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might come from a word meaning house (Welsh
bod, &c), by showing that the transition of mean-
ing is easy and natural. This view, moreover,
derives strong confirmation from the very similar
account that has to be given of another word of



1 Hengstenberg, in he. Speaker's Commentary, in loc.
5 Henry More compares the relation of the soul to the body to
that of a light enclosed within a lantern.

' Like to a Light fast lock'd in Lanlhorn dark,
"Whereby, by night, our wary Steps we guide
In slabby streets, and dirty Channels mark,
Some weaker rays through the black top do glide,
And flusher streams perhaps from the horny side :
But when we've past the peril of the way,
Arriv'd at home, and laid that case aside,
The naked light, how clearly doth it ray,
And spread its joyful beams as bright as summer's day.

Even so the Soul, in this contracted state,

Confin'd to these strait instruments of Sense,

More dull and narrowly doth operate :

At this hole hears, the Sight must ray from thence ;

Here tasts, their smells : But when she's gone from hence,

Like naked lamps, she is one shining sphear,

And round about has perfect cognoscence

"Whate'ra in her Horizon doth appear ;

She is one Orb of Sense, all Eye, all airy Ear.'

Antidote against Atheism, Bk. III. ch. iv.



CARCASS. 13

like signification. I mean the word c carcass/
which we will next proceed to examine.

1 Carcass,' which is now used for a body, espe-
cially the lifeless body of a beast, when traced to
its origin, is found to mean a ' house of detention
or constraint,' a 6 prison.'

Carcass — (Fr.) carquasse, (It.) car came, (It.
and Port.) carcassa (= a skeleton) — is another
form of (Fr.) carquois, (Sp.) carcax, (It.) carcasso
(= a quiver). In modern Greek karkasi has both
meanings, (1) a quiver, (2) a skeleton. All these
words are connected with (Welsh) carchar (re-
straint, prison), (Gaelic) carcair (prison, coffer),
(Ir.) car car, (Goth.) karkara, (Ger.) kerker, (Gk.)
kdrkaron, (Lat.) career (an enclosure, or prison),
(Sans.) cdraka, kdrdgara, from the root kar (to
wound, punish). It is curious, though perhaps
only a coincidence, that the Talmudic word for the
case in which written rolls were commonly kept is
cared}

The old derivation, which once passed current,
that c carcase ' is compounded of the two Latin
words caro and casa, as if it meant ' fallen-flesh '



1 A ' carcanet ' is an ornament that confines or imprisons the
neck — ' Oarcan, a carkanet, or collar of gold, &c. , worne about the
necke ; Also an Iron chain e, or collar, wherein an offender is tyed by
the necke to a post ' (Cotgrave). Compare the following, from an
old play : —

* Did you not see the key that's to unlock
My carcanet and bracelets ?

Till you give it back, my neck and arms

Are still your prisoners. Webster, vol. iii. p. 281.



14 CARCASS.

(which, indeed, is the primitive meaning of cadaver
from cado, and of the Greek ptoma from pipto, to
fall), is alluded to in the following passage from
Samuel Ward, wherein the writer, unknown to
himself, has a much truer conception of the word's
etymological significance. Speaking of the unim-
paired powers of the mind at death, he asks —

' Do they not tell the body, the soul means not to fall with
the carcase (which hath the name of falling), lies not a dying
with it, but erects itself, means only to leave it as an inhabi-
tant doth a ruinous house, or as a musician lays down a lute
whose strings are broken, a carpenter a worn instrument unfit
any longer for service and employment, and as a guest makes
haste out of his inn to his long home and place of abode.'

The Life of Faith in Death.

From meaning a i prison ' the word came after-
wards to be applied in a secondary sense to the
body, as being the structure wherein the soul is
incarcerated, while

1 This muddy vesture of decay
Doth grossly close it in,'

like the ' bone-enclosure ' or i bone-cloister ' of our
remote ancestors, (A. -Sax.) ban-loca, ban-cofa.
Compare the following, also from Shakspere : —

' My heart all mad with misery
Beats in the hollow prison of my flesh.'

Titus Andronicus.

1 A grave unto a soul
Holding the eternal spirit against her will
In the vile prison of afflicted breath.'

King John.



CARCASS. 15

1 My soul's palace is become a prison.'

3d Ft. Henry VI., ii. 1.

Plato frequently calls the body the prison-house
of the soul ; * and Virgil, when philosophising on
the doctrine of the one great spirit of nature (iEn.
vi. 734), explains that in the case of men, while
confined within ' these walls of flesh/ it is clogged
and blinded, being shut up in the darkness of a dun-
geon (' clauses tenebris et carcere caeco'), or as we
might render it with etymological literalness, ' in
the darkness of a sightless carcass.'' A belief
almost identical with this was held by the Jews.
The Hebrews consider (we are told in ' The Con-
ciliator ' of Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel, trans, ii.
22) that souls were created in the six days of the be-
ginning, and not together with bodies. They com-
pare its state (1st) prior to coming into the world,
to a king seated on his throne ; (2d) when inspired
into the body, to a king placed in confinement ;
(3d) when released by death, and it returns to its
former regions, to a king returning to his kingdom
after being delivered from prison. Compare—

1 Is there no charitable hand will sever
My well-spun thread, that my imprisoned soul
May be deliver'd from this dull dark hole
Of dungeon flesh ] ' Quarks, Emblems, Bk. V. Emblem 7.

' What need that house be daub'd with flesh and blood ?
Hang'd round with silks and gold ? repair'd with food ?

1 E.g., Cratylus, p. 400 C ; Phasdo, p. 62 B.



16 CARCASS.

Cost idly spent ! that cost doth but prolong

Thy thraldom. Fool, thou mak'st thy jail too strong.'

Quarks, Emblems, Bk. V. Epig. 8.
1 The soul once fled
Lives freer now than when she was cloystered
In walls of flesh —

But an imprison' d mind, though living, dies,
And at one time feels two captivities ;
A narrow dungeon which her body holds,
But narrower body which her self enfolds.

Death is the pledge of rest, and with one bayl
Two prisons quits, the Body and the Iayl.' 1

Bp. Henry King's Poems (1657, ed. Hannah), p. 12.

' He that hides a dark soul and foul thoughts,
Benighted walks under the mid-day sun ;
Himself is his own dungeon. 5 Milton, Comus, 347.

'My body is my prison, and I would be so obedient to
the law as not to break prison : I would not hasten my
death by starving or macerating this body ; but if this pri-
son be burned down by continual fevers, or blown down with
continual vapours, would any man be so in love with that
ground upon which that prison stood, as to desire rather to
stay there than to go home.'

Br John Bonne (Selections from), Oxford, 1840, p. 14.

. . . ' The Body is the Soules Prison ; that I mention not
that Hell-darke Prison of the Graue, nor that darke Hell-
Prison of the Damned.' Purchas, Microcosmus (1619), p. 298.

We might also adduce here an exclamation re-
ported to have been made by Archbishop Leigh ton
(d. 1684), who was himself slender in person,
when informed that a corpulent friend had pre-

1 In language almost identically the same Howell speaks of his
twofold imprisonment when writing from the Fleet, 1643. Vide
Familiar Letters, Bk. I. sect. vi. 48.



CARCASS. 17

deceased liim — c How is it that A has broke

through these goodly brick walls, while I am kept
in by a bit flimsy deal ? '

* Our soden feete stick in the Clay,
Wee thro' the bodye's Dungeon see no day/

Evelyn, Life of Mrs Godolphin, p. 227.

' who shall from this dungeon raise
A soul enslaved so many ways ?
"With bolts of bones, that fettered stands
In feet, and manacled in hands ;
Here blinded with an eye, and there
Deaf with the drumming of an ear ;
A soul hung up, as 'twere, in chains
Of nerves, and arteries, and veins 1 '

Andrew Marvell, Dialogue between Soul and Body.
' Great Muse, thou knowest what prison
Of flesh and bone, curbs, and confines, and frets
Our spirits' wings.' Keats 1 Endymion, Bk. IV.

' How weak the prison is where I dwell !

Flesh but a tottering wall !

The breaches cheerfully foretell

The house must shortly fall.

* Now let the tempest blow all round,

Now swell the surges high,

And beat this house of bondage down

To let the stranger fly ! ' Dr Watts.

' The soul contending to that light to fly
From her dark cell, we practise how to die.'

Waller, Of Divine Love.

The comparison in the last three extracts of the
sonl to a captive bird, 1 eager to escape, but encaged

1 ' They who prink, and pamper the Body, and neglect the Soul,
are like one, who having a Nightingale in his House, is more fond
of the Wicker Cage than of the Bird.'

Howell, Familiar Letters, Bk. IV. 21.
B



18 CARCASS.

within the body, from which it is only permitted
to take flight at its dissolution, is made explicitly
in the following from Quarles : —

1 My soul is like a bird, my flesh the cage,
Wherein she wears her weary pilgrimage. . . .
The keys that lock her in and let her out,
Are birth and death ; 'twixt both she hops about
From perch to perch, from sense to reason ; then
From higher reason down to sense again.'

Bk.Y. Emblem 10.

The same thought is found in the c Silex Scintil-

lans ' of Henry Yaughan, the Silurist (1655).

And so Pope —

* Most souls, 'tis true, but peep out once an age,
Dull, sullen prisoners in the body's cage :

Like Eastern kings, a lazy state they keep,
And, close confined to their own palace, sleep/

Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady.

And Adams —

'The imprisoned bird, when she sees no remedy, sings
in her cage ; but she flies most and highest when she is
at liberty. Set the soul once at freedom, she will then
most cheerfully sing the praises of her Maker. Yet the
common course is to fortify this prison, and to boast in
corporal abilities. But qui gloriatur in viribus corporis,
gloriatur in viribus career is.' Meditations upon the Creed.

It is curious to observe that in Sanskrit the
word for cage, 1 pa?ijara y is actually used for the

1 Cf. 'Ex corporum vinculis tanquam e carcere evolaverunt '
(Cic. Rep. vi. 14). It is a widespread and ancient superstition that
the soul escapes from the dead body under the form of a bird or
other winged creature. Grimm, D. Myth., 214, 478 ; Kelly, Indo-
Furop. Tradition, p. 103 ; Trevor's Egypt, 192 ; Didron, Christian



CARCASS. 19

skeleton or body. The same idea has, I suppose
unconsciously, been used by an American writer,
Dr Holmes —

'They said the doctors would want my skeleton when
I was dead. . . . Don't let 'em make a show of the cage,
I have been shut up in, and looked through the bars
of, for so many years.'

Professor at Breakfast- Table, p. 105.

Compare ban-hus (bone-house), ban-sele (bone-
hall), ban-loca (bone-enclosure), A.-Sax. terms for
the body; 1 Icelandic beina-grind (' bone-lattice'),
the skeleton.

As our ancestors show by their nomencla-
ture that they had formed a true estimate
of this perishing dust-built frame, the c body of
our humiliation ' (Phil. iii. 21), whether on the
one hand they called it a c cask ' or ' chest,' or on
the other, a ' house ' or l prison ; ' so they would
seem, on the testimony of other words, not to have
forgotten what a ' treasure ' we have in these



Iconography, 460. A graphic delineation of the imprisoned soul
looking out through its cage of bones, and intended to represent
the idea contained in Rom. vii. 24, 'Who shall deliver me
from the body of this death ? ' will be found in Quarles, Bk. V.
Emblem 8.

1 'The flames consumed the bone-Jwuse of the mighty -handed
chief ' is Mr Jones' paraphrase of the burning of Be6wulf (Popular
Romances of the Middle Ages, p. 398).

« This body then, I say, is like
An house in each degree ;
The soule the owner of the house
I do account to bee.'

Ro. Vn. {temp. James I.)



20 CARCASS.

' earthen vessels.' If the body was to them no

more than a case or coffer, still it was one, they

felt, that guarded the most precious of possessions,

a house of clay indeed, but one that harboured the

most exalted of inhabitants. In the Anglo-Saxon,

besides the words 'feorh-kus ' (i.e., ' life-house ') =

'body,' (cf. Shakspere's 'bloody house of life '),and

i feorh-cofcC 1 (i. e., mind's cave, or sours chamber)

== breast, we meet the very poetical term ' breost-

hord' for the soul, i.e., the hoard or treasure of

the breast — a word upon which no more fitting

commentary could be made than these verses of a

little-remembered poet —

' ignorant poor man ! what dost thou bear
Lock'd np within the casket of thy breast ?
What jewels, and what riches hast thou there ?
What heavenly treasure in so weak a chest.'

Sir John Barnes (d. 1626).

Beside this we may set the scarcely less poetical

prose of Bishop Hall —

* This body, if it bee compared to the soule, what is it, but
as a clay wall that encompasses a treasure ; as a wodden boxe

1 (A.-Sax.) cof (a cave or receptacle), (Bret.) kdf, 1c6v (belly),
(Fr. ) coffre (1, a coffer; 2, chest of the body). Compare (Heb.)
guph, (jupha (a body), from the root guph (Cpi), to be hollow, shut
in). The Heb. Mb hah (stomach), and ' alcove,' (Sp. ) alcoba, (Arab.)
al-qobbah (a hollow recess), (Heb.) Kubbah (translated ' tent,' Num-
bers xxv. 8), are of kindred origin. Cp. ' We are so composed,
that if abundance or glory scorch and melt us, we have an earthly
cave, our bodies, to go into by consideration and cool ourselves/
(Donne, Letters, p. 63). Synonymous are A.-Sax. hrether-cofa and
hrether-loca (mind's cave or inclosure), Icelandic hug-borg, 'castle
of thought,' a poetical term for the breast ; 6dhar-rann, * mind's-
house ; ' fjor-rann, ' life's-house ;' hjarta-salr t ' heart-hall.'



CARCASS. 21

of a jeweller ; as a coorse case to a rich instrument ; or as a
niaske to a beautifull face ? '

Contemplations, Bk. I. Cont. 2 (1634).

The same thoughts, expressed in the very same

words, are to be found in the treatise of another

divine whom Hall much resembled. Thomas

Adams, in his ' Meditations on some Parts of the

Creed/ 1629, moralises thus : —

1 The body is to the soul as a barren turf to a mine of
gold, as a mud wall about a delicate garden, as a wooden
box wherein the jeweller carries his precious gems, as a
coarse case to a fair and rich instrument, as a rotten hedge
to a paradise, as Pharaoh's prison to a Joseph, or as a mask
to a beautiful face.' ' We love the cabinet for the jewel's
sake, esteem it for that it contains. . . . Yet how many
men pollute this fair house, by drunkenness making it a
swine-sty, by uncleanness a brothel, by worldliness a dung-
hill, by oppression a lion's den, by voluptuousness a boar's
frank, by malice a stove or burning furnace, and by con-
tinual sin a barricaded jail to imprison the soul ! ' 1

Nichol's edition, vol. iii. pp. 142, 146.

Compare the following from Shakspere : —

1 (I have) mine eternal jewel
Given to the common enemy of man.' Macbeth, iii.l.

'A jewel in a ten-times-barred up chest
Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast.' Richard II. ,i. 1.

' They found him dead and cast into the streets,
An empty casket, where the jewel of life
By some damn'd hand was robb'd and ta'en away. 7



1 Howell (1635) has the same similitude, — ' Whereas my Creator
intended this Body of mine, though a Lump of Clay, to be a
Temple of His Holy Spirit, my Affections . . . turn it often to a
Brothel-house, my Passions to a Bedlam, and my Excesses to an
Hospital.' Fam. Letters, Bk. I. 6, xxii.



22 CARCASS.

' (My heart) A jewel, lock'd into the wof ull'st cash

That ever did contain a thing of worth.'
2d PL Henry VI., iii. 2.

We have seen that the body was called a
1 house,' as being the outward shell or case wherein
the spiritual part of man was appointed to dwell.
This bodily 6 house ' was also regarded sometimes
as the clothiDg wherein he was invested, e.g., by
St Paul in 2 Cor. v. 2, 3, where he expresses an
earnest desire to 'be clothed upon'' with a better
house from heaven — i.e., a house 6 to be put on as
an outer garment over this fleshly body' (e-n-evSv-
cracrOai). Immediately afterwards he uses the cor-
relative phrase ' to put off one's clothing ' for i to
become disembodied,' i to die.' In the ancient
Gothic version the apostle's expression c to be
clothed ' with the body is rendered by the verb,
ufar-hamon, ana-kamon, and the ' stripping off' of
it by the verb af-hamon, — hamon being to clothe.
It is not a little interesting to observe that this
same radical, which is still traceable in the German
hemd, a shirt or garment, supplies a name for the
body in many kindred languages. It is seen in
the latter part of the A. -Saxon lic-lwma, 0. H.
German lik-hamo, German leichnam, Old Norse
lik-hamr, — i.e., i the garment of flesh,' the un-
tenanted body, or corpse; A.-Saxon Jtcesc-hama. 1

1 Cognate with A.-Sax. hama, homa, Dan. ham, Icel. hammr,
the covering, skin, or shape of the body, are the Sansk. carnima ;
Hind, cam, camra, of similar meaning ; and the It. camisa, Fr.



CARCASS. 23

Such was the poetical conception that found favour
with the old Teutonic and Scandinavian races. At
death the weary spirit slips off its clinging raiment,
our Maker (to use the language of an old poet)
doth—

1 Thresh the husk of this our flesh away,
And leave the soul uncovered,' l

and then the divested remains or exuvice is the
lifeless corpse — the body-clothes, lie-harm; Old
Eng. lie-am.

This idea has received a feeling expression in
the following pretty verses by the Duchess of
Newcastle : —

1 Great Nature she doth cloathe the soul within
A Fleshly Garment which the Fates do spin ;
And when these Garments are grown old and bare,
With sickness torn, Death takes them off with care,
And folds them up in Peace and quiet Best ;
So lays them safe within an Earthly Chest,
Then scours them and makes them sweet and clean,
Fit for the soul to wear those cloths again.'

Poems, p. 135.

Compare these lines from Herrick's * Epitaph on
Sir Ed. Giles '—

1 But here's the sunset of a tedious day.
These two asleep are ; I'll but be undrest,
And so to bed. Pray wish us all good rest.'

chemise. Cleasby & Vigfusson, Icel. Diet. ; B.-Gould, Book of
Werewolves, pp. 47, 163. The same word is seen in ' yellow-
Jiammer,' 1 Ger. gelb-ammer, and in 0. Swed. hamber, prov. Eng.
an article of clothing (Atkinson, Cleveland Glossary, s.v. )
1 George Wither.



24 COAT.

The bodily tenement is here regarded as being
the raiment in which the spirit was enveloped ; by
a somewhat similar association of related ideas,
but from a directly opposite point of view, the
literal clothing of the body was conceived as being
to it a kind of portable dwelling, and so the
covering or vestment wherein the entire man is
wrapped was in many instances, we shall find,
quaintly styled his ' house.' The idea that under-
lay this use of the term is well brought out by this
query of Carlyle's —

' Hast thou always worn them [thy clothes] perforce, and as
a consequence of Man's Fall ; never rejoiced in them as in a
warm movable House, a Body round thy Body, wherein that
strange Thee of thine sat snug, defying all variations of
climate ? ... In vain did the sleet beat round thy temples ;
it lighted only on thy impenetrable, felted or woven, case of
wool.' Sartor Resartus, ch. ix. p. 39 (ed. 1871).

Now take the word c coat,' (Fr.) cotte, (It.) cotta.

It is plainly identical with i cote ' * (a shelter for

animals), 'cot,' and 'cottage,' (A. -Sax.) cote, (Dut.)

kot, (Ir.) cotta, (Welsh) cwt, (Fin.) kota, koti (a

house); and so it meant originally the 6 house' or

shelter wherein the monk on his travels (it was

especially a monkish garment at first), or the

working-man in the field, encased himself as a

protection against the inclemency of the weather.

Thus l coats ' served almost as well as



1 * Coat' was formerly spelt 'cote,' e.g., Chaucer, Rom. of Rose,
461; and 'cote' was spelt 'coat,' e.g., ' Bordieux, little cottages,
coats ' (Cotgrave).



COAT. 25

' Cotes that did the shepherds keep
From wind and weather.' Chapman, Horn. II. , xviii. 535.

and hence they got their name.

Verstegan, one of the best and earliest of our

English etymologists, pointed this out long ago.

He says —

' A cote in our language is a little slight built country habi-
tation (such as after the French we call a cottage). . . . TVe
also use this word cote for a garment, but it seemeth to have
been at first metaphorically brought in use, in regard of being
shrowded therein, as in the little house or cote of the body,
but anciently we so used it not, for our ancient word for a cote
in this sence was a reaf.'

Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, p. 286 (1634).

The cota mor l (great coat) of the. ancient Irish,
which seems to have been a kind of mantle, was
one of their national peculiarities. It is to it, pro-
bably, that Spenser refers when he says —

'The out-lawe. . . . maketli his mantell his howse, and
under it covereth himself from the wrath of heaven, from the
offence of the earth, and from the sight of men. When it
rayneth it is his pent-howse ; when it blowes, it is his tent ;
when it freezeth it is his tabernacle.'

State of Ireland (1643). Globe ed. p. 631.

Other instances of the same word being used for a
house and an article of clothing are the following —
(Fr.) caban, gaban, (It.) gabbano, cabarino, (a
cloak), (Eng.) i gabardine. ,' (Bohem.) habane (a
jacket), the same word as (Fr.) cabane, (It.) ca-
panna, (Welsh) caban (a booth, hut), our ' cabin.'

1 Cf. Castle Rackrent (Miss Edgewortb), 1815, p. 2. A repre-
sentation of it will be found in Plauche's ' British Costume/ p. 369.



26 HOOD, CHASUBLE, ETC.

The heavy Maltese cloak worn by the farmers in
Sardinia they call their ' cabbanu.'

i Cape ' and i cap,' (Fr.) chape, chapeau, (Sp.)
capa, (It.) cappa, is the 0. Sp. cappa, (1) a hut,
(2) a mantle, according to Isidore so called quia
totum capiat hominem, because it takes in, or con-
tains, the whole man.

'Hood/ (Ger.) hut, (Welsh) hotan, (Dut.)
hoed (lit. a covering, shelter), is identical with
' hut,' (Dut.) hut, hutte, (Sans.) kuti (a house),
hot (a hut), (Egypt.) kdti (a circuit, and to surround).

c Cassock/ (Fr.) casaque, (It.) casacca, (Gael.)
casag (a long coat), is from the Latin casa (a house).
Cf. (Gk.) kdsson (tcdaaov, Hesjxh., a thick garment),
(Pers.) kdshah (hut), all connected with (Sans.)
kakshd (enclosure). 1

Another ecclesiastical vestment, the l chasuble,'
(Sp.) casulla, (Fr.) chasuble, (It.) casupola, (M.
Lat.) casula, is of the same origin, and means a
little house or hut, for so the Roman labourer
called the smock-frock in which he shut himself
up when out at work in bad weather.

(Ir.) rocan, (1) a cot, (2) a cloak. Cf. (Ger.)
rock (a coat).

It is open to doubt whether i hose,' (Fr.) house,
houseau, (Ger.) kosen, (A.-Sax.) hosa, (Welsh) hosan
(covering for the leg), and ' housing,' (Fr.) housse,

1 Pictet, Orig. Indo-Europ., ii. 255.



HOOD, CHASUBLE, ETC. 27

(Welsh) hws (covering, housing), are connected
with ' house. ' 1

In Coptic one and the same root is still serving
for ' house ' and ' garment.' 2

The same comparison which led Shakspere to
speak of the body as the soul's c vesture,' and St
Paul as its i clothing,' was implicitly made long
before by the author of the 139th Psalm, where he
breaks into a fine ascription of praise to the
Creator on contemplating the marvellous structure
of his own frame —

' I will praise Thee ; for I am fearfully and wonderfully
made. . . . My substance was not hid from Thee, when I
was made in secret, and curiously ivrought in the lowest parts
of the earth. Thine eyes did see my substance yet being un-
perfect ; and in Thy book all my members were written [drawn
out, as it were, in pattern], which, in continuance, were
fashioned, when as yet there was none of them ' (vv. 14-16).

The word here rendered i curiously- wrought'
has a definite and much more expressive force in
the original Hebrew, viz., ' wrought-with-a-
needle.' 3 It is the very same word which is used
in Exodus xxviii. 39, with reference to the em-
broidered garments of the high priest, and in
Exodus xxvi. 36 for the hangings of the Taber-



1 But cf. 2 Kings xxiii. 7, ' hangings,' marg. c houses.' So, per-
haps, (Gk.) ndaas (housings) is connected with (Pers.) Mshah, (Lat.)
casa.

2 Dr Abel in Philolog. Soc. Trans. (1855), p. 57.


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