Copyright
Adam Ferguson.

The history of the progress and termination of the Roman republic (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 48)
Online LibraryAdam FergusonThe history of the progress and termination of the Roman republic (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 48)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


w




nr



V^B^H




'£*-'*



\Q*4t£*'



&H&



John extents
Ptbram




IN THE CUSTODY OF THE

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.




SHELF N°

* hi. 1 1



THE



HI S T O R Y



OF THE



PROGRESS AND TERMINATION



OF THE



ROMAN REPUBLIC



By ADAM F E R GUSON, LL. D.

PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY

OF EDINBURGH.



IN THREE VOLUMES.

-ILLUSTRATED WITH MIPS.
VOL. III.



-L O N D O N:

PRINTED FOR W. STRAHANj T. CADELL, IN THE STRAND,
AND W. CREECH, IN EDINBURGH,

MDCCLXXXIIL



CONTENTS.



BOOK V.

CHAP. L Page i.

^ARRIVAL of Cafar at Ut'ica. Wreck of the Republican Party,

■ Servility of the Roman People. Magnificence and Ad-

miniflration of Cafar. His lajl Campaign hi Spain. Death

of the elder of Pompeys Sons, Cafar s Return^ Triumphs^

Honours , and Policy in the State. Spirit of the 'Times.

Source of the Confpiracy againjl Cafar, • Its Progrefs. Death

of Cafar,

CHAP. II. Page 53.

^General Conjlernation on the Death of Cafar. Tumultuary Affcmbly

of the People. Declarations of Cinna and Dolabella. Appear*

ance of Brutus and Caffuis in the Forum. Their Return to the

Capitol. Meeting and Debate in the Senate. Acl of Oblivion.

Speech of Brutus to the People. Funeral of Cafar. In-

furreclion of the People. Policy of Antony, Appearance of

Oblavius. His difference with Antony. Both have Recourfe

to Arms. Afpetl of things. Antony proceeds to expel Decimus

Brutus from the Cifalpine Gaul.

a 2 CHAP,



CONTENTS..

CHAR III. Page 105.

Situation and Addrcfs of Oclavius. Meeting of the Senate.

Prpgrefs of Antony^ His March into Gaul. Mejfage of Oc-

tavius to Decimus Brutus. New Confuls Hirtius and Panfa.

Meeting of the Senate. Deputation to Antony. His Anfwer.

Declared an Enemy.— -Adva?ice of Hirtius and Oclavius to

raife the Siege of Mutina. Brutus and Coffins confirmed in the

Command of all the Eajlern Provinces. Prdgrefs of the War in

Gaul. Siege of Mutina raifed. jfunclion of Antony and Le-

pidus. Confulak of Savins.

C HAP. IV. Page 105.

Proceedings of the new Conful. State of the Eqflern Provinces.^-

Interview of Oclavius^ Antony^ and Lepidus, with their Coalition.

'The Profcription or Majfacre. Death of Cicero. Sequel

of the Majfacre. Succejfion of Confuls. Severe Exaclidn of

Taxes.' State of Sextus Potnpeitis. Movements of Antony

and Oclavius. Both bend their Courfe to the Eqft. •

P of ure and Operations of Brutus and Cajfius. Their Ar 'rival

and Prog refs in Europe. Campaign at Philippi. Firfl Aclion

and Death of Cajfius. Second Aclion and Death of Brutus.

CHAP. V. Page 204.

Immediate Confequences of the Event at Philippi.- New Partition

of the Empire made by Oclavius and'Anto?ty. Their Separation.

■ Progrefs of Oclavius at Rome.- His Friends Maecenas and

Agrippa.* Alarm and D'iflrcfs in Italy on the DifpoffeJJion of the

Inhabitants to make way for the Troops. Jealoufy of Fulvia
1 and



CONTENT 3.

and Lucius An ton ins. Blockade and Reduclion of Pert/fia.

Progrefs of Antony in Afia. His Stay at Alexandria. Re-
turn to Italy, Accommodation with Sextzss Pompeius, Return

of Oclavius and Antony to Rome. Their Policy.

CHAP. VI. Page 237.

Alarm of the Parthian Invafon of Syria. Arrangements ofOcl'a-

n)ius and Antony. Departure of the latter, and Ref deuce at

Athens. State of the Commonwealth. Marriage of Oclavius

with Livia. War with Sextus Pompeius. Aclions near the

Straits of Mefina.——Agrippa fucceeds to the Command of Ocla-
vius 's Fleet. His Viclory at Sea, Flight of Sextus Pompeius,

' Preach between Oclavius and Lepidus.

CHAP. VII. Page 265.

Forces of Oclavius after the Acquiftion of Sicily, and the Junclion of
the Armies of Sextus Pompeius and Lepidus. Mutiny and Sepa-
ration of thefe Forces. Arrival of Oclavius at Rome. His

Reform of the Army.'— —Expedition of Antony againji the Par-

thians. His Retreat.— < — The Death of Sextus Pompeius.-

Open Breach between Oclavius and Antony. Progrefs of Antony

and Cleopatra towards Greece. Operations of Antony and Ocla- ■

vius on the Gulph- of Ambrncia. Battle- of Aclium. Flight of

Antony, Immediate Arrangements of Oclavius after his Viclory* .

—- Death of Antony , And of Cleopatra, .



BOO K



%



CONTENTS.



BOOK VI.

CHAP. I. Page 319.
The Merit or Demerit of Parties in the later Period of the Roman Re-
public. Return of Oclavius to Rome. His Triumphs and pub-
lic Entertainments. Reform of the Army Proportion to re-

fign his Power. Confutation of Agrippa and Macenas. — —

Preludes to the pretended Refgnation of Oclavius. His Speech in

the Senate.' His Confent to retain a Part in the Government of

the Empire.- Difribution of the Provinces. Title of Augujlus.

The E/labli/hment of Auguflus.

CHAP. II. Page 364.

State of the Emperor. Condition of the Empire. Amount of the

Revenue unknown. Military- Efablifmcnts y &c.

CHAP. III. Page 378.

The Family and Court of Augiifltis. This pretended Refgnation of

the Empire renewed. The exercifc of his Power becomes left

difguifed. Death of Agrippa.

CHAP. IV. Page 420.

Marriage of Julia with Tiberius. Death of Drufus. — • — Death of

Mcecenas. Difgrace of "Julia. War in Panonia. Roman

Legions cut off in Germany. Tiberius officiated in the Empire*

Death of Augujlus.

CHAP. V. Page 467.

The Will of Augufus. -Review of his Reign And of his Cha-

racler. Tiberius returns to Nola, Without Delay, ijjues his

2 Orders



CONTENTS.

Orders throughout the Empire. But in the Senate affecls Relucl-

ance to charge himfelf -with the Government.' Mutiny in Pa-

nonia. On the Rhine. ■ Second Mutiny on the Arrival of De-
puties from the Senate. Impoflure of Clemens. Plot of Libo.

— — Defcription of Tiberius. Death of Germanicus, and Ttial

ofPi/b.

CHAP. VI. Page 505.

Review of the firft Period in the Reign of Tiberius.— —Applications

of Penal Law. Difpofition of Tiberius to a reclufe Life.

Place and Character of Sejanus. Death of Drufus, Son of the

Emperor. -Retirement of Tiberius to the I/land of Caprece.——

Jealoufy of the Emperor againjl Agripp'ma and her Children. ■

Death of Livia Augufa. Defign formed againjl Sejanus. — —

His Death. Profecution of his fuppofed Accomplices v— — Arti~

■ ficeSy old Age, and Death of Tiberius*

CHAP. VII. Page 555.

SucceJJion of Cams to the Empire. The frjl Appearances of his

Reign. Conclufton of the Hi/lory. Obfervations on the Sequel.

Accefion of the Flavian Family. Vicifjil 'tides of Character in

ihe Emperors. Sources of Degradation in the hnperial EJlabli fo-
ment. Preservatives of the Empire. Its real and continual y ,

though ahnojl infenftble r Decline, .



THE

HISTORY

OF THE

PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

OF THE

ROMAN REPUBLIC.



BOOK V.

CHAP. L

Arrival of Cafar at XJtica. Wreck of the Republican Party.'

Servility of the Roman People. Magnificence and Admbiiflration

of Ccefar. 'His lafl Campaign in Spain. Death of the elder

of Pompeys Sons.' Ccefar s Return, Triumphs, Honours, and

Policy in the State. Spirit of the 'Times. Source of the Con-

fpiracy againjl Ccefar.' Its Progrefs. Death of Ccefar.

WHEN Csefar was informed, on his march from Thapfus, that c H A P.
of all the principal men of the oppofite party, Cato alone re- l '

mained at Utica to receive him, he was at a lofs to interpret his con-
duct, and poilibly might have found it difficult to determine how he
Vol. HI. B mould



2 THE PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

BOOK fhould deal with an antagonift, whom be neither could reconcile to

V ■

his ufurpation, nor treat as a criminal. The character of generofity
towards his enemies, which Csefar had afliimed, laid him under
fome obligation, in point of confiftency, to treat the perfon of Cato
with refpect ; and the opportunity he would have had, in that in-
stance, of exercifing his clemency with fo much luftre, could not
have efcaped him. In the bufieft fcene of his life he had not any
party object, or any party quarrel to maintain ; he had repeatedly
facrificed perfonal animofity to ambition ; and when he took the field
againft the republic, he had few private refentments to gratify : he
knew that an affectation of relu&ance in fhedding the blood of
Roman citizens, the reverfe of what remained fo much an object of
horror in the memory of Sylla, was the likeliefl means to cover the
effects of this destructive war, and to reconcile the People to his go-
vernment. In the bulk of his fellow citizens he had found either
rubbifh to be removed from the way of his ambition, or tools
with which he might work in removing it ; they were the dupes of
his policy, or open to the imputations of fmifter defigns or unrea-
fonable obftinacy which he call on his opponents. In Cato, perhaps,
alone, he found a meafure of estimation, which, with all his abilities
and profperous fortune, he could not neglect, and a penetration
which, without management for his perfon, treated his politics as a
fyftem of villany deviled for the ruin of the commonwealth. Cato
therefore alone, of all his antagonists, he possibly hated beyond the
poffibility of a reconciliation *.

Casfar was in reality, according to the reprefentation of his friend
Curio, neither fanguinary nor fcrupulous of blood, but in the highest
degree indifferent to both, and ready to do whatever was most likely
to promote his defigns. As he had already sufficiently provided for

' Et cunfta terrarum fubafta prseter atrocem animum Catonis.

^ the



OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. 3

the reputation of clemency, he now made a freer ufe of his fword, CHAP.

and in proportion as he approached to the end of the war, or faw

the means of extirpating thofe who were moft likely to difturb his

government, he dipped his hands with lefs fcruple in the blood of

his enemies. As he purfued Pompey into Egypt, under a certain

impreffion that the death of this rival was material to the eftablifh-

ment of his power in Italy, fo it is likely that he now haftened to

Utica as a place at which he might crufh the remains of the republic.

On hearing of the death of Cato, however, he made ufe of an ex-

preffion which ferved to difcover the refolution he had taken with re-

fpect to him. " I mull be allowed," he faid, " to envy this man

" the fplendour of his death, as he has refufed me the honour of

" preferving his life." Having paffed through Uzita and Adrume-

tum, which furrendered to him on his march, and being met by

numbers who came to make their fubmiffion, he arrived at Utica in

the evening, and continued all night without the gates.

Marcus Meflala had already taken pofTefuon of the town. Gefar
entered on the following day ; and having ordered the people to attend
him, made a fpeech, in which he thanked the colony of Utica for
their faithful attachment to his caufe ; but fpoke of three hundred
Roman citizens, who had contributed to fupport the war againft him,
in terms which fufficiently fhewed that he was no longer to court the
reputation of mercy. Appian fays, that as many of them as fell
into his hands were by his order put to death. Hirtius relates,
that he only confifcated their effects, and that this fentence was af-*
terwards changed into a limited fine, amounting in all to two hun-
dred thoufand fefiertia, or about a million and a half fterling, to be
paid in three years, at fix feparate payments.

From this general wreck of the republican party in Africa, the
leaders continued their flight in different directions. Many who fur-
rendered themfelves were fpared ; but moft of thofe, who, in their

B 2 attempts




THE PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

attempts to efcape, fell into the enemy's hands, either killed them-
felves, or by Cafar's order were put to death \ Afranius and Fauftus
Sylla having joined a party of cavalry that fled by Utica from the
field of battle, were intercepted by Sitius, and defending themfelves,
with the lofs of many of their party, were taken, In a few days
after this event, thefe prifoners, under pretence of a riot in the camp,
were put to death.

Scipio, with Damafippus, Torquatus, and Plaetorius Ruftianus,
endeavoured to efcape by fea into Spain. After being tolled fome
days with contrary winds, they ventured to put into Hippo, on the
coaft of Numidia, where they met with a fquadron of Csefar's fleet,
commanded by Sitius, Their veflel being boarded, they were afked
with impatience, Where is the general ? Scipio himfelf made anfwer,
The general is well; and in uttering thefe words ftabbed himfelf, and
went headlong into the fea.

Juba, with Petreius, having efcaped from the field of battle at
Thapfus, lay concealed by day, and continued their flight in the
night towards Zama, a place which, at the breaking out of the war,
the king of Numidia had fortified, and made the refidence of his
women, and the repofitory of his treafure and rnoft valuable effects.
He knew that if he mould be taken captive by a Roman general, the
confequence was being led in triumph, and poffibly afterwards put
to death. He had therefore provided this retreat in cafe of an un-
fortunate iflue to the war ; intending it merely as a place at which he
might die in ftate. With this intention he had raifed, near to the
royal palace, a pile of wood on which he meant to confume what-
ever could mark or adorn the victor's triumph ; and it was his pur-
pofe, while he fet thefe materials, and with them the whole city, on,'
fire, to commit himfelf and his women to the flames.

1 Dio. Caff. lib. xliii. c. 12. Appian. de Bello Civili, lib. ii. Florus, Eutropius, Hirtius.

The



OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. j

The inhabitants of Zama had fome intimation of this defign, and, CHAP,
upon the approach of the king, not choofing to celebrate by fuch an
offering the exit of a vanquifhed prince, fhut their gates and refufed
him admittance. They likewife had the humanity to refufe fending
the women to him, on a fuppofition tliat he meant they mould be a
facrifice to his jealoufy, or be involved in his ruin.

Juba finding himfelf thus difobeyed, even by his own fubjecls,
retired to one of his country feats ; and having, ordered a fplendid
entertainment, at the clofe of it he and Petreius- fell together by their
own fwords. The kingdom of Numidia was converted into a Ro-
man province, and the government of it was committed to Salluft
the hiftorian. The fon of the king, yet an infant, was referved to
make a part in the proceffion of the victor's triumph 3 . The furniture
and ornaments of his palaces were fold, and produced a.confiderable
fum of money.- Great contributions were raifed at the fame time
in thofe parts of Africa which had been already fubjedled to the con-
dition of a Roman province. The inhabitants of Thapfus were made
to pay fifty thoufand . Roman feftertia 4 ; thofe of Adrumetum,
eighty thoufand ; thofe of Leptis and Tyfdra paid the quotas ex-
acted from them in corn and oil.

Caefar having, in this manner, doled a fcene in which he had
deftroyed fifty thoufand of his opponents, who might be fuppofed to
be the moft obftinate adherents of the republican party, and having
joined to the empire a territory which, by the report afterwards-
made in the affembly of the People, was fitted to yield an annual
tribute of three hundred thoufand medimni of grain, and three hun-
dred thoufand weight of oil \ he embarked at Utica, on the fif-
teenth of June, and in three days after he failed from thence,
arrived in the ifland of Sardinia ; a part of his dominions, laid Cicero„

3 Plut. in Casf. 4 About 400jOoo I. 5 pi u t. in Csf.

4 which



5 THE PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

BOOK <which lie had not hitherto feen. Before his departure from Africa
V. .

he had made the necefTary arrangements reflecting the army ; and,

although he had recently availed himfelf of the fervices of the le-
gions who had mutinied in Italy, and feemed to have forgotten their
offence, yet he took the benefit of the prefent profperous ftate of his
affairs to indulge his refentment ; and that they might not commu-
nicate with factious fpirits in Italy, have leifure to over-rate their
fervices, or to fet an example to the reft of the army of exorbitant
demands, he ordered them to be broke and difbanded in Africa.
The remainder of the troops who had given him the victory in that
country, he ordered, after receiving the necefTary refrefhments, to
proceed in the voyage to Spain, where he had ftill fome refiftance to
apprehend from the fons of Pompey.

Leaving the army therefore to purfue this courfe, Caefar himfelf
took fhipping again in the ifland of Sardinia on the twenty-ninth of
June ; and, being fome time detained by contrary winds, arrived at
Rome on the twenty-fixth of the following month s ; having, fince
the time of his departure from Italy, on the expedition to Africa, in
which he had fo many difficulties to furmcunt, fpent no more than
fix months.

The news of Cadar's victory had been fome time received. The
principal fupports of the republic had fallen at Thapfus and at Phar-
falia ; and as the fons of Pompey, though favourably received by
their late father's adherents in Spain, were not yet fuppoied to be in
condition to refift the victor, the revolution in his favour feemed to
be complete, and every part of the Roman empire fubjected to his
power. Nothing now remained, but that he fhould take pofleffion
of that fovereignty to which he afpired, and in which, it foon after
appeared, that to him there was a charm, even in the court that was
paid to him, as well as in the poffeffion of power.

» Hirtius de Bell Afr. c. 86.

"Whatever



OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. 5

"Whatever diftrefs the furviving members of the commonwealth CHAP,
may have fuffeved on the lofs of their relations and friends, who had
fallen in the late bloody trarrfactions of this war, or whatever mor-
tification they may have felt on the lofs of their own political con-
fequence, as partners in the empire of the world, no fymptoms of
averfion, or unwilling fubmiflion, appeared on the part of the People ;
all orders of men haftened to pay their court to the victor, and,
by their fervile adulations, to anticipate the ftate of degradation into
which they were foon to be reduced.

. In the name of the Senate and People a continual fhankfgiving of
forty days was decreed for the late victory at Thapfus. The power
of Dictator was conferred on Csefar for ten years, and that of Cen-
for, which gave the fupreme difpofal of honours and rank in the
commonwealth, and which, on account of the abufe to which it was
fubject, had been fome time abolifhed, was now under a new title,
that of Prcefcftus Morum, reftored in his perfon. At the fame time
the nomination of fome of the officers of ftate, formerly elected by
the people, was committed to him. He was, in the exercife of thefe
powers,, to be preceded by feventy-two lictors, triple the number
of thofe who ufed to attend the Dictators, and he was to enjoy, for
*ife, many of the inferior prerogatives, which, under the republic,
ferved to diftinguifh the firft officers of ftate ; fuch as that of giving,
the fignals for the horfes to ftart, or for the other fports to begin at
the games of the Circus ; and that of delivering his opinion before
any one elfe in the Senate. It was likewife ordered, that he fhould
have in the Senate a gilded chair of ftate, placed next to that of the
Conful ; and, as if it were intended to join ridicule with thefe extra-
ordinary honours, it was decreed, that as the conqueror of Gaul, in
his triumphs he fhould be drawn by white horfes, to put him on at
foot of equality with Camilius, to whom this diftinction had been
given, as the reftorer of his country from its deftruction by the an-

ceftora




THE PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

ceftors of that nation ; that his name fhould be inferted, inftead of
that of Catulus, as the perfon who had rebuilt the Capitol ; that a
car, like that of Jupiter, fhould be placed for him in the fame temple,
.and near to the ftatue of the god himfelf ; and that his own ftatue n
-with the title of a deini-god, mould be erected on a globe reprefent-
ing the earth.

It is faid that Csefar refufed many of the honours which were de-
creed to him ; but in thefe, which he no doubt encouraged, or fa-
vourably received, he fufficiently betrayed a vanity which but rarely
accompanies fuch a diftinguiihed fuperiority of understanding and
courage. Though in refpect to the ability with which he rendered
men lubfervient to his purpofe ; in refped to the choice of means
for the attainment of his end ; in refpecT: to the plan and execution
of his defigns, he was far above thcfe who were eminent in the
hiftory of mankind ; yet in refped to the end which he purfued, in
reipect to the pafhons he had to gratify, he was one merely of the
vulgar, and condefcended to be vain of titles and honours, which he
has fhared with perfons of the meaneft capacity. Infenfible to the
honour of being deemed the equal in rank to Cato and Catulus, to
Hortenfius and Cicero, and the equal in reputation to Sylla, to
Fabius, and to the Scipios, he preferred being a fuperior among
profligate men, the leader among foldiers of fortune, and to ex-
tort by force from his fellow citizens a deference which his won-
derful abilities muft have made unavoidable, even if he had poflefled
the magnanimity to defpife it.

Cxfar, foon after the diftindions now mentioned were beftowed
.upon him, addrefTed himfelf to the Roman Senate and People, in a
fpeech which, being fuppofed ro proceed from a matter, was full of
condefcenfion and lenity, but from a fellow citizen, was fraught with
•infult and contumely. A fpeech delivered on fo remarkable an oc-
.cafion was likely to be in fubftance preferved ; aud under the go-
vernment



OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. <

vernment of his fuccefibrs, by whom he was numbered with the CHAP.
gods, it was not likely to get abroad but with a view to do him ho-
nour. " Let no man," he faid, " imagine, that, under the favour
*' of my exalted fituation, I am now to indulge myfelf in acts, or
" even in expreffions, of feverity ; or that I am to follow the ex-
" ample of Marius, of Cinna, of Sylla, or of mod others, who»
" having fubdued their enemies, dropt, in the height of their for-
" tune, that character of moderation under which they had formerly
" enticed men to their party. I have appeared all along in my true
" character, and now, in the height of my power, have no change
" to make in my conduct \ The more my fortunes advance, the
" more I will endeavour to ufe them properly. My fole object,
" while I endeavoured to rife above my enemies, was to fecure for
" myfelf a fituation in which I might exercife virtue with dignity
" and fafety ; and I fhall not now imitate the examples which I my-
" felf have often condemned, nor fully the fplendour of my victories
" by an improper ufe of my power.

" As the favours of fortune are won by vigour, fo they are pre-
" ferved by moderation, and fhould be moft carefully preferved by
" thofe who enjoy the greateft fhare of them. I covet fincere af-
" fection and genuine praife ; not the adulation that fprings from
" fear and hatred. Thefe are my ferious thoughts, confirmed on

«

" reflection ; and you fhall find me governed by them in all the

" actions of my life. I do not mean to be your lord or your tyrant,

" but your chief and your leader. When the State has occafion for

*' my authority, you fhall find in me a Dictator and a Conful ; but on

" ordinary occafions, no more than a private man 6 .

" I have fpared many who were repeatedly in arms againft me.

" I have fhut my ears to informations of the hidden defigns of

5 Dio. Caff. lib. xliii. c. 15, &c. « Ibid.

Vol. III. G " other-.




,a THE PROGRESS AND TERMINATION

" others, and have deftroyed all letters and papers which could lead
" to a detection of my fecret enemies. To mod of you I can have
" no refentment ; and I do not incline to raife profecutions againft
" thofe who may think they have incurred my difpleafure. Live,
" therefore, with me from this time forward in confidence, as chil-
" dren with their father. I referve to myfelf the power of
" punifhing the guilty, as far as juftice requires; but will protect
" the innocent and reward the deferving.

" Let not thefe appearances of military force alarm you. The
" troops which are quartered in the city, and which attend my per-
" fon, are deftined to defend, not to opprefs the citizens ; and
" they will know, upon every occafion, the limits of their duty.

" Uncommon taxes have lately been levied in the provinces and



Online LibraryAdam FergusonThe history of the progress and termination of the Roman republic (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 48)