Adolf Heil.

The manufacture of rubber goods : a practical handbook for the use of manufacturers, chemists, and others online

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metres long, with a standard diameter of 85 cm. The trolley is in
this case provided with shelves, and is run in and out automatically.
By this means a considerable economy is effected, for in order to



70



RUBBER MANUFACTURE.



move such a trolley some eight to ten men were always required,
in addition to which the uneven, jerky, one-sided pulling often
resulted either in the trolley being run off the rails, or in the rails,
which lie on segments inside the heater, being jolted out of position.
On the other hand, the operation can be carried out mechanically
with great smoothness in from two to three minutes, with the aid of
To ensure an even distribution of steam, at least



a siuo^le man.




Fig. 32.

four inlets should be provided ; the introduction of the steam is
in principle the same as in the other heaters.

In all ordinary heaters, without exception, there is a tendency
to the formation of steam banks; to do away with this, and to
ensure getting steam at a uniform temperature in every part of the
heater, a new apparatus has been constructed (fig. 32). Tliis new
autoclave (Heil's patent) contains a drum, which revolves slowly
backwards and forwards, and on which the goods to be vulcanised
are wrapped. The angle at which the drum is inclined, together
with its backward and forward motion, results in the complete
uniformity of the steam, and prevents the accumulation of wet
steam in the lower part of the heater. All surfaces of the goods



THE VULCANISATION OF RUBBER.



71



are therefore subjected to a uniform vulcanising temperature, and
a uniform combination of sulphur is brought about throughout,
a fact whicli has been established experimentally by determinations
of the coefficient of vulcanisation in the diffierent layers of the
vulcanised o-oods. In connection with the drum-movement is the
innovation of the blow-off cock for condensed water, the circulation
of steam being also regulated by this, and overheating by too




Fig. 33.

sudden an increase in pressure prevented. A complete description
of this apparatus has already been published.^

The Press Shop. — Tliis department is housed in room F (fig. 1),
and separated from the boiler-house by the moulding shop.
Vulcanisation is here carried out in steam -heated presses. Steam
is turned on, and manometers controlled from the second steam pipe
in control-room G, in exactly the same way as described in the case
of the heaters.

The vulcanising press consists of upper and lower hollow plates,
heated by steam and capable of standing pressures up to five atmos-
1 Gummi-Zeitung, 1905, xix. p. 1027.



72 RUBBER MANUFACTURE.

pheres. The plates are traversed by heating channels so arranged
that the condensed water can easily run away, a point of very great
importance, especially in the case of the upper plate. The upper
plate is worked by central screws, by which the plate is raised and



Fig. 84.

lowered. The lower plate is firmly fixed upon the iron base and
is jointed to the top cross-piece, through which the spindle passes,
by means of standards which serve as guides.

Larger presses are constructed on the principle illustrated in
^g. 33. Latterly, presses worked by hydraulic pressure have been
given a preference over others, since more can obviously be
accomplished with them. For an up-to-date factory the following



THE VULCANISATION OF RUBBER.



73



sizes are necessary, in addition to a few small screw-presses: — A
hydraulic press with plates 60 cm. wide for moulded goods; and
for sheet and similar goods, which are pressed on moulding




Fig. 35.



plates, an 80 cm. press, with four to six heating-plates, so that
from three to five vulcanisations can be carried out in it at the
same time ; such presses are shown in figs. 34 and 35. For
larger sheets a press with 120 cm. plates is required. All these
presses are furnished with a single pressure cylinder, and work
at a water pressure of 250 atmospheres or 20 kilograms per



74 RUBBER MANUFACTURE.

sq. cm. For vulcanising press-plates, sieve-plates, etc., presses




Fig. 36.



4 metres long by IJ metre wide, and provided with five pressure
cylinders, are necessary ; a press of this description is shown in




Fig. 37.



fig. 36. A draw-plate for withdrawing the sheet, as supplied with
the presses already described, is, in this case, a prime necessity.



THE VULCANISATION OF RUBBER.



75



Whereas the smaller presses are worked entirely by accumulators,
in the case of the two last mentioned a pump (fig. 38) must be
used to provide the pressure, accumulators being also used, both in
this case and in the case of the presses still to be described, in order
to compensate for any. variation of pressure in the individual
pressure cj^linders, which are all in communication with one
another at the pump. For rubber belting a press is used which




Fig. 38.



measures as much as 7 metres long by 1 metre wide, and which, as
sliown in fig. 39, has attached to it a separate hydraulic stretching
apparatus. For billiard-strip, deckle-straps and similar articles
which are vulcanised in moulds, a press about 2 metres long and
60 cm. wide is used. The two last-mentioned presses have no
draw-plate connected with them ; the belts or the moulds are
introduced inmiediately under the press-plate. In the construction
of liydraulic presses the steam-plates, by which the pressure is
applied to tlie articles, and wliicli must be absolutely smooth and



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Online LibraryAdolf HeilThe manufacture of rubber goods : a practical handbook for the use of manufacturers, chemists, and others → online text (page 7 of 21)