Abram Smythe Palmer.

Leaves from a word-hunter's note-book online

. (page 16 of 21)
Online LibraryAbram Smythe PalmerLeaves from a word-hunter's note-book → online text (page 16 of 21)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

1 Mt)vI<tkos (Aristoph., Aves, 1114).

From his use of the word in 'Queen Mary' (act v. sc. 2), it
might be supposed that Tennyson connected ' aureole ' with
aurum —

'Our Clarence there
Sees ever such an aureole round the Queen,
It gilds the greatest wronger of her peace,
Who stands the nearest to her.'

2 Exhortation to Heathen, ch. iv.

3 Baruch vi. 22, 23.

( 243 )



There are few words in the language more puz-
zling than the word e clever,' when we attempt to
trace it to its origin. Three derivations present
themselves. Each, if it stood alone, and could be
considered apart from the others, has much to
recommend it ; but their conflicting claims give rise
to no little perplexity in the mind of a candid in-
quirer, and render a judicial decision between
them a matter of considerable difficulty.

First of all, there is the Anglo-Saxon gleav, 1
skilful, wise, and gleav-ferhdh, wise-minded, saga-
cious. The meaning seems to suit admirably.
But unfortunately, it is just this close approxima-
tion to the present signification of ' clever ' that
invalidates its claim. In the earlier stages of its
use, that word was applicable, not to the mind, but
to the body — not to mental, but manual dexterity
— not to intellectual, but always bodily activity.

1 Goth, glaggvus, 0. Norse gloggr, N. H. Ger. Mug, have been
compared (Diefenbach), and Irish glica, 0. Irish gliccu (W. Stokes,
Irish Glosses, p. 130). W. glew, North Eng. glegg, quick, smart.


The reader will no doubt be surprised to learn
that a word so useful, and so commonly employed
in daily conversation, is comparatively of recent
introduction, and only crept in (to the written lan-
guage, at least) about two centuries ago. It is
dangerous, I know, to speak dogmatically as to
the first appearance of any word ; but I believe it
will be found that i clever ' has not been traced in
our literature further back than to the time of
the Kestoration, or thereabouts. It may be met,
indeed, in the works of Swift, of Burnet, of South,
and of Samuel Butler ; but it does not once occur
in Milton's poems, nor in our English Bible. It
will be looked for in vain in the poems of Pope,
though it does occur in one of Swift's ' Imitations
of Horace,' which is usually printed amongst
Pope's works, on account of some additional
verses he appended to it. It does not appear in
Shakspere — nor in any of his contemporaries, so
far as I am aware. The adjective that seems
generally to have done duty in its stead is the
term ' ingenious/ So late as 1684 Sir Thomas
Browne, in his tract on the Saxon tongue, includes
' clever' among the c words of no general reception
in England, but of common use in Norfolk, or
peculiar to the East Angle counties.' Hickes, in
his ' Anglo-Saxon Grammar,' referring to these
words of Browne, is content to leave ' clever,
cultus, eleganSj with a few others, unelucidated,


as being altogether beyond his ken. 1 Some
twenty years earlier, Skinner has c clever, cleverly,'
in his ' Etymologicon ' (1667), and defines them
'Dextrd, Agiliter' It is not to be found, however,
in Sherwood's ' English-French Dictionary' (1660),
nor in Minsheu's l Guide into the Tongues ' (1627). 2
Mr Oliphant 3 supposes that he has discovered
the word in use at a date very much earlier
indeed — no later, in fact, than about the middle
of the thirteenth century. Undoubtedly, a word
' cliuer ' does appear in a poem of that period,
printed by Dr Morris for the Early English Text
Society, in his ' Old English Miscellany ' (p. 3),
but the question is, whether there is anything
more than its resemblance in form to connect it
with the one we are considering? The writer
is impressing on his reader the necessity of divest-
ing himself of his sins by shrift and amendment
of life, because then the devil will flee from him,
as the adder (neddre) always does from a naked
man. But, he adds —

1 On the clothede the neddre is cof (bold),
And the deuel cliuer on sinnes' — LI. 220, 221.

i.e., the adder does not fear to attack the clothed,
and so upon sins the devil is ' ready-to-take-hold,' 4

1 'Utpote nos prorsus latentia.'

2 Minsheu only gives clever or diver, an herb, or a chopping-knif e.

3 Standard English, p. 126.

4 So Stratmann, ' cliver, from cliven (?), clever, tenax(?). — Diet,
of 0. Eng. Language.


or, if we might forge a term for the occasion, is
' clutchy.' Accordingly, < clever ' would mean
primarily 'apt to lay hold on with the cleyes,
claws, clivers, or clutches,' < quick in grasping,'
and would be near akin to the Anglo-Saxon clavu,
clea, a claw (which is from clifan, to adhere or
cleave to), just as the Scotch clench (agile, clever)
is from cleuck (a claw or clutch), and gleg (clever)
from glac (to seize).

This, the second derivation referred to above, is
the theory propounded by Mr Wedgwood, and the
one now generally approved of. There is yet
another origin, which, though set aside by him in
favour of the foregoing, admits of a great deal
being said in its favour. I propose to examine it
now at some length. It is that ' clever ' is
merely a modern corruption of the very common
Old English adjective ' deliver,' which meant
active and nimble. 1 The primary signification of
' clever ' was quite the same ; for it should be
remembered throughout that the notion of mental
quickness and capacity, or keenness and versatility
of the intellectual powers, which we now attach
to the word, is but a secondary one, and that it
formerly imported personal agility, nimbleness, or
dexterity — the very sense which ' deliver ' always
bears in old authors. It will be convenient to

So Professor Craik, English of Shakspere.


consider — (1) the word c deliver/ (2) the possible
transmutation of ' deliver ' into c clever/ (3) the
word ' clever.'

1. * Delyvere (or quycke in beynesse) ' is de-
fined to be vivax in the ' Promptorium Parvu-
lorum,' an English-Latin dictionary compiled
about 1440. In a note on this, the editor, Mr
Way, quotes from Palsgrave, ' delyver of ones
lymmes, as they that prove mastryes, souple, agile,'
and from Thomas, ' snello, quicke, deliver.'

' Delivre de sa personne,' says Cotgrave (1660),
is 6 an active, nimble wight, whose joynts are not
tied with points ; one that can weild his limbs at

Skinner (1667) mentions < deliver' as not yet
quite obsolete in his time, and defines it as 6 agile,'
free and ready for action, almost exactly the same
definition as he gives elsewhere for ' clever,
cleverly ' (viz., Dextrd, Agiliter).

It is from the verb delivrer, Lat. deliberare,

to free or loose ; and so a deliver man was one

unfettered in his motions and actions, or nimble,

like Chaucer's squire, who in stature

' Was of even lengthe
And wonderly deliver and grete of strengthe.'

Prologue, Canterbury Tales.

The same writer says —

4 Certes, the goodes of the body ben hele of body, strengthe,
deliverjiess, beautee, gentrie, franchise.' Persones Tale.

' Quicke and deliver ' is the explanatory gloss


that Kirke appended to these words of his friend

Spenser —

' He Vaa so wimble and so wight
From bough to bough he lepped light.'

Shepheards Calender (March).

I add some other instances, to show how the
word was used —

' Wyte, or delyvyr, or swyfte (wyghte), Agilis.'

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440).

Compare with this —

' Wicht, stout, valiant, clever, active, or swift.'
' Deliverly, claverly, nimbly.'

Glossary to Gawin Douglas (1710).

' Cried was, that thei shulde come
Unto the game all and some
Of hem that ben deliver and wight,
To do such maistrie as thei might.'

Gower, Conf. Am., Bk. VIII.

'Papyonns . . . taken more scharpely the Bestes and
more delyverly than don houndes.'

Mandeville (ed. Halliwell), p. 29.
' Thre small shyppes escaped by theyr delyver saylynge.'

Fabyan (sub. an. 1338).

1 Swim with your bodies
And carry it sweetly and deliverly.'

Two Noble Kinsmen, iii. 5.
' Hereto he is one the lightest, delyuerest, best-spoken, fairest
archer.' Paston Letters, XLVI. vol. ii. p. 93.

' Deliuerly on fute gat he,
And drew his suerd owt, and thaim mete.'

Barbour, The Bruce, Bk. V. 1. 506.
1 Bot the gud steid, that wald nocht stand
Lansyt furth deliuerly.' Ibid., Bk. VI. 1. 84

The shorter form liver (Fr. livre, Lat. liber) was
also in use in the sense of quick, active, e.g. —


1 But Eobin he lope & Eobin he threw,
he lope over stocke and stone ;
hut those that saw Eobin Hood run
said he was a liver old man/

Percy Folio MS., vol. i. p. 17.

2. The process of change. If c deliver ' be
spoken quickly, and the first syllable slurred in
the pronunciation, the resultant form ' d'liver,' or
6 d'lever,' would inevitably tend to become ' clever,'
the combination dl being to most ears hardly dis-
tinguishable from gl or cL Nor is the extrusion
of a short vowel from the beginning of a word at
all uncommon. Thus our ' plush ' is the French
peluche ; i platoon ' is the French and Spanish pelo-
ton; 1 i clock/ a black-beetle, is for 6 gellock ' (Bav.
kieleck, 0. Ger. ckuleich) ; ' sloop ' is another form
of ' shallop,' Fr. chaloupe ; i sprite ' is otherwise
' spirite,' or f spirit ; ' the Italian bricco, an ass, is
the Portuguese burrico, Sp. borrico, Lat. buricus ;
Holsteinjp/?Y,sc/$ (clever) is for politisch, and klur for
couleur. So ' remnant' is for ' remanent,' ' fortnight'
for ' fortenight,' ' surplice' for £ sur-pellice,' and such
pronunciations as b'lieve, med'cine, may often be ob-
served. Compare Fr. vrai beside verus, ' very,' 0.
Fr. verai; vrille beside the Italian verrina, verricello.
In his directions for pronunciation prefixed to his

1 Compare glades for gelacies ; Fr. Jlon, in Cotgrave an old
form of felon; lourd, a jest, in 0. Fr. hehourd, bohnrd. So ' crown '
is for corone ; ' crowner ' (Shaks.) for coroner ; ' clown ' for colone ;
1 jilt ' for jillet. In Dutch, krent = Ger. Tcorinthc, a currant ; Tcronie
(jcaronie) = Fr. charogne, It. carogna; pruih (Helig. priig) = Ger.
perriicke, a periwig.


Dictionary, Webster lays down a principle which,
however questionable, is very apposite to the point
in hand —

1 The letters cl answering to hi are pronounced as if written
tl; clear, clean, are pronounced ^ear, tlean. Gl is pronounced
dl, glory is pronounced dlory.' Rule XXIII.

In Irish, Mr Joyce informs us, the letters d and g
when aspirated (dh and gh) are sounded exactly
alike, so that it is impossible to distinguish them in
speaking. Consequently, in names of places gh is
now very generally substituted for the older dh*
Thus Gargrim should be Gardrim, being the Irish
Gearrdhruim (short ridge), and Fargrim should be
Fardrim, Irish Fardhruim (outer ridge). 1

In illustration of this principle, by which tl, tr,
become cl, cr, or hi, kr, and dl, dr, become gl, gr,
I append the following instances : —

In Cotgrave (s.v. Niquet) tlick stands for what
we now write ( click.' Trane is the Danish for
our l crane,' just as I have heard a child say trown,
when it meant 4 crown.' K Eng. twill for ' quill.'

Ankelers (for anklers) is an archaic way of
writing ' antlers.' 2

Ascla, a splinter, in Provencal, is for astla,
from L. Lat. astula (Diez).

Buskle is found as a collateral form of 'bustle.'

1 Irish Names of Places, p. 54.

2 Vide quotation in Soane's New Curiosities of Literature, vol.
ii. p. 138.

(JLEVER. 251

-do, -cro, -cla, &c., a Latin suffix, is said to be
for -tlo, -tro, -tla, &c l

Craindre, 0. Fr. crembre (to fear), is from the
Latin tremere (Diez).

6 Huckleberry,' also ' hurtle-berry.'

* Scrub,' Dan. skrub, is the Dutch strobbe.

Schioppo (It.), a blow, is from the Latin stlop-
pus, through a form scloppus (Diez).

Snickle (prov. Eng.), a noose or snare, is some-
times spelt i snitle.'

Ruckle is another form of ' ruttle.' 2

Skinkle (Scot.), a spark, is the Latin scintilla.

Sparkelen (Dut.) also presents the form spar-
telen. 3 Cleveland tattling = tackling, twilt = quilt.

' Trickle ; corresponds to the Old Norse tritill.

Tranckle is also found as trantel}

Turckle is an old way of writing ' turtle.' 5
Vecckio, veglio (It.), is from the L. Lat. veclus,
i.e. vetlus for vetulus, old (Diez).

Similarly, Suckling the poet figures as ' Sir

John Sutlin ' in ' Strafford's Letters ' (vol. ii. p.

150) ; Ballinclay, a townland in Wexford, is

otherwise Ballintlea ; and Twit'nam was Pope's

favourite spelling of Twickenham —

' All fly to Twit'nam, and in humble strain
Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain,'

Ep. to Arbuthnot, 1. 21.

1 Vide the Academy, No. 30, p. 408.

2 Philological Soc. Trans., 1857, p. 127.

3 Ibid., p. 108.

4 Percy Folio MS., vol. i. p. 62.

6 Chester Mysteries (Shakspere Soc), vol. i. p. 193.


Instances of the d and g sounds interchanging
are the following : —

'Brangle' (for brandle), (Fr.) brandiller, to

Glukus{(ak. y\vKvs) compared with Lat. (dlucis)
dulcis. 1

Gragea (Port.) = Sp. dragea, Fr. dragte (sweet-

' Grisly,' A. -Sax. grislic, also dryslic.

Gnopkos (Gk. yvofos), also (W$o?) dnophos.

* Grains, brewer's/ — a corruption of ' brewer's
drains ' (Wedgwood).

6 Mangle ' is the German mandel

i Shingle' is the German sckindel, Lat. scindula.

6 Tingle,' 0. Eng. dindle, Dut. tintelen.

Ruscum (Lat.), sometimes spelt rustum.

Just, then, as ' brickie ' is another form of
< brittle,' 2 as e tickle ' (for tittle) answers to the

1 Philological Soc. Trans., 1860, p. 152.

2 'Brickie,' that may be easily broken, from A. -Sax. brecan, to
break, is a secondary form of • brittle.'

'Brickie, fragilis ' (Levin's Manipulus, 1570).
'Freyl, and brokulle, or brytylle ... or brekyll' (Prompt.

' Th' Altare on the which this image staid,
Was, great pitie ! built of brickie clay.'

Spenser, Raines of Time, 1. 49S.

In the early copies of the Authorised Version the expression
'brickie vessels' occurs (Wisdom of Solomon xv. 13), but the
more recent editions have changed it to ' brittle.'

Vide also Camden's Britaunia (fol.), p. 515 ; Percy Household
Book, p. xiv. ; Spoon and Sparrow, p. 147.
' Lett the warld pas
It is ever in drede and brekylle as glas.

Towneley Mysteries, Pastures.


Latin titillare, and the Latin verb anclare comes
from the Greek antlein (avrXeiv), so, by analogy,
i clever ' would naturally arise from ' d'lever '
(deliver), though it must be admitted we would
have expected the form gliver. A doubtful word
in one of the 6 Paston Letters,' which the original
editor, Sir John Fenn, confessed himself unable
to explain, seems to have preserved for us the
transitional form. 1

1 If it be soo y* all tliynge go olyver currant vf t mor to
remembre that ther is owt of that Contre .... that woll
and schall do my lorde s r uyse.'

Letter of John Paston, Knt, I 5 Nov. 1470.

' Olyver current,' — ' This appears to be the word
in the original,' says Fenn. I would confidently
suggest that the o in i olyver ' is an incorrect
transcription of a d, either imperfectly formed or
partially obliterated, and so the passage would
give an easy reading. ' If it be so that all things
go dlyver current ' — that is, go freely, unimpededly
current, run smooth. ' Clever-through ' in the sense
of straight- through, clean- or slick-through is still

As examples of the t and k sounds interchanging, compare the
following : — Bat, 0. Eng. bak (Prompt. Parv.) ; nut =Lat. nuc-s
(nux) ; Gk. tis (tis) =Lat. quis; moitie, metier, pronounced moikie,
mekier in French Canada ; flicker = flitter ; damasco in Italian,
also damasto ; smackering = smattering (Ward, Sermons); Ger.
kartoffel, prov. G-r. tartoffel = It. tartvfola ; cider = Lat. siccra,
Gk. sikera (aiKepa), Heb. shicdr ; Chietins, an Old French form of
Theatins (Cotgrave) ; Tearlach, the Gaelic form of Charles ; Sp.
totovia = Port, cotovia, Fr. cochevis, the tufted lark. Vide also Philo-
logical Soc. Trans., 1856, p. 230; Spoon and Sparrow, p. 142;
Joyce, Irish Names of Places, p. 55.
1 CIX. vol. iv. p. 451.


in provincial use, and such phrases as ' He escaped
clean and clever ' may be adduced for comparison.
3. It remains that we should consider the
modern term c clever.' As being a vulgar or
slipshod pronunciation, it appears at first to have
been used only in familiar discourse or less digni-
fied prose, like other contracted forms, as i don't,'
' can't,' &c. Even in Johnson's time it was, at
least in part of its usage, ' a low term, scarcely
ever used but in burlesque or conversation.' He
defines it as meaning (1) well-shaped, handsome
— e.g., i a tight clever wench' (Arbuthnot) ; (2)
fit, proper ; (3) dexterous. In the provincial
English of the eastern shires, ' clever ' still signifies
6 good-looking,' according to Halliwell, and also
' nimble, neat, dextrous, lusty,' according to Ken-
net. The latter is the meaning in the following
passage from Allan Eamsay : —

1 Auld Steen led out Maggie Forsyth —

He was her am guid-brither ;
And ilka ane was unco blythe,
To see auld fouk sae clever.'

Christ's Kirk on the Green, canto ii.

Mr Wilkin, in a note on Sir Thomas Browne's
mention of ' clever,' states that ' claver, as it is
commonly pronounced, is used by the peasantry of
Norfolk in speaking of any one who is kind and
liberal — e.g., He always behave very claver to
the poor.' Swift uses the word in this significa-
tion —


' But here a Grievance seems to lie,
All this is mine but till I die ;
I can't but think 'twould sound more clever,
To me and to my Heirs for ever.'

Imit. of Horace, Bk. II. satire 6.

This meaning, it will be observed, flows very
naturally from ' deliver/ free-handed, liberal ; but
it is not easy to see how it could arise from an
original significant of clutching and seizing.
Moore mentions that it is a term applied to any-
thing handsome or good-looking, as l a clever horse'
— indeed, ' a clever roadster,' and i a clever
hunter ' are still current phrases in the language
of the horse-mart.

In the following it is used of dogs : —

' But if my puppies ance were ready,
Which I gat on a bonny lady :
They'll be baith diver, keen, and beddy.'

The Last Dying Words of Bonny Heck.

In some parts of America the word takes a

wider range of meaning, and expresses courtesy

and affability, while in New England it connotes

honesty and respectabilitv. An English lady in

New York, Mr Bartlett informs us, was once

recommended to take a girl into her service as

being i clever, but not smart.' On trial, she

found her, in accordance with this character, to

be merely dull and inoffensive. 1

1 In America ' clever ' is generally used in the sense of amiable.
' He is clever certainly, but I should say he was decidedly silly.'
Some purists maintain the ordinary English meaning of the word,


To assist us in appreciating the force and ac-
ceptation of i clever' in standard English, I select
the following passages from writers who speak
with authority : —

'Cleverness is a certain knack or aptitude at doing certain
things which depend more on a particular adroitness and off-
hand readiness than on force or perseverance, such as making
puns, making epigrams, making extempore verses, mimicking
the company, mimicking a style, &c.

' Cleverness is either liveliness and smartness, or something
answering to sleight of hand.'

Hazlitt, Table- Talk, On the Indian Jugglers.

Very similar, both in thought and diction, are the
remarks which De Quincey makes in endeavour-
ing to depreciate the popular reputation of the ad-
mirable Crichton. Though not defining, or even
introducing the word in question, they serve to
illustrate and finally lead up to it.

' To have a quickness in copying or mimicking other men,
and in learning to do dexterously what they did clumsily, os-
tentatiously to keep glittering before men's eyes a thauma-
turgic versatility, such as that of a rope-dancer, or of an Indian
juggler, in petty accomplishments, was a mode of the very
vulgarest ambition.'

This hero, in fact, he holds, was l admirable '

rather for his 2westige in the primary sense of that

word (Lat. prcestigice) than for any originality or

true productive power. An observation altogether

suitable for our purpose is added a few lines later —

which often leads to ambiguity, so that it is not uncommon to hear
the question asked, ' You say he is clever ; do you mean English
clever or American clever ?' (C. A. Bristed, Cambridge Essays
1855, p. 65).


1 The pretentions actually put forward on his behalf simply
instal him. as a cleverish or dexterous ape.'

Works, vol. xiv. p. 423.

' By cleverness,' says Coleridge, ' which I dare not with Dr
Johnson call a low word, while there is a sense to be expressed
which it alone expresses, I mean a comparative readiness in the
invention and use of means for the realising of objects and
ideas — often of such ideas which the man of genius only
could have originated, and which the clever man perhaps
neither fully comprehends nor adequately appreciates, even at
the moment that he is prompting or executing the machinery
of their accomplishment. In short, cleverness is a sort of
genius for instrumentality. It is the brain in the hand. In
literature cleverness is more frequently accompanied by wit,
genius and sense by humour.'

He assigns cleverness as a characteristic quality to
the French, genius to the Germans and English
(The Friend, vol. ii. pp. 133, 134, ed. Moxon).

To sum up in a few words. ' Clever/ in all its
original significations, as (1) nimble, active, dex-
terous ; (2) handsome ; (3) generous, closely cor-
responds to the ancient 6 deliver,' and in the
latter two to the kindred Latin liberalise while
the change of form is by means incapable of ex-
planation. A well-established word in our early
literature, i deliver ' seems to have grown obsolete
in the Elizabethan age, though, like many another
good old term, it still lived on in the northern and
other provincial dialects. Scott, for instance, puts
the word into the mouth of Evan Dhu, when he
describes young Waverley as ' clean-made and de-
liver.' The two forms of the word appear never to


have overlapped one another, or to have co-existed
in the written language. During the period of
transformation both seem to have dropped out of
use. ' Deliver ' for a while is lost to sight, and
next turns up in the shape of ( clever,' clipped and
defaced during its currency among the populace,
but still of sterling metal, and having the ring of
the ancient coin. From being so long relegated to
the commonalty, this old friend in disguise was
regarded with suspicion at first when it began to
appear in respectable society ; it met but a tardy
recognition, and with difficulty, by slow degrees,
gained an admittance as a denizen in the republic
of letters.

It is only quite recently that 6 cleverness ' has
been permitted to recover the position which ' de-
liverness' once occupied.

( 259 )



The words for ' night ' are identical, I believe, in
every language belonging to the Indo- Germanic
family. (Eng.) night, (Icel., Dan., and Swed.)
natty (Ger. and Dut.) nacht, (Goth.) nahts, (Welsh
and Bret.) nos, (Slav.) noc, (Russ.) nocyi, (Irish)
nochd, (Fr.) nuit, (It.) notte, (Sp.) noche, (Wal-
lach.) nogte, (Lett.) nakts, (Lith.) naktis, (Lat.)
noct-s (nox), (Gk.) nukt-s (vug), (Sans.) nakta,
nakti, from the root nag (or nak), to perish, accord-
ing to Pictet, because the night in some sort is
regarded as being the death of the day. 1 i As
the name of " day," from the root div (bright-
ness), is associated with the ideas of heaven and
God, so the name of " night " is with those of

1 Orig. Indo-Europ., vol. ii. p. 587.

Benfey conjectures that the primary meaning of the root naq
was to hasten, then to hasten away, vanish, 'perire.' Some have
traced a connection with the Shemitic, comparing (Arab.) nalcay,
kill, injure, (Heb.) nakah ( n ^), to slay (Davies in Philolog. Soc.
Trans., 1854, p. 261). We may doubtless compare the Anglo-Saxon
hnaeccan, to kill, (Dut.) nekken, (L. Dut.) nikker, the hangman, (0.
Norse) nikr, (Swed.) neck, (Norweg.) nok, a bloodthirsty water-
sprite {cf. j Old Nick '), knacker, and perhaps knock (Thorpe,
Northern Mythology, vol. ii. p. 22), Icel. ndr i Goth, naus, corpse.


destruction and misfortune.' It has the same root

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 19 20 21

Online LibraryAbram Smythe PalmerLeaves from a word-hunter's note-book → online text (page 16 of 21)