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the Taunusian. The metamorphism and fossiliferous feature of
the rocks were recognized by Dumont. The fossils Spirifer
macropterus, Chonetea sarcinulatus and others, occur in a gamet-
iferous schist and quartzyte, besides remains of plants. The
rocks include a hornblendic or actinolitic eurite, garnetiferous
and chloritic quartzytes, garnetiferous fossil-bearing quartzyte,
and chloritic garnetiferous schist also fossiliferous. M. Kenard
has studied the rocks both by chemical analysis and the micro-
scope. He found in the hornblendic quartzyte, 30*62 of quartz,
37*62 of hornblende, 20*85 of mica, 4-14 of garnet, 1-02 of titanite,
1*51 of apatite, and 4*80 of graphite (visible in scales), with some
ottrelite. The actinolitic rock consists of quartz 62*36, horn-
blende 46*73, with traces of titanic iron, mica and graphite. The
hornblende (actinolite) is in interlaced fibers. The garnetiferous
slate consists chiefly of biotite and garnet, with graphite in
scales, and rarely hornblende. It graduates into the quartzyte.
The author discusses also the origin of the metamorphism, and
gives analyses of the ottrelite.

3. On a large mass of Cretaceous Amber from Gloucester Co.^
New Jefi'sey; by Geo. F. Kunz. (Read before the New York
Academy of Sciepces, February 5th, 1883.) — About twelve months
ago a mass of amber of uncommon size and shape (being twenty
inches long, six inches wide and one inch thick, and weighing
sixty-four ounces), was found at Kirby's marl pit, on Old Man's
Creek, near Harrison ville, Gloucester Co., New Jersey. A one-
quarter inch section showed a light grayish yellow color. A
section one and one-quarter inch thick showed a light, very trans-
parent yellowish brown color. The entire mass (surface and
interior) was filled with botryoidal-shaped cavities filled with
glauconite or green sand, and a trace of vivianite. The hardness
is the same as the Baltic amber, only slightly tougher and cut-
ting more like horn, and the cut surface showing a curious pearly
luster, differing in this respect from any other amber I have yet
examined. This luster is not produced by the impurities, for the
clearest parts show it the best. It admitted of a very good pol-
ish. The specific gravity of a very pure piece of the carefully
selected amoer is 1*061, which is the lowest density on record,
the usual amber range being from 1065 to 1'081. It ignites in
the same way as other ambers. It was found at a depth of twenty-
eight feet, in and under twenty feet of the green sand or marl,
the amber being found in a six-foot stratum of fossils, consisting
mostly of Qrypkea vesicularis, Gryphea Pitcheriy some Terebrcb-
tula Marlani and others ; the upper part of the marl, consisting
of a large layer of limestone several feet in thickness, filled with



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Botomy a/nd Zoology, 235

PaJorthia, Ecbinoid spines and an occasional shark's tooth of the
genus Lamna^ and this covered with eight feet of earth. The
marl belongs to the middle bed of the upper Cretaceous series.

No analysis has as yet been made of this amber, but the simi-
larity in specific gravity, hardness and ignition leaves little doubt
of its being true amber, or of its having been derived from a gum
closely resembling that which is the source of the Baltic and
other ambers.

III. Botany and Zoology.

1. Apropos des Alguea FosaiUs^ par le Marquis de Saporta.
Paris : Masson. Imp. 4to, pp. 82 + 10. 1882. — Nathorst, a distin-
guished Swedish naturalist, after making a series of observations
and experiments upon the tracks and traces made by various
invertebrate animals upon a beach or upon other soft and plastic
material, published a paper (in 1881) in which he lays down the
conclusions that no small part of the markings which have been
described as fossil Algce are simply the vestiges of such traces.
And he pronounces this to be true of most of the fossil Algce
described in Saporta's Paliontologie Frangaise and in his later
and more popular volume, L"* Evolution du RhgneVhgHal, The
present volume is a courteous and magnificent reply to Nathorst's
criticism — magnificent, for he devotes to it this beautiful imperial
quarto volume, illustrated by figures interspersed in the text, as
well as by ten lithographic plates, — courteous, for he over and
over acknowledges the entire correctness of his adversary's facts
and his conscientiousness in deducing from them such damaging
conclusions. But he proceeds to rebut Nathorst's inferences as to
most of the objects in question, by rehearsing the whole evidence
in detail and presenting a series of figures, beginning with the
most unequivocal instances, passing on to those that may be ques-
tionable, and allowing that the laudable desire of the phyto-pale-
ontologists to include in their survey all the plant-like markings
they know has led them to notice and describe not a few which
are susceptible of the interpretation given by the Swedish natural-
ist. But to the greater part Saporta insists that the adverse con-
clusions are far-fetched, forced, founded on p, preconception, and
in certain cases capable of complete disproof. Also that some of
the most dubious markings, which might well receive Nathorst's
explanation, have been found quite closely imitated by the traces
of an JJlxia, a. g.

2. Les Plantes Potaghres^ Description et Cultures des Principaux
Lkgumes des Glimats Tempirks; par Vilmorin, Andbibux & Cib.
1883, pp. 660, 8vo. Paris. — Besides its importance to cultivators,
this volume — prepared by a most competent and trusty hand, and
issued by the noted house of Vilmorin, Andrieux & Co. — has no
small botanical value. It treats of the kitchen-garden plants of
temperate climates, with considerable fulness and abundant illus-
tration from original sketches. It refers the varieties and races
to their proper botanical species, the native country of which is



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236 Soientvfic InteUigence.

indicated with all the correctness to which recent researches have
attained. So that this book, as far as it goes, is a good companion
and supplement to the contemporary Origine des Plantea Cultir
vees, by DeCandolle, a notice of which is still due to our readers.
Among the interesting matters contained in the Introduction, we
note the statement of the author that cultivation, even where
immemorial, has in no wise effaced the limit of species. a. g.

3. The Colors of Flowers ; by Gbant Allen. Macmillan &
Co. 1882. — This taking little book, in which a popular subject is
very interestingly treated, originated as an article in the Cornhill
Magazine, was extended into a series of articles in Nature^ and
now the latter are reedited and collected in a volume of Nature
Series, We need only notice the distinguishing feature of a con-
tribution to evolutionary science which must already have been
widely read. The " central idea" is that petals are transfonned
stamens, rather than transformed leaves. The argument is, that
the earliest flowers consisted only of stamens and pistils, one or
both; that the original color of these was yellow, that conse-
quently (by inheiitance) the stamens of almost all flowers are
yellow, — whence "it would seem naturally to follow that the
earliest petals would be yellow too." Now "the earliest and
simplest types of existing flowers [i. e. the petals of such as have
any] are almost always yellow, .... and this in itself would
be a sufficient ground for believing that yellow was the oiiginal
color of all petals." The author thence proceeds to show how
this color is changed into others, white, red, &c., up to blue, in
a normal succession.

The experienced botanist, looking at the facts irrespective of
theory, will raise some questions. Is it actually true that most
of the simpler flowers with colored perianth are yellow, and that
this color is conspicuously absent from highly differentiated and
attractive flowers ? No numerical proof of it is offered, and we
suppose no convincing proof is to be had from observation. Yel-
low vastly preponderates in the very largest of the highly diflfer-
entiated orders of plants, and holds a fair share in the two next
largest {Leguminosce and Orchidece), Exception may also be
made to the fundamental premise that the stamens of almost all
flowers are yellow. The pollen is prevailingly of this color, and
so more commonly may be the anther, but rarely the filament, the
dilatation of which is assumed to give rise to petals : — to give
rise, moreover, to the sepals also, if the theory holds, at least
when they are colored. But how when they are green and her-
baceous ? And how is the line to be drawn ; and if colored
sepals originated from stamens, why not subtending bracts as
well, when these are petaloid ?

Our author says : " We can see how petals might easily have
taken their origin from stamens, while it is difficult to under-
stand how they could have taken their origin from ordinary
leaves, a process of which, if it ever took place, no hint now re-
mains to us." But either we have a hint in the brilliant bracteal



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Botamy wnd Zoology, 237

leaves of Painted-cup, Poinsettia, and Salvia splendena, or these
attractive leaves hav^ also taken their origin from stamens!
Whether we choose to regard petals and other perianth-members
as modifications of stamens or as modifications of green leaves is,
according to our thinking, mainly a question of mode of concep-
tion. Some good morphological evidence may be adduced for
either. Mr. Allen's study of the case by evolutionary deduction
is interesting and suggestive. It has the advantage of making
an appeal to facts open to observation. We are by no means
convinced that the facts sustain it. a. g.

4. Direct observation of the movement of Water in Plants.
M. JuLiEN Vesque (Ann. des Sc. Nat., XV, 1) has devised a sim-
ple method of demonstrating the transfer of water in the stems of
plants, which promises to have a wide application. The stem is
cut obliquely during immersion in water, and the thin part of the
severed stem is placed in the field of the microscope, of course
completely wet on the cut surface. After the cover-glass is
adjusted and the stem is securely fastened, so that it cannot be
easily disturbed by subsequent treatment, a very little freshly
precipitated calcium oxalate, or other finely divided substance, is
introduced under the cover. If the leaves have not been removed
from the stem, a rapid current is at once observed to flow towards
the cut surface. The insoluble salt collects at the open mouths of
the vessels, often passing into the capillary tubes after a tempo-
rary arrest, and the same phenomenon is repeated several times
as the minute plugs are formed and then sucked in.

With low powers of the microscope it is possible to use a sec-
ond slip instead of the thin cover, and then the simple apparatus
can be held more firmly in its place. In any case it is possible to
measure the rapidity of the current by means of a micrometric
eye-piece ; and several such rates are given.

When the stem is quickly stripped of its leaves the current is
stopped at once. But when, on the other hand, a leaf or a part of
the stem is pinched, there is immediately a backward flow of water.

It is well known that two conflicting views have been held by
physiologists as to the channel by which the upward movement
of water in wood takes place. Some think that the transfer is
solely by imbibition, and that no free water is carried from cavity
to cavity of the wood-element, or rather, that no free water exists
in the cavities. Others have held that free water is carried from
one wood-element to another, and that the walls themselves play
only a subordinate role. To these opposed views may be added
a third, which appears to be a compromise ; namely, that water
in a free state actually exists as a thin lining on the cell-wall.
The chief advocate of the latter view has however abandoned it
in favor of the imbibition tlieory. A recent publication by Elf-
ving (Bot. Zeit. Oct. 1882) details the results of experiments
which considerably strengthen the "cavity" theory. Now just
at this point come observations of Vesque, in a continuation of
the paper regarding the method of direct demonstration, which



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338 SdenUjic Intelligence.

go fiar towards showing that here, as was long ago suspected, the
trath is to be found between the extremes. These experiments,
which need to be carefully repeated, indicate that under certain
circumstances the transfer of water takes place by means of the
cavities themselves, but that in all cases they may serve the part
of reservoirs.

Moreover, the caliber and length of the vessels regulate the
rate of transpiration ; resistance to the movement of the water
following the law of Poiseuille, so that the resistance is inversely
proportional to the fourth power of the diameter and directly pro-
portional to their length. We give in full the close of Vesque's
paper :

'^ It is evident that p having reached its maximum, that is to
say the suction resulting from transpiration not being able to
increase without changing our conditions, because the air dis-
solved jn the water becomes disengaged, the quantity of water
which arrives at the organs of transpiration across a vessel filled

with water is expressed by —j—. From this we can see why climb-

ing plants have such large vessels ; in fact, the increase in diame-
ter can alone compensate that of the length. And, further, the
quantity of water which can pass through a vessel in a given time
bears a certain relation, varying for each species, with the water
which it contains : this, which I have called the transpiratory
reserve, it might be better to tenn the vascular transpiratory
reserve. I propose to publish a work on water reservoirs in gen-
eral. A study of this apparatus very often gives the key as to
the resistance of certain plants to certain surroundings, and per-
mits us to indicate at once the conditions under which we must
cultivate plants. Anatomy, I am convinced, will open the way
to rational culture." g. l. g.

5. The stalked Criniods of the Caribbean Sea ; by P. Her-
BEBT Cabpbkttkr, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zo-
ology, vol. X, No. 4, Dec, 1882. — This paper is a Report on
the Dredgings of the Coast Survey Steamer Blake, in the Gulf of
Mexico and Caribbean Sea, in 1877-1879, under the supervision
of A. Agassiz. This report contains descriptions of four species
of Pentacrinua (out of the eight known), and two of Rhizocrinus:
P. asteria, P, Mulleri^ P. decorue and P, Blakei (here new), R.
LofotenstB and R. Rawsoni, They were obtained at depths
between 78 and 965 fathoms, but mostly between 80 and 400.
Mr. Carpenter states that stalked crinoids have been obtained at
depths exceeding 660 fathoms only in fourteen instances, the low-
est limit being 2,435 fathoms for Bathycnniis gracilis^ found by
the Porcupine in 1869; that P.WymUe-Thomaoni was obtained
by the Porcupine in 1,095 fathoms in 1870: P. Naresiantis^ at
1,360 fathoms, by the Challenger in the Pacific ; that Bathycrinns
ranges from 1,050 to 2,435 fathoms, ffyocrimis from 1,600 to
2,326 ; while Rhizocrinus Lofotensis occurs in the Norwegian
fiords at 80 fathoms, and in 176 to 956 in the Caribbean Sea.



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MisceUcmeovs Intelligierbce. 239

Mr. Carpenter adds " it is a pity that we have no later knowledge
of the " Australian Encrinite," a stem six inches long, which was
obtained by Poore (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ix, 486, 1862), at a
depth of 8 fathoms in King George's Sound."

6. Selections from Embryological Monographs^ compiled by
A. Agassiz, Walter Faxon and E. L. Mark. I. CrvMaoea^ by
W. Faxon, with 14 plates. Memoirs of the Museum of Conif).
Zool, vol. ix, No. 1, 4to. — This volume is the beginning of a
series of publications which will constitute a most generous con-
tribution to American science by the Museum of Comparative
Zoology. The fourteen crowded but admirably engraved plates
contain full illustrations of the embryological development of vari-
ous species of Crustacea, Limulids and Pycnogonids, derived
from recently published Memoirs. The authors cited from in-
clude, besides Mr. Faxon and Professor A. Agassiz, Fritz Mttller,
W. Lilljeborg, Carl Claus, E. and P. J. Van Beneden, E. Mel«ch-
nikoff, N. Bobretzky, F. Richters, Paul Mayer, B. Ulianin, L.
St. George, H. Reichenbach, H. Rathke, Anton Dohrn, A, v.
Nordmann, C. Grobben, P. P. C. Hoek, C. Darwin, T. H. Huxley,
C. Spence Bate, J. Barrande, G. Hodge, W. K. Brooks and A. S.
Packard, Jr.

TraThsacUons of the LinncBan Society of New York. Vol. I. 168 pp. large
8vo. Published by the Society, Dec, 1882. New York. — This handsomely
printed volume contains the following papers : The Vertebrates of the Adiron-
dack region. Northeastern New York (Carnivora), by C. H. Mbrbiam, M.D. ; Is
not the Fish-Crow ( Cervtts ossifragus Wilson) a winter as well as a summer resi-
dent at the northern limit of its range? by Wm. Dutchbb; A review of the
summer birds of a part of the Catskill Mountains, with prefatory remarl;3 on the
Faunal and Floral features of the region, by K. P. Bicknbll.



IV. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence.

1. Cold of January in Iowa, From the Iowa Weather Bulle-
tin for January, 1883; by Gustavus Hinbichs. — ^The great cold
spell from the 10th to the 28d has been of so extraordinary a
character that possibly the following table, giving the tempera-
ture of the air as registered by the standard thermometer at the
Central Station may be of interest. The minus sign — indicates
degrees below zero, Fahrenheit.



January.


Friday 19.


Sat. 30.


8an.*ai.


Mon. 22.


Tnes. 88.


Wefl.M.


2 A. M.


21


-12


-24


—20


-18





4a. U.


21


— 11


-26


-21


-18


3


6 a.m.


6


-12


-22


-22


-18





8 a.m.


— 8


— 12


-18


-22


-19





XO A. M.


- 9


-13


-13


—15


-n


5


Noon


- 9


-13


-10


-10


-11


12


2 p. M.


- 8


-12


- 9


- 8


- 6


16


4 p.m.


-^ 8


-12


-10


- n


— 6


16


6 p. M.


-10


-14


-14


-10


- 6


14


8 p.m.


-12


-18


—16


-13


- 4


10


10 p. m.


-13


-20


-18


-14


-'2


9


Midnight


-13


-23


-19


-15





5



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240 Miscellcmeous Intelligence.

2. Report on the GlimcUic and Agricultural Features atid the
Agricultural practice and needs of the Arid regions of the Pacific
slope^ with notes on Arizona and New Mexico, Made under the
direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture, by E. W. Hilgabd,
T. C. Jones and R. W. Furnas. 182 pp. 8vo. Washington,
1882. — ^This report is full of valuable facts and discussions respect-
ing the agricultural and other field-resources of the Pacific slope,
and particularly of California. The special subjects are : climates,
soils, timber and forest culture, causes of aridity, irrigation, alkali
lands and methods of improvement, analyses of soils and waters,
California wines and brandies, with notes on exotic fruits and
useful plants on trial at the Agricultural College of the University
of California, and on the Phylloxera in California, by E. W. Hil-
gard ; on field crops and animal industries, by T. C. Jones ; on
the standard sugar refinery, Alvarado, California, raisin making,
olive industry, etc., by R. W. Furnas.

3. Astronomical and Meteorological Observations made dur-
ing the year 1878, at the IL S, Naval Observatory, — The two ap-
pendices in this volume. Professor Holden's Monograph on the
Nebula in Orion, and the Longitude of the Observatory at Prince-
ton, N. J., have already been noticed in this Journal, The vol-
ume contains, besides these, th^ regular observations made at the
Naval Observatory with the large and small equatorials and the
transit circle.

4. Science. — The first number of Science, the prospectus of
which was noticed on page 87, appeared on the 9th of February.

Report of an examination of the Upper Columbia Riyer and the territoiy in its
vicinity in September and October, 1881, to determine its navigability, and adap-
tability to steamboat navigation, made by direction of the Department of the
Columbia, by Lieut. T. W. Symons, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 134 pp. roy.
8vo, with maps. Washinjfton. 1882.

Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission, Spencer F. Baird, Commissioner, vol. I,
1881, 466 pp. 8vo. Washington. 1882.

The American Palaeozoic Fossils, of S. A. Miller, Cincinnati. 334 pp., large
8vo. This second edition of Mr. Miller's useful work, mentioned on page 474 of
the last volume of this Journal as in the press, has been published. * The addi-
tions cover 90 pages.

Report of the Entomologist to the Department of Agriculture for the year 1881,
by Charlbs V. Rilbt, M.A., Ph.D. 214 pp. 8vo, with 19 plates, partly colored.

Die elektrische Kraftiibertrag^ng und ihre Anwendung in der Praxis. Mit
besouderer Riicksicht auf die Fortleitungund Yertheilung des elektrischen Stromes:
dargestellt von Eduard Japing, dip]. Ingenieur. 236 pp. 12mo, with 45 cuts.
Wien and Leipzig (A. Hartleben) Elektrotechnische Bibliochek, Band IT.

OBITUARY,

Alexis Perrey, eminent for his long-continued labors in con-
nection with the department of Earthquakes, and Honorary Pro-
fessor of the Faculty of Sciences at Dijon, died at Paris, on the
29th of December last, in his 76th year.



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AM. JOUR. SCI., Vol. XXV, 1883. Plate II.



Spectro-bolometer.



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^



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THE



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.



[THIRD SERIES.]



Art. XXVII. — Review of DeCandolle^s Origin of Cultivated
Plants ;* with Annotations upon certain American Species ; by
Asa Gray and J. Hammond Trumbull.

M. Alphonse de Candolle's Oeographie Botaniqiie Baison-
7Z&, in two volumes of nearly 700 pages each, was published in
the year 1855, and has been for several years out of print It
is not surprising that the now venerable but still well-busied
author should decline the labor of preparing a new edition,
involving, as it would, the re-discussion of certain questions
under changed points of view, and the collocation of a vast
amount of widely scattered new materials which the last quarter
of a century has brought to us.

Happily, the chapter on the geographical origin of the species
of plants generally cultivated for food, and for other economi-
cal uses, could be detached. This, the author has sedulously
studied anew ; and the present volume is the result. As yet
we have it only in the original French ; but it is said that an
English translation is in preparation. So, if the work is not
already in the hands of botanists and other scholars generally,
we may expect that it soon will be ; and, contenting ourselves
with a mere mention of its plan and scope, we may proceed to

* Origine des Flantes OuUivSes^ par Alph. db Candolle, Associe Etranger do
PAcademie des Sciences de I'lnstitut de Prance, etc. Paris, 1883, pp. 377, 8vo.
(BibL Scientifique Internationale, XLTII.) Bailli^re et C*«.

Am. Joub. Sci,— Third Series, Vol. XXV, No. 148.— April, 1883.
17



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1



242 DeCamdoU^s Origin of Cultivated Plants.

remark, here and there, upon points which strike our attention.*
We may expect this to be for many years the standard work
upon the subject, and to undergo revision in successive editions;
and we are sure that the excellent author will welcome every
presentation or discussion which may chance to throw any new
light upon the sources or the aboriginal cultivation of certain
plants which the Otd World has drawn from the New.

The first part of the volume, of only 22 pages, is mainly
occupied with a consideration of the means employed for the
determination of the sources whence the various cultivated
plants have been derived. The botanist enquires where a given
cultivated plant grows spontaneously, or what was its wild orig-
inal; and he has to judge, as well as he can, where it is truly
indigenous or where a reversion from a cultivated to a wild
condition. This, as respects weeds and the like, is a difficult
matter, even in a newly settled country like North America,
much more so in the Old World ; but as respects the plants of
agriculture, the case is usually simpler. The botanists resident
in a country are not likely to be far misled by the occurrence
of wilderrings; but, in the case of travelers and collectors, per-



Online LibraryAbsalom Peters Bela Bates EdwardsThe American journal of science → online text (page 27 of 55)