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rient windbag ' (Heroes, Lect. VI); in Hebrew,
Rabat, meaning a fool (' Nabal is his name, and
folly is with him,' 1 Sam. xxv. 25), near akin to
the word nebel, a bottle of skin (LXX. aa/cos).

Compare the Manx bleb, a fool, an idiot, origi-
nally a pustule, a blister; (Scot.) bleib, blob, any-
thing tumid and circular, like a bubble; (Eng.)
< bubble, a bladder in water, also a silly fellow,
a cully ' (Bailey) ; the Italian ' nocchio, any bosse,
bladder, puffe — also a gull, a ninnie, a foole '
(Florio), and the following quotations: —

1 'Folic decet pueros ludere ' (Martial, 14, 74) — Boys may play
at foot-ball. The post-classical use of the word is illustrated by Du
Cange— ' Infollare proprie est buccam inflare; et quia folles inflan-
tur quasi quadum re inani, inde est quod Follis dicitur stultus,
superbus, vanus, inflatus.' He quotes from a MS. of the ninth
century, ' Hie more gallico sanctum senem increpitans follem,' and
from the interpreter of Joannes de Garlandia, ' Non opus est
Folio suspendere tympana collo.' So in the ' Promptorium Parvu-
loruin,' ¥ollet,follus.



FOOL. 211

1 If there be here any of these empty bladders, that are puft up

with the wind of conceit, give me leave to pricke them a little.'

The Righteous Mammon, Bp. Hall, Works (fol. 1634), p. 670.

' I would embowell a number of those wind-puft bladders
[i.e., authors' patrons], and disfurnish their bald pates of the
perriwigs poets haue lent them.'

Nash, Pierce Penniless 1 s Supplication to the Devil (1592,
Shaks. Soc), p. 91.

Similarly in Phineas Fletcher's poem of i The

Purple Island,' Chaunus, the arrogant fool, is

described as being

' With his own praise like windy bladder blown.'

C. viii., st. xxxvi.

And so in French, a foolish story, nonsense, used

to be called billevesdes — i.e., belle and vessie, a

bladder full of wind, 1 ' a tale told by an idiot,

full of sound and fury, signifying — nothing.'

1 C'est lui qui dans des vers vous a tympanisees';
Tous les propos qu'il tient sont des billevesees. >

Moliere, Les Femmes Savants, ii. 7.

Intimately related to i fool ' is the Old Spanish
follon, a braggart, from the Latin follis, and follere,
to swell like a bellows. Just as Spenser, develop-
ing the same idea, describes a ' losell ' i puffed up
with smoke of vanity ' —

1 Trompart, fitt man for Braggadochio,'

who did



1 Cf.'A widemouthed poet that speakea nothing but bladders
an d burabast.'

Sir Thos. Overbury, Characters (Library of Old Authoi-s, p. 98).



212 BOAST.

< With fine flattery,
Blow the bellows to his swelling vanity.'

Faerie Queen, Bk. II. iii. 4 and 9.

We would be tempted, in like manner, to bring
the Bohemian blazen, a fool, (Dut.) blasoen, a
braggart, into connection with the Anglo-Saxon
and German blcesan, and Dutch blcesen, to blow,
our < blast ; ' 0. Ger. bids, blowing, blatara, a
bladder, bloz, proud ; Ger. blase, a bladder, and bla-
sen, to blow.

Similarly, the Old Norse gdli, a fool, Dan.
gal, mad, Norse galen, angry, mad, according to
Wedgwood, may be traced in the provincial Danish
galm, our 6 gale,' a raging wind.

Compare ' vain,' Lat. vanus, from the root va,
to blow, its congeners being the Gaelic faoin,
0. Eng. fon, c fond ' originally meaning foolish,
Gaelic faoincheann, empty-head.

Bishop Hall, in his ' Characterismes of Vices,'
speaking of the vain-glorious, portrays him as

1 A bladder full of wind, a skin full of words, a fooles won-
der, and a wisemans foole.' Works, p. 176 (ed. 1634.)

For this, indeed, is one sure trait of the bladder-
headed fool — he is puffed up and boastful. And
so the word ' boast ' itself, it is instructive to
find, is near akin to the Old German bdsi, foolish,
originally empty, inflated, and bosan, a bag or
pouch; Irish and Cym., bosd, boasting; 0.
Eng., boistoas, bostwys, now ' boisterous,' an



BUFFOON. 213

epithet of the wind — all connected with the Ger-
man bausen, to puff, inflate the cheeks ; Gk.
pkusdo (<j)vcrd(o), to blow. 1

Compare also the Gaelic borrackas, boasting,
bravado, which is identical with borracha, a blad-
der ; Sp. borracka, a wine-skin. ' To bag,' in
Chaucer, is to swell with pride, arrogance, and
self-conceit (Richardson, Diet.) ; and finally,
* buffoon,' Fr. bouffon, the professional fool, who
has had an inflated bladder (Prov. bouffigd) appro-
priately assigned to him as his badge of office
from time immemorial, derives his name from the
French bouffer. It. buffare, to puff or blow.

Something of the etymological force of 'fool/
as empty, and therefore worthless, appears to sur-
vive in such phrases as avoinefolle, wild or barren
oats, avena fatua,) and c fool-parsley,' 2 where the
word is applied to things which are inefficient
after their kind, and destitute of that virtue or
quality which their appearance would lead us to
suppose they possessed ; and so probably feufo llet,
ignis, fatuus, denotes what Shakspere calls an
6 ineffectual fire ' — one that seems to burn, but does
not. A.-Sax. fon-fyre, Dut. dwaal-lickt.

Similar is the use of the word dol (foolish,
'dull') in Dutch — e.g.) dolle-bezien, berries whose

1 Pictet, Orig. Indo-Europ., vol. ii. p. 143. Cf. Dut. blaas-
TcaTcerig, boasting, rodomontade ; winderig, windy, boasting, brag-

g in g-

2 Wedgwood. Cf. W. ffiol, fool, ffwlach, light corn.



214 BUFFOON.

poisonous quality belies their fair appearance, dolle-
kervel, hemlock. Eng. ' dwale,' Dan. dvale-bcvr,
deadly nightshade ; akin to Goth, drcals, foolish,
A. -Sax. dol.

Compare the word ' deaf,' when applied to nuts,
corn, &c, meaning empty, worthless, tasteless,
having lost its virtue; in Dutch doove-netel, a
nettle which does not sting, doove kool, a dead or
burnt-out coal ;* and so our word ' coke,' as it
were the empty cinder, has been identified with
the Gaelic caoch, blind, empty, hollow ; caochag, a
deaf nut, without a kernel, the ' coke ' of a nut
(cf. ccecus), and so we speak of a * blind' nut or
nettle, A.-Sax. blind-netele.

The sentence which in the authorised version of
the Bible we translate, ' If the salt have lost his
savour' (Matt. v. 13 ; Luke xiv. 34), is literally
in the original, i If the salt have become foolish,' 2
i.e. insipid, it being the very same word that
occurs in Romans i. 22, ' Professing themselves to
be wise, they became fools.'' The Gothic version is
salt baud wair])ip, i.e., salt becomes deaf, Goth.
bautks, deaf {cf. 6 bothered '). A literal rendering
is also found in ' The Apology for the Lollards,'
ascribed to WiclifTe — ' Fonnid salt is not wor}), but

1 Cf. Cleveland, deaf, barren, empty, tasteless, stingless, a deaf-
nettle, A.-Sax. deafcorn, barren corn, Sw. dofvidr, unproductive
tree, dauf-jord, barren soil (Atkingon). Ger. taub is applied to an
exhausted mine. So toad-flax is from the Ger. todt, dead — i. e.,
useless flax ; toad-stone, a rock yielding no ore.

3 ^Iwpavdxi.



FATUOUS. 215

J>at it "be cast for]}, and soilid of suynne.' 'Fond
salt,' i.e., foolish, here tasteless, is the Old English
fort, Gael, faoin, Lat. vanus. Dr Todd, in his edi-
tion of this work for the Camden Society, printed
the word sonnid, which of course is nonsense. The
Latin of St Jerome, which WiclifTe is here trans-
lating — Infatuatum sal ad nikilum prodest — renders
the mistake the more inexcusable.

In like manner, the French fade, insipid, is the
Latin fatuus, foolish ; 2 ' insipid ' itself, as well as
1 unsavoury,' contains the same root as i sapient,'
' sage,' i savant/ all being from the Latin sapere,
to have taste ; and insulsus, meaning foolish in
Latin, was originally in-salsus, without salt, taste-
less.

A parallel idiom occurs in the Hebrew of Job
v. 6, ' Is there any taste in the white of an egg ? '
This, according to Gesenius, would be more cor-
rectly rendered, ' Is there any taste in herb broth
(kohl-brahe) ? lit. the slime of purslain,' which the
Arabians call ' the foolish plant,' i.e., insipid.
' More foolish than purslain ' is one of their pro-
verbial comparisons. The corresponding Hebrew
word in the passage cited is halldmuth, denoting
(1) fatuity, (2) insipidity.

The Latin word fatuus, foolish, which I had but

1 ' Thou art a fori of thy love to boste ' (Spenser, Shepheards
Calender, Februarie).

2 Fatuus is applied to the beet by Martial, in the sense of tasteless.



216 FATUOUS.

just now occasion to refer to, and which still lives
for us in our ' fatuous ' and < infatuated,' is one
that hitherto, so far as I am aware, has eluded
analysis. Perhaps I am too sanguine in thinking
it has yielded to my efforts. At all events, if we
take note of the similar names which have been
given to the fool in other languages, we will see
reason to believe it probable beforehand that the
Latin might fairly have signified c open-mouthed.'
The hanging of the lower jaw imparts such an
idiotic expression to the countenance, and an air
of vacant wonderment, that gaping has been uni-
versally regarded as a mark of imbecility and
stupidity ; a closed mouth and compressed lips, on
the other hand, are the natural expression of firm-
ness and self-control. For instance, in French,
badaud, badault, i a fool, dolt, sot, fop, asse, gap-
ing hoy don ' (Cotgrave), Prov. badau, is from the
Provencal and Italian badare, to gape. 1

6 Naque ??iouc7ie, a Flycatcher, a gaping hoydon,
an idle gull ' (Cotgrave). Cf. gobe-mouches.

Bdgueule^ a fool, originally ' gaping with an
open mouth ' (Cotgrave).

In English, ' gaby ' is one that gapes with a
vacant stare ; 0. Norse gapa, to gape, gap, a
simpleton (Wedgwood), prov. Eng. gaups, a sim-
pleton, from gaup, to gape. Compare gawk-a-



1 Hence also Ft. badin, a jester, badiner, ' badinage ; ' 0. Fr. baer,
bayer, ' to bay. '



FATUOUS. 217

mouth, a gaping fool (Devonshire). Thus ' Poor
Robin' (1735), speaks of fools who * stand with
their eyes and their mouths open, to take in a
cargo of gape-seed^ while some a little too nimble
for them pick their pockets.'

6 Booby,' It. babbeo, is generally understood to
be a gaping imbecile, from the sound ba naturally
made in opening the mouth. 1

Gawney, a provincial term for a fool or simple-
ton, which in Lincolnshire appears a,sya?vney, comes
from the Anglo-Saxon ganian, to yawn or gape,
and with the most curious exactness corresponds
to the Greek ckaunos, gaping, also silly, foolish,
whence chaunopolites, an open-mouthed, gaping
cit, a cockney. Compare, kecMnaioi, gapers, Aris-
tophanes' burlesque name for the Athenians, also
the Greek chdskax (a gaper, gaby), from ckasko, to
gape or yawn ; chin, Dor. chan, the gaping ' gan-
der.'

The same root has been traced by some in the
Latin fat-isco, to yawn, gape, or open in chinks.
It is with this word, whatever may be the root,
that I would place in close connection fatuus, the
open-mouthed, gaping fool. Thus fat-uus would
stand in the same relation to fat-isco that gaby
does to gape and gap (Sans. jabk). Fat-eor

1 Farrar, Chapters on Language, p. 159; Wedgwood, s.v. Com-
pare, however, the 0. Fr. baube, a babbler, ebaubi, astounded, Sp.
bobo, simpleton, which Diez connects with It. balbo, Lat. balbus,
a stammerer.



218 FATUOUS.

(whence conjitcor, confessus), to confess, may not
improbably contain the same root, with the sig-
nification of opening or disclosing a matter, in
opposition to keeping it close and hidden. 1 Com-
pare our English expression ' to split ' ( = to
inform), and the Latin rhnosus (full of chinks or
splits, leaky), applied to one who cannot keep a
secret.

The stem of fat-igo may perhaps be identified
with that of j)at-eo (to be open), and traced to the
Sanskrit root pat, to split or open. As the day
has now gone by when an etymologist could not
timidly suggest a relationship between an Aryan
root and a Sheniitic without fear of being branded
with that most damaging of epithets, i pre-scien-
tific,' I may venture to point out the resemblance
of the Hebrew pdthdh and pdthach, to open. This
may, or may not, be only a coincidence, still the
corresponding uses of the word are sufficiently re-
markable to deserve being noted. From pdthdh,
to be open {—fat-igo), comes the participial form
potkeh, c one who opens ' (his lips, Prov. xx. 19),
also ' a foolish or silly person' (=fatuus, Job v.
2), and the derivative pethi is the common word for
a simple or silly person in the book of Proverbs
e.g., vii. 7).



1 The dictionaries deduce the word from fdtus, the past participle
of fari, to speak ; but in that case we would expect fateor, with a
long vowel.



FATUOUS. 219

From fatuus comes the verb fatuor, 1 to talk
foolishly, which afterwards acquired the very dif-
ferent meaning of being inspired, or filled with
the divine influence. Such a transition is com-
mon in other languages, and can easily be ex-
plained as follows : —

No one, unaccustomed to such trying scenes, can
listen to the ceaseless raving of a patient oppressed
with fever, or the unconnected rhapsodies poured
forth by the insane, without experiencing some-
what of an almost superstitious fear, which invests
even commonplace and unmeaning expressions
with a strange significance. The words given vent
to in such cases are known to come from the lips
quite apart from the consciousness of the speaker.
They seem, therefore, like the utterances of some
unknown power, which has taken possession of the
patient, and uses him for its mouthpiece. This
feeling, which perhaps in some degree may help us
to understand why it is that the wayward and
fragmentary interlocutions of the fool add a new
element of grandeur and sublimity to the wondrous
scenes of Lear, that the snatches of song and
proverb introduced by the poor distraught Ophelia
are so inexpressively pathetic, that the soliloquies
delivered by Lady Macbeth when walking in her



1 Dr Smith does not seem to have any authority for making two
distinct words out of this, and marking the initial syllable short
in the one case and long in the other (Lat. Diet.)



220 NATURAL.

troubled sleep are so potent in inspiring awe and a
sense of terrible mystery — the same feeling has led
men in all ages to regard the idiot and the lunatic
with reverence, as beings endued with a portion of
the divine afflatus. Thus in Latin there is the one
V70x<\. furor for madness and inspiration. In Greek,
mantis , a prophet, is near akin to mania, madness :
and in old English writers c fury ' is used of
spiritual influences, however gentle, as in this
invocation to the Deity —

' Breathe thou a heavenly fury in my breast,
I sing the sabbath of eternal! rest.'

William, Earl of Stirling (d. 1640).

Amongst many savage races madmen are vene-
rated as being the special abode of some deity, 1 and
idiots are treated with kindness and forbearance,
from a belief that they possess superhuman inspir-
ation. The Eskimo, for instance, regard an insane

1 Compare the Greek enihousiastikds, entheos, dwelt in by a god,
inspired. Vide Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. ii. p. 117; Lubbock,
Origin of Civilisation, p. 132.

Mania is used both for madness and the prophetic spirit, so that
Plato says, ' The greatest blessings we have spring from madness
when granted by the divine bounty.' Fide The Prophetic Spirit in
its Relation to Wisdom and Madness, by Rev. A. Clissold.

' The fool alone, in " All's Well that Ends Well " has somewhat of
the " prophetic " vein in him, which he ascribes to himself, ac-
cording to the general notion of the age, that fools, in virtue of
their capacity for speaking " the truth the next way," possessed
something of a divine and foretelling character ' (Gervinus, Shaks-
pere Commentaries, p. 402). On the superstition that the insane
were possessed or inspired by a deity, see Maury, La Magie et
l'Astrologie, pp. 261-263, 269, 272, 285. The old Countess of
Strathmore is reported to have consulted an idiot when she desired
an oracular pronouncement as to the prolongation of her husband's
life (Southey, C.-P. Book, vol. iv. p. 514).



NATURAL. 221

person, whom they call a pivdlerortok, as possessed
of the highest perfection in divining, and capable
of seeing things when absent or still future. The
6 natural ' or fool, pivdlingayak, as being a clair-
voyant, is esteemed by them a useful person to
be maintained in every hamlet. 1 It must have
been a somewhat similar notion that gave rise to
the French word benet or benest, i a simple, plaine,
doltish fellow, a noddy-peake, ... a silly com-
panion ' (Cotgrave), which is only another form of
benist, benoist, benedict, blessed, holy, happy. We
might be reminded here of the English slang
phrase i an anointed scamp,' meaning an arch
villain, Yorkshire, c a nointed youth ; ' but this
without doubt is a corruption of the French
andanti, brought to nothing, worthless, good for
nought — anoienter being actually found as another
form of aneantir. 2 A truer comparison would be
' silly,' originally innocent, blessed, happy, A.-Sax.
scelig, Ger. selig. So the German albern, foolish,
simple, Mid. Ger. alewaere, Swiss alb, A.-Sax.
ylfige, and perhaps our alf, 6 oaf,' represents the
Middle German alwdr, 0. H. Ger. alawdr, all-true,
alawdri, kind. 3 Compare the expressions ' an in-
nocent,' i a natural,' i simple,' ' buon huomo^ 6 bon



1 Dr H. Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, p. 57.
5 Roquefort, Glossaire de la Langue Romane.
3 The Icelandic dlfr, an elf, denotes also a silly, vacant, person, one
bewitched by the elves (Cleasby). Vide also Diefenbach, Orig. Europ.



222 NATURAL.

enfant] Gk. eucthes, < daffte ' (= humble in the
Ormultm). 1 Cretin, the name given to the deformed
idiots of Switzerland, is said by some to be the
same as chrUien, the Christian par excellence, the
most chastened, because the most loved. 2

While on the subject of fools, I ma}' note that
the A. -Irish omadhaun is the Irish amadan, an idiot
or simpleton, also amad, which corresponds exactly
to the Sanskrit a-mati, folly, stupidity {a negative,
and mati, mind, Lat. a-mens y out of one's mind).
The idiot, as it were, is contrasted with the rational
' man,' Sans. ?nanu, ' the thinker,' from the root
man, to think. 3 Goddis ajns is an old Scotch
expression of similar import for ' dull, blockish
animals, that have no more of men, the chief of
God's creatures, but the shape, as apes have.'

1 Zour sory joyis "bene bot janglyng and japis,
And zour trew^seruandis silly goddis apis.'

Gaivin Douglas, Prologue to Bk. IV. 1. 27.

' Thus we say in Scotland, " a good God's body,"
or " God's goss," for a silly, but good-natured
man ; ' 4 in Ireland ' one of God's innocents.'



1 See also De Quincey, vol. iii. p. 306 ; Lane, Egyptians, vol. ii.
pp. 43, 44.

3 Cf. Gattel, s.v.; Genin, Recreations Philologiques, vol. ii. p. 164.
Somewhat similar to those mentioned above is the transition of
meaning of Ger. schlecht, (1) right, good, (2) simple, (3) foolish,
worthless. An ' upryght man ' is one of the ' rainging rabblement
of rascals,' in Harman's Caveat for Cursetors, p. 13 (Repr. 1814).

3 Pictet, Orig. Indo-Europ., vol. ii. p. 543; Stokes, Irish Glosses,
p. 66.

4 Glossary to G. Douglas, 1710.



( 223 )



CHAPTER IX.

* hearse ' — ' hoe ' — ' furro w ' — names of ma-
chines derived from animals — ' pulley '
etc. — ' ha tchment ' — ' lozenge ' — ' blazon '
— ' timbre' — 'halo' — ' aureole!

In tracing the word ' hearse ' through its manifold
windings up to its distant source, the transitions of
meaning presented to us are not a little curious.
Applied at the present day to the large ornamen-
tal carriage for the conveyance of the dead, which
forms so conspicuous a feature in the long-drawn
6 pomp of woe ' that characterises a i respectable
funeral/ c hearse/ once on a time, denoted not
this, but a temporary canopy, or light frame of
woodwork supporting a pall, erected in the
church, under which frame the body used to
be placed while the service for the dead was
being performed. 1 Sometimes it was a ceno-
taph, or monument of a more permanent
character, set up as a memorial of the deceased



1 See a good note in Peacocke's 'Church Furniture,' p. 127,
where he gives a representation of a hearse, but quite mistakes its
etymology. Vide also p. 26.



224 HEARSE.

— e.g., c cenotaphium, a herse, a sepulchre of
honour.' 1

' A cenotaph ' (says Weever in his ' Funeral Monuments,'
1631) ' is an emptie Funerall Monument or Tombe erected for
the honour of the dead, wherein neither the corps nor reliques
of any defunct are deposited, in imitation of which our Hearses
here in England are set vp in Churches, during the continuance
of a Yeare, or for the space of certaine moneths ' (p. 32, fol.)

' The solemnitie of Polydores obit at his emptie hearse is
described in the said booke [iEn. 3] much what after the same
manner.

" Anon therefore to Polydore an Hearse we gan prepare." '

Ibid., p. 35.

Compare also the following from the poems of

Bishop Henry King (1657) : —

' The beating of thy pulse (when thou art well)
Is just the tolling of thy Passing Bell :
Night is thy Hearse, whose sable Canopie
Covers alike deceased day and thee.

And all those weeping dewes which nightly fall,
Are but the tears shed for thy funerall/

Ed. Hannah, p. 19.

And these from Spenser —

' Leave these relicks of his living might
To decke his herce, and trap his tomb-blacke steed.'

Faerie Queene, II. viii. 16.

' Beene they all dead, and laid in dolefull herse,
Or doen they onely sleepe, and shall againe reverse '? '

Ibid., III. iv. 1

At the funeral of Sir John Dudley i at Westmyns-
ter, the xxj of Septemher/ 1553,

1 Old Glossary, quoted by Way, in • Promptorium Parvulorum.'



HEARSE. 225

' In the qwer was a hersse mad of tymbur and covered with
blake, and armes upon the blake.'

Diary of Henry Machyn, 1550-1563 (Camden Soc.) p. 44.

Bailey defines the word t Hearse, a Monument
liung with the Atchievements of an honourable
Person deceased ; also a covered or close Waggon
to carry a dead Corpse in ' (Diet, s.v.)

Though these meanings of a decorated bier, a
pall, or canopy, are ancient, we must go back
further still. In wills and other documents of the
twelfth and three following centuries we find fre-
quent mention made of the hersia, /iercia, or her-
cium, as a well-known article of church furniture,
employed at the most solemn services, and especially
at funerals, when the corpse was lying in state. 1
The i Promptorium Parvulorum ' (c. 1440) explains
the ' Heerce on a dede corce ' to be a c pirama ' or
1 piramis. ' It was, in fact, a sort of pyramidal candle-
stick, or iron frame of triangular form, designed
to hold the multitude of wax tapers usually lighted
on such occasions, tier above tier.

Another name, or rather another form of the
name, of this structure in medieval Latin was
kerpica, and this points us to its true origin. 2 The
hersia or hercia was so called on account of its re-

1 I draw this information from Mr Way's excellent note in the
'Promptorium Parvulorum.' Vide also Diary of Henry Machyn
(Camden Soc), p. xxix. ; Skeat in Notes and Queries. 4th Ser. vol.
iv. p. 51.

2 The identification of ' hearse ' with the Lat. (ac-)cerso, Sans.
harsh, to draw, by some philologists, shows how dangerous it is to
theorise about a word without tracing its historical relationship.

P



226 REHEARSE.

semblance in shape to the French /terse, 0. Fr. herce,
It. crpicc, a harrow, and those words themselves
come from the Lat. hirpex (kirjiic-is), also irpex,
a large iron-toothed rake, a harrow. So the sar-
rasi?w, a kind of portcullice, Bailey mentions
(Dictionary, s.v,), was otherwise called a hearse,
evidently from its harrow-like shape. From the
Low Latin Jierciare l arose the French /terser, c to
harrow,' ' also to vexe, turmoile, disquiet, hurry,
torment' (Cotgrave), just as we speak of c harrow-
ing one's feelings,' or 'a harrowing tale.' From
/terser, through the form harser, came apparently
harasser with the same meaning, our ' harass.'

We now can see the point of connection also
between * hearse ' and the verb to f re-hearse.' The
latter means literally 6 to harrow over again,' to go
over the same ground and turn it up anew : figu-
ratively, to repeat what has been already said. A
similar expression is ' to rip up ' an old grievance,
&c. Compare the following —

'What direful greeting will there then be . . . remem-
bering and ripping up all their lewdness, to the aggravation
of their torment.' Baxter, Saints' Best, Pt. iii. eh. 3.

1 Being as a cursed goat separated to stand beneath on earth,


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Online LibraryAbram Smythe PalmerLeaves from a word-hunter's note-book → online text (page 14 of 21)