Henry R. Wagner
SKETCH MAP OF CENTRAL MEXICO.
Jjapers of % &w|pjlogital Institute of
AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL TOUR IN MEXICO,
1 1 Ho - iq '
for tlje Knstftute fig
CUPPLES, UPHAM, AND COMPANY.
LONDON: N. TRUBNER AND CO-
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA.
ISmutfte Committee, 1883-84.
CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, President.
MARTIN BRIMMER, Vice-President.
W. W. GOODWIN.
H. W. HAYNES.
CHARLES S. BRADLEY.
STEPHEN SALISBURY, JR.
HENRY L. HIGGINSON, Treasurer.
E. H. GREENLEAF, Secretary.
I. FROM TAMPICO TO THE CITY OF MEXICO 3
II. NOTES ABOUT THE CITY OF MEXICO 49
III. STUDIES ABOUT CHOLULA AND ITS VICINITY 79
IV. AN EXCURSION TO MITLA 263
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PLATE I. SKETCH-MAP OF PART OF MEXICO .... Frontispiece
II. MOUNT ORIZABA FROM VERA CRUZ. From a
III. HOUSES OF THE NATIVES ON THE COAST. From a
IV. THE STONE OF THE SUN. From a Photograph . . 54
V. HUITZILOPOCHTLI. From a Photograph 59
VI. THE SACRIFICIAL STONE. From a Photograph . . 67
VII. THE INDIO TRISTE. From a Photograph .... 68
VIII. YZTAC-TEPETL, FROM THE EAST. From a Photograph 100
IX. POPOCA-TEPETL, FROM PUEBLA. From a Photograph . 102
X. Fig. i. Mexican Plough 96
2-6. House of Tepoztecatl 124-127
7. Stone Cross 126
8, 9. Roof and Ceiling 125-127
10. Two Houses 129
u, 12. Elevations of the Same 128
13. Doorway of Same 129
14-18. Thatched Roofs 129
19. House at Cuauhtlantzinco 128
XI. Fig. i. Map of the District of Cholula 254
2, 3. Vapor Bath 158
4-6. Drums . 152
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
XII. DOORWAY, SAN ANDRES CHOLULA. From a Photo-
Z ra P h 225
XIII. Fig. i. Cerro de Acozac. Plan and Section .... 228
2. Cerro de la Cruz Plan and Section .... 229
3. Ruins of Staircase. Mound of Cholula ... 240
4. Elevation of the Mound of Cholula, Restored . 246
5. Plan of the Mound of Cholula, Restored. . . 246
6. Profile of the Hill Teoton '. . 252
7. Profile of the Hill Tetlyollotl 252
8. Profile of the Hill Tzapotecas 252
9. Heraldic Representation of the Mound of Cholula 243
10. Plan of Part of Cholula 22O
XIV. PLAN OF THE GREAT MOUND OF CHOLULA .... 234
XV. FAC-SIMILE OF AN OLD SPANISH PLAN OF CHOLULA
XVI. THE GREAT MOUND OF CHOLULA. GENERAL VIEW 233
XVII. GENERAL PLAN OF THE RUINS OF MITLA. "Lvd-
XVIII. GROUPS A, B, C, AND D. PLANS 279-291
XIX. VIEW OF THE CHURCH (GROUP A) AND OF GROUP B.
From a Photograph 277
XX. VIEW OF GROUPS B AND C. From a Photograph . 277
XXI. VIEW OF THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF GROUP B. From
a Photograph ' 294
XXII. INTERIOR OF THE PILLARED HALL (B II.). From a
XXIII. SOUTH FRONT OF C I. From a Photograph ... 285
XXIV. DETAILS OF GROUP B.
Fig. i. Northwest Corner of B 1 294
2. East Wall of South Room, B 1 295
3. Northern Entrance to Narrow Passage in B I. 298
4. Southern Entrance to the Same 298
5. Central Doorway, B II. From the Inside . 298
6. The Same. North Side of Northern Pier . 299
7. The Same North Side of Southern Pier . 299
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ix
8. Roof of Northwest Corner of B I. Section . 301
9. The Same, Elevation 301
10. Carving on Lintel of B 1 299
11. Mosaic Ornament from B 1 299
DETAILS OF GROUP C.
Fig. 12. East Side of Door Pier, C I
13. North Side of Pier, Central Doorway, C II. . 300
14. Plan of Basement, C 1 285
15. Ceiling of Basement, C 1 302
16. Side Elevation of C 1 285
17. Front Elevation of Basement, C 1 285
18. Niche in C 1 297
19. Stone Ornament in Basement, C 1 299
20. West Side of Entrance, C 1 294
21. Carving on Lintel, CII 299
22. Two Doorways of C II, from the Inside . . 299
XXV. Figs. 1-4. Fragments of Paintings upon Stucco, D I. . 300
5. Carved Slab 308
6. Group E 288
7. Section of E III 288
8. Group F 289
9. Section of F IV 290
Fig. I. Plan of Mounds at Xagd 309
2. Plan of Basement 310
3. Section of the Same 310
4. Ornaments in Stone 310
5. Mounds between Xaga" and Mitla .... 309
FUERTE DI MITLA. " Jio."
Fig. 6. General Plan 311
7. Details of Houses. Plans 312
8. Double Wall 311
9. Abutment Wall ... 311
TLACOLULA. " GUI-Y-BAA."
Fig. 10. General Plan 315
11. Chamber in Stone Mound 316
12. Remains of Stone Steps 316
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Fig. 13. General Plan 318
14. Broken Lintel 318
ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.
Fig. i. Stone Relief from Orizaba 26
2. The Snake- Wall 71
3. Arch Construction at Cholula 116
Such of the Illustrations as are not reproductions of photographs
are from drawings by the author.
IN THE YEAR 1881
INTO MEXICO, IN THE YEAR 1881.
FROM TAMPICO TO THE CITY OF MEXICO.
TO the eye of an uninterested traveller the gulf-coast of
Mexico, between the mouth of the Rio Grande del
Norte and the bar of the Rio Panuco near the city of
Tampico, presents but few attractive features. In contrast
to the lovely blue or green sea, often calm and placid, an
arid sandy shore lines the western horizon ; it is low and
barren, and only when the Rio Panuco is approached do
mountains begin to rise in the distance. The most easterly
spur of the Sierra Madre Oriental, 1 after forming succes-
sively the limits between the States of Puebla and Hidalgo
and the State of Vera Cruz, crosses the southeastern corner
of San Luis, and enters the State of Tamaulipas almost
due east of Tampico. The eastern slope of this mountain
chain, proceeding northwestward, still further recedes from
the coast ; and it is this broad interval, between mountain
and sea, which constitutes the main portion of Tamaulipas.
A little more than one and one half degrees of latitude of the
whole area of Tamaulipas lies within the tropics. Vegetation,
while luxuriant in places, is generally scant. Although one
of the larger States of the Mexican Union, its population in
1 I have adopted this name from the maps of my friend Don Antonio Garcia-
Cubas. The coast-range itself bears, of course, various local denominations in
4 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
1878 amounted only to 144,747 souls, of which 11,682 be-
longed to Tampico alone. 1
The mouth of the Rio Panuco was visited at an early period
in the Spanish conquest, but the principal towns of the State
were founded during the past and the present century. Ca-
margo, on the Rio Grande, one of the oldest, dates back only
to the 5th of March, 1749, whereas Tampico is but recently
born (i2th of April, 1823), as also Matamoras (28th of Janu-
ary, 1823) and Nuevo Laredo (i848). 2 From these facts it
might be inferred that the aboriginal population of Tamauli-
pas would still be found in a condition relatively unaffected
by foreign influences. Such, however, does not appear to
be the case ; for with the exception of the southern portion
of its territory, where the Huaxteco language prevails, 3 the
few remnants of Indians in the State seem almost completely
to have lost the knowledge and practice of their peculiar
idioms. This fact stated by the two learned Mexican
scholars, Francisco Pimentel and Manuel Orozco y Berra 4
does not preclude the possibility of still finding traces, at
least, of the original tribes and of their languages. While
1 Emiliano Busto, Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana, 1880, pp. Ixv. and
2 I have taken these data from Manuel Orozco y Berra, Geografia de las Len-
guas de Mexico, Parte III. cap. xvii. pp. 291, 292, Note 3.
3 Ibid., p. 290: "La parte maritima del Sur, sin poder asignar la verdadera
extension, estaba ocupada por los huaxtecos ; . . ." The earliest mention which
I find of the name " Huaxteca " is by Hernando Cortes, Carta Cuarta, dated
1 5th of October, 1524, reprinted by Vedia in Historiadores Primitivos de Indias,
vol. i. p. 96, "las provincias de Guatusco, Tustepeque y Guatasca," p. 103,
" y llego a la provincia de los Guatescos."
4 " Asi es que, para situar cada una de las tribus, no tenemos otros dates que
los lugares en que fueron congregados, y las indicaciones de los terrenes en
donde pasaban su vida vagabunda ; para sus costumbres, escasas noticias ; para
la distincion de las lenguas que hablaban, casi nada." Orozco y Berra' 's Geo-
grafia, etc., p, 292. " Todas las tribus de Tamaulipas han desaparecido ; en el
siglo que ha pasado los descendientes de aquellos barbaros se han fundido en la
poblacion blanca, y si hoy se encuentra alguno es hablando el espanol y con el
A RECONNOISSANCE INTO MEXICO. 5
the majority of Indians in Tamaulipas appear to have been
roving tribes, and thus may not have left behind them any
vestiges of dwellings or objects of art, 1 local names might
furnish a clew to forgotten tongues. A word, or even a sylla-
ble, in frequent use among a tribe long ago destroyed, is often
more durable than the strongest wall, lasts longer than the
most elaborately sculptured block. The latter becomes, finally,
an obstacle to succeeding generations, and is therefore, if not
ruthlessly destroyed, at all events abandoned to gradual de-
cay; the living sound passes into the speech of the people,
and thus remains.
The outlet of the Rio Panuco is closed to vessels of large
draught by a formidable bar, which was an obstacle even to the
light craft of the Spaniards in the early part of the sixteenth
century. 2 As early as 1518, Juan de Grijalva saw the mouth
of the Panuco, and anchored near it. His short stay was
characterized by an unfriendly meeting with the natives. 3 In
traje de la plebe." Ibid. p. 296. Francisco Pimentel, Cuadro descriptive de las
Lenguas indigenas de Mexico, 1865, v l- " P- 2 S r mentions, beside the Huaxteco,
only the Lipan, a dialect of the Apache, as being still spoken in Tamaulipas.
1 Orozco y Berra, Geografia, etc., pp. 290, 291, quotes, from a MS. of the
year 1757, Description general de la ffiteva colonia de Santander, etc., by D.
Agustin Lopez (original at the Archive General), the statement that up to the
Valley of Santa Barbara, " se ven muchos vestigios de pueblos antiguos de
Inclios y de otras naciones que habitaron antes que los Indios que existen. . . ."
But this region lies along the upper Rio Panuco.
2 There is no mention of any of the early discoverers having entered the
mouth. Antonio de Herrera, Description de las Indias Occidentals, edition of
1730, p. 18, says of the Panuco River, " sino el Rio de Panuco, i su Puerto, que
no es muy bueno."
3 Itinerario de larmata Del Re Catholico in India Verso la Isola de hichathan
Del Anno MDXVIII, etc., published, with an excellent Spanish translation by
D. Joaquin Garcia-Icazbalceta, in vol. i. of Coleccion de Documentos para la His-
toria de Mexico. I mention this republication of the celebrated " Itinerario,"
because it is the one I am now using. (Compare, in regard to this valuable
report, my Notes on the Bibliography of Yucatan and Central America, kindly
published, at the instance of my friend Mr. S. Salisbury, Jr., by the American
Antiquarian Society, in its Proceedings, Oct. 21, 1880.) Bernal Diez de Castillo,
6 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
1522-23, Hernando Cortes and Francisco de Garay almost
simultaneously attempted the conquest of the region. The
former ultimately succeeded, thus " pre-empting " on the
latter's rights. 1 It appears that the tribes of the Panuco were
all sedentary Indians, who lived in houses made of wood,
sometimes built on platforms of earth. 2 These tribes spoke
the Huaxteco language. This idiom is known to be a
branch of the Maya, and closely allied to that dialect of the
latter called the Tzendal of Chiapas. 3 Few vestiges of hab-
itation, if any, have been recorded as existing in the south-
ern portions of Tamaulipas, yet this is no proof of their
non-existence. South of the Rio Panuco, however, ruins of
houses, of mounds, even of entire pueblos, are mentioned. 4
In addition to .the well-known localities of which Mr. H. H.
Bancroft has collected information, I was informed by Seiior
Nunez, of Tampico, that the pueblo of Tampachichi still
Historia verdadera de la Conqutsta de Nueva Expand, in Vedia, vol. ii. cap.
xvi. p. 13. Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes, Historia natural y general
de las Yndias, reprinted by the late Don Jose Amador de los Rios, in 1853.
Oviedo was not, like the two preceding authors, an eye-witness ; but at all events
he was a contemporary, and reports from eye-witnesses. His statements in re-
gard to Grijalva are found in vol. i. lib. xvii. cap. xv. and xvi. pp. 529 and 530.
1 Cortes, Carta Segunda, Vedia, vol. i. p. 14; Carta Cuarfa, Ibid. pp. 99-108.
Bernal Diez de Castillo, Historia verdadera, etc., Vedia, ii. cap. Ix. p. 52, cap.
clxii. pp. 212-218. Hernando de Ceballos, Demanda en nombre de Pdnfilo de
Narvaez, etc., in Garcia-Icazbalceta, Coleccion de Documentos, vol. i. p. 443.
Oviedo, Historia Natural, etc., vol. iii. lib. xxxiii. cap. ii. pp. 262, 263, and cap.
xxxvi. pp. 449-455.
2 Cortes, Carta Segunda, Vedia, i. p. 14. Oviedo, Historia -General, vol. iii.
lib. xxxiii. cap. ii. p. 263.
3 C. H. Berendt, Remarks on the Centres of Ancient Civilization in Central
America and their Geographical Distribution, from Bulletin of the American Geo-
graphical Society, Session 1875-76, No. 2, p. 10. Orozco y Berra, Geografia, etc.,
i. pp. 20, 21,
4 H. H. Bancroft, The Native Races of the Pacific States, vol. iv. pp. 461, 462,
463. G. F. Lyon, Journal of a Residence and Tour in the Republic of Mexico
in the Year 1826, vol. i. chap. i. pp. 51-62. Orozco y Berra, Geografia, etc., p.
290 of Part III.
A RECONNOISSANCE INTO MEXICO. 7
exhibits remains of stone foundations, possibly antedating the
The Huaxteco district becomes interesting through an old
tradition, which is said to designate the Rio Panuco as the
place where a tribe most conspicuous in the confused past
of Mexico, the Toltecs, disembarked. 1 Should this tradition
prove to be authentic, it would be another link in the chain
1 Perhaps the earliest printed notice of the arrival of Aborigines on the gulf-
coast is found in Francisco Lopez de Gdmara, Segunda parte de la Cronica gen-
eral de las Indias, qiie trata de la Conqnista de Mexico. My quotation is taken
from the reprint in Vedia, vol. i. p. 432 : " Xicalancatlh anduvo mas tierra,
llego a la mar del Norte, y en la costa hizo muchos pueblos ; pero a Ibs dos mas
principales llamo de sus mismo nombre. El uno Xicalanco esta en la provincia
de Maxcalcingo, que es cerca de la Vera Cruz, y el otro Xicalanco esta cerca de
Tabasco." This quotation, however, appears gathered from the same source
(the Franciscan friars under the direction of Bishop Zumarraga) as the state-
ment still older made by Fray Toribio de Paredes, surnamed Motolinia,
Historia de los Indios de la Nueva Espana, in Icazbalceta, Colecc. de Documentos,
vol. i., " Epistola proemial," pp. 7, 8. The latter version, however, is quite dif-
ferent. Neither of the two earliest sources speaks positively of a "landing," but
only of the Xicalancas reaching the coast from the interior. The first intima-
tion of a " landing," however, I find in Fray Bernardino de Sahagun, Historia
general de las cosas de Nueva Espana: edition of Bustamante, 1830, vol. iii.
libr. x. cap. xxix. pp. 132, 133. Speaking of the Cuextecas, he says : " El nombre
de todos estos tomase de la provincia que llaman Cuextlan, donde los que estan
poblados se llaman Cuextecas, si son muchos, y si uno Cuextecatl, y por otro
nombre Toveiome cuando son muchos, y cuando uno Toveio, el cual nombre
quiere decir nuestro pr6jimo. A los mismos llamaban Panteca, 6 Panoteca, 'que
quiere decir hombre del lugar pasadero, los cuales fueron asi llamados, y son los
que viven en la provincia de Panuco, que propramente se llaman Pantlan, 6
Panotlan, quasi panoaia, que quiere decir, lugar por donde pasan, que es a
orillas, 6 riberas de la mar, y dicen que la causa porque les pusieron nombre
de Panoaya es, que dizque los primeros pobladores que vinieron a poblar a esta
tierra de Mexico, que se llama ahora india occidental, llegaron a aquel puerto con
navios, con que pasaron aquella mar." But the author does not mention the
Toltecas as being those who landed. The statement that the latter tribe settled
at Panuco is first made by Antonio de Herrera, Historia general de los Hechos
de los Castellanos en las Islas y la Tierra firme del Mar Oce"ano, edition of 1730,
vol. ii. dec. iii. lib. ii. cap. xi. p. 62, and again by Fray Juan de Torquemada,
Los veintiun Libros Rituales i Monarchia Indiana, etc. edition of 1723, vol. i.
lib. iii. cap. vii. pp. 254, 255. Both authors allude to the " landing " of foreigners
8 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
of indications which tend to identify the Toltecs with the
Maya. The name given to the place of landing, by the ear-
liest writers who report the tradition, is " Tamoanchan." i
The coast south of the mouth of the Rio Panuco presents,
besides a vigorous growth of vegetation, the pleasant fea-
ture of almost continuous mountain-chains looming up in
the distance. The Sierra de Tantima borders the horizon.
Between it and the sandy shore extends, unseen from ship-
board, the vast lagune of Tamiahua. All this region was for-
merly, and still is, inhabited by the Huaxtecas. The short
time at my disposal for making inquiries in regard to that
tribe did not permit me to obtain results of much value. I
was told in perfect good faith, though perhaps without the
needed basis of knowledge, that they were good Indians,
who had willingly submitted to the changes in their former
organization and customs introduced by the laws of 1857,
abandoning, among other things, the communal tenure of
lands practised until then. I was also informed that the
language was divided into three dialects. 2
The distance from the mouth of the Panuco to the mouth
of the Rio Tuxpan is about 146 kilometres (90 miles Eng-
lish). As usual along this coast, a considerable bar lies at
near Panuco, afterwards called Toltecs, by the natives. Both authors are pos-
terior to Sahagun.
1 Sahagun, Historia general, etc., vol. iii. lib. x. cap. xxix. pp. 139, 140. The
syllable " Tarn " is said to signify place, and to be the equivalent, in the Huax-
teco language, of the Nahuatl or Mexican " tlan," " pan." Buschmann appears to
incline towards identifying it with the Mexican words (Joh. Carl Ed. Buschmann,
Ueber die aztekischen Ortsnamen, 1853, vii. pp. 106-109), thus favoring the infer-
ence that it shows either an original connection between the two tongues, or the
influence of the Mexican upon the Huaxteco. Be that as it may, the word is now
an integral part of the Huaxtecan idiom, and was so three hundred years ago ;
and it is a singular coincidence, at least, to find a local name in a language de-
rived from the Maya so closely connected with a tradition concerning the Toltec
2 This indicates a local division analogous to that of the Mixteco.
A RECONNOISSANCE INTO MEXICO. g
the outlet of the river, offering the usual impediments to
navigation into the port of the little city of Tuxpan, which
stands about 12 kilometres (7 miles English) up the river. Its
population, now estimated at 7,000, is given officially at 5,979
in 1878, while the whole district of Tuxpan is credited with
29,393 inhabitants. 1 On the south bank of the Tuxpan River
extends the district of Papantla, half covered with immense
woods of mahogany cedar. Its population of 2 1,159 souls 2
(of which 14,267 are found in the widely scattered pueblo of
Papantla proper) busies itself with rather primitive agriculture,
of which tobacco, coffee, sugar, maize, and vanilla are some
of the leading products. 3 Maize yields two annual crops, but
in the months of November and December of the year 1880
late and unusually heavy rains so thoroughly devastated the
fields that Indian corn had to be imported from New Orleans.
The little city of Tuxpan enjoys a lively commerce. If the
great obstacle of the bar were removed, even large steamers
might safely anchor in the river ; and in that case the pro-
jected railroad line from Tuxpan to the City of Mexico would
speedily be built, an enterprise threatening to the commer-
cial preponderance of the port of Vera Cruz. 4
The Huaxteco language is spoken to the north of Tuxpan,
in its immediate vicinity. 5 South of it, and as far down as
Vera Cruz, several aboriginal idioms are represented. Along
the coast the Nahuatl, or Mexican proper, now prevails, with
1 Busto, Estadistica de la Repiiblica Mcxicana, i. p. Ixxi.
2 Ibid. p. Ixxii.
3 The vanilla of Papantla is justly famous in Mexico. It grows as a creeper
on Sivietinia mahogani, and also on Anona oblongifolia, but at Papantla princi-
pally on the former.
4 The line from Tuxpan to the City of Mexico is shorter and has an easier
grade than the Vera Cruz Railroad.
5 Orozco y Berra, Geografia, etc., iii. 207. Pimentel, Cuadro, etc., vol. ii.
10 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
patches of the Totonaco interspersed. 1 The slopes of the
high coast-range are mostly settled by Totonacas, but the
Nahuatl Indians also have settlements, and in the north-
west corner there are pueblos in each of which two, some-
times three, linguistical stocks are represented ; among them
the Othomi. Such pueblos were formed by direction of the
missionaries, mostly Augustines in this part of the coun-
try, at the close of the sixteenth and beginning of the
seventeenth century. 2
There are indications of striking changes in the ethnog-
raphy of the region south and southwest of Tuxpan, during
and after the time of the Conquest. Thus the large pueblo
of Papantla is now exclusively Totonaco ; but from a descrip-
tion of the bishopric of Puebla (then including the whole
present State of Vera Cruz), written about 1571 or 1572, it
appears that the Nahuatl language was then spoken there.
Misantla, now exclusively Totonaco, then contained families
speaking Nahuatl. 3 Nauhtla, on the coast, was regarded at
the time of the Conquest as a settlement of Indians speak-
ing the Mexican idiom ; 4 at present it belongs to the To-
1 Orozco y Berra, Geografia, etc., pp. 202-205, gives a catalogue of the pue-
blos of both languages in the State of Vera Cruz.
2 Fray Joan de Grijalva, Cronica de la Orden de N. P. S. Augustin en las pro-
vincias de la Nueva Espana, 1624. Edad I, cap. xviii. p. 32.
3 Description del Obispado de Puebla, hecha por el Chantre Alonso Perez de
Andrada, en Nombre del Cabildo, sede vacante, MS., original belonging to D.
Joaquin Garcia-Icazbalceta, p. 9. On p. 2 it is stated that the bishopric is
vacant through the demise of D. Fernando Villagomez. Bishop Villagomez
died Dec. 3, 1570; and his successor, D. Antonio Ruiz de Morales y Medina,
was installed Nov. I, 1573. Fray Agustin de Vetancurt, Teatro Mexicano, re-
print of 1871, vol. ii. p. 374.
4 Torquemada, Monarchia, etc., lib. iii. cap. x. pp. 261, 262, ascribes the
settlement of the region of Nauhtlan to the Teochichimecas, and intimates that
they may have been Otomites ! The names of the leaders of Nauhtlan whom
Cortes had executed for their attack on the Totonacos and their Spanish allies
are strictly Nahuatl. Cortes, Carta Segunda, in Vedia, i. pp. 26, 27 ; Bernal
Diez, Historia Verdadera, etc., Vedia, ii. cap. xciii. xciv. xcv. pp. 92-93. The
A RECONNOISSANCE INTO MEXICO. \ \
tonacas. 1 The number of the population seems also to
have undergone change. Thus Papantla and its neighboring
pueblo, Tuzapan, contained in 1571-72 "one hundred and
fifty families;" 2 in 1878, as already stated, Papantla alone
figures in the official census with 14,267 inhabitants. Mis-
antla also has considerably increased from the six hundred
families with which it is credited in I57i. 3 On the other
hand, the old pueblo of Cempohual, reported populous in
1519, had dwindled down to "twelve tributary Indians" less
than fifty-five years afterward. 4 These few indications go
toward strengthening a conviction which I reached in other
former speaks of one of them as chief of the place : " senor de aquella ciudad ; "
the latter mentions them as Mexican captains : " y los capitanes mexicanos
respondieron, . . ." p. 94. Andres de Tapia, Relacion hecha sobre la Conquista
de Mexico, in Icazbalceta, Colecc. de Documentos, vol. ii. p. 579, speaks of Na-