
philosophical thought into the dogma. This is the case with
the more intellectual, while in other circles of the Vermit-
telungstheologie the dualism between the emotional and in-
tellectual life has come to so open a breach, that the transition
to the school of Ritschl, which has anathematized every meta-
physical conception, is already achieved. However widely
spread the influence of this Vermittelungstheologie may be,
even in Scotland and in America, now that she more and
more deserts her objective point of support in the Holy
Scripture, sets herself with ever greater hostility against the
Confessional churches, and continues ever more boldly her
method of pulverizing Christian truth, she can no longer
be a theology in the real sense of the word, but turns of
necessity into a philosophical and theosophical mysticism.
However much she may assert that she still holds fast to
Christ, it is nothing but self-deception. As history slips
away from her and the self-testimony of the Christ, Christ
becomes to her more and more a mere name without a con-
crete stamp of its own, and consequently is nothing but the
clothing of a religious idea, just such as Modernism wills it.

It is entirely diiferent, on the other hand, with confessional
theology, such as the Lutheran, Reformed, and Romish the-
ologies, which are beginning to give more frequent signs of
life. In its confessional type it continues to bear a concrete


and a real historical character, and behind this shield it is
safe against the attack which subjectivism in the intellectual
and mystical domain is trying to make upon the Christian
religion. It holds an objective point of support in the
Holy Scripture and in the dogmatic development, which
protects it from being overwhelmed in the floods of many
waters. And what is of greater significance still, thanks to
this very objective-historic character, it is in less danger
of being involuntarily annexed by philosophy. It may even
now be prophesied, that, while modern theology fades into a
science of religion or into a speculation, and Vermittelungs-
theologie shallows into mysticism, or finds its grave in the
philosophical stream, this confessional theology alone will
maintain its position. Even now it can be observed how
this theology will fulfil a twofold mission : first, a univer-
sal one, viz. so to investigate the fundamental questions
which are common to all the churches, that the radical
difference between the consciousness of regenerate and un-
regenerate humanity shall ever be more fully exposed to
light; and, secondly, to raise the special form of its own
confessional consciousness to the level of the consciousness-
form of our age. But this confessional theology will only
come to a peaceful process of development when the convic-
tion shall be more universally accepted, that the radical
difference between regenerate and unregenerate humanity
extends across the entire domain of the higher sciences, and
therefore calls for two kinds of science just as soon as the
investigation deserts the material basis and can no longer be
constructed without the intermingling of the subjective factor.
The exact boundary-line between Theology and Philosophy
must not be sought between Christian Theology and panthe-
istic or pagan Philosophy, but between a Theology and
Philosophy, both of which, as Keckermann already desired
it, stand at the vieiv-point of jyalingenesis.


[The figures given refer to pages.]

Abelard, 658.

^schylus, 655.

Alcuin, 653.

d'Alembert, 10.

Alstedt, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 30.

Anselm, 383.

Aquinas, Thomas, 17, 165, 235, 236,

238, 323, 335, 595, 657, 658.
Aristotle, 3, 16, 124, 231, 288, 293,

362, 408, 650, 655, 666.
Arius, 586, 646, 676.
Athanasius, 232, 233, 234, 646, 647.
Augustine, 231, 236, 237, 239, 281,

323, 335, 355, 590, 643, 647, 650.

Bach, 68, 536.

Bacon of Verulam, 17.

Bardas, 654.

Bede, 653.

Beethoven, 536.

Beneke, 20.

Bernard of Clairvaus, 658.

Berthold, 628.

Boeckh, 11, 194.

Boerhave, 11.

Bohl, 574, 575.

Bona Ventura, 17.

Bornheim, 141.

Brockhaus, 10.

Buhle, 11, 18.

Burdach, 19.

Busch, 18.

Csesarius, 233.

Calixtus, 667, 676.

Calvin, 238, 265, 309, 323, 374, 375,

571, 575, 622, 659, 673.
Capella, Marcianus, 16.
Carrifere, 521.

Cartesius, 674.
Cassiodorus of Seville, 16.
Celsus, 642, 655.
Chrysostom, 233.
Cicero, 624, 655.
Clarisse, 11.
Clement, 643.
Confusius, 151.
Constantiue, 644, 647, 674.
Crell, 660.

Damascene, John, 650.
Darwin, 165, 209.
Demosthenes, 3.
Descartes, 669.
Diderot, 10.

Dionysius Areopagite, 234.
Doedes, 631.

Edison, 211.

Elyot, 6, 11.

Erasmus, 658.

Erigena, John Scotus, 653.

Ernesti, Johanu August, 18, 19.

Ersch, 10.

Eschenburg, 19.

Eusebius, 5.

Fichte, 11, 16, 19, 20, 22, 36, 37, 99,

133, 674.
Francke, 628.
Fiirst, 60.

Galen, 2.
Gessner, 18, 19.
Gladstone, 409.
Gottschick, 628.
Gregory of Ny.ssa, 234.
Gregory the Presbyter, 232.




Gregory Nazianzus, 232, 235.
Griiber, 10, 22.

Hagenbach, 635.

Harless, 635.

Hartmaiin, Von, 521, 523.

Hefter 19.

Hegel,' 11, 16, 20, 228, 309, 310, 312,

Hegesippus, 642.
Heraclitus, 124, 270.
Hesychius, 4, 5.
Hierocles, 642.
Hieronyums, 650.
Hincmar, 653.
Hodge, 318.
Homer, 229, 655.
Honorius III., 653.
Horace, 655.

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