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The Cambridge History
of English Literature

Edltiid by

A. W. "WARD, Litt.D., r.B.A„

Master of PeterHouse


A. P^ "WALLER, M.A., Peterliowae

Royal 8vo. About 600 pages

Vd. I. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of

II. The End of the Middle Ages.
** III. Renascence and Reformation.
•• IV. Prose and Poetry from Sir Tbomas

North to Michael Drayton.
•• V. The Drama to 1642. Part I.
" VI. The Drama to 1642. Part IL
•• VII. Cavalier and Puritan.
" VIIL The Age of Dryden.
** IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and

" X. The Rise of the Novel: Johnson and

his Circle.
" XI. The Earlier Georgian Age.
•• XII. The Nineteenth Century, Part I.
"XIII. The Nineteenth Century, Part II.
" XIV. The Nineteenth Century, Part III.

Send for complete descriptive circular


New "Y"orK London





The Cambridge History


English Literature

Edited by

A. W. Ward, Litt.D., P.B.A,

Master of Peterhouse


A. R. Waller, M.A.


Volume VIII
The Age of Dryden

New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons
Cambridge, England : University Press

Copyright, 1912



Made in the United States of America

TTbe Unfclierboclicr Pveee. "Hew ^orli


IN issuing the present volume of The Cambridge History of
English Literature, we desire to express our special obli-
gation to Mr. Henry B. Wheatley for contributing a Dryden
bibliography, based on his unique collections and researches in
this subject. We have also to thank Mr. A. T. Bartholomew
for bibliographical work in connection with several chapters of
this volume.

A. W. W.
A. R. W.

January, 191 2.




By A. W. Ward, Litt.D., P.B.A., Master of Peterhouse


Dryden and his Age. His Parentage and Education. Heroick Stanzas on
Cromwell. Astraea Redux and other Panegyrics. Annus Mirabilis.
Dryden's Productivity as a Dramatist. Influence of French Tragi-
comedy and Romance. The Wild Gallant and other Comedies: The
Spanish Fryar. The Heroic Couplet in Drama. Dryden and the
Heroic Play: The Conquest of Granada. The Satire of The Rehearsal.
Essay Of Heroick Plays. Aureng-Zebe. Dryden's Adaptation of
Shakespearean Plays and Themes. The Grounds of Criticism in Tra-
gedy. His Later Plays: Don Sebastian and Cleomenes. Dryden's Work
as a Dramatist. Prologues and Epilogues. Dryden Poet Laureate.
The "Rose-alley ambuscade." Political Satire: Absalom and Achito-
phel, Part i; The Medal. Mac Flecknoe. Absalom and Achitophel, Part
11. Didactic Poetry: Religio Laid. Death of Charles H and Accession
of James H: Threnodia Augustalis and Britannia Rediviva. Conversion
to the Church of Rome: The Hind and the Panther. Various Later
Work in Verse and Prose: Miscellanies. Translations: Fables Ancient
and Modern. Preface to the Fables. Odes, Songs and Hymns. Dry-
den's Enemies and Younger Literary Friends. His Great Qualities as
a Writer of Verse and Prose. His Excellence in Various Literary
Species. His Originality that of Treatment. The Eminence of his
Genius ........... I



By William Francis Smith, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College

Ancient and Modern Satire. Influence of Le Roman de la Rose, The Ship of
Fools, Erasmus and Rabelais. Butler's Life before and after the Re-
storation. Butler in the Employ of Sir Samuel Luke and the Earl of
Carbery. Penury of his Later Days. His Learning in Letters and
Law. Imitations of his Prose and Verse: 7'/tePo5</tMmoM5 W^orifej. Con-
tents of The Genuine Remains : Characters. Hudibras and its Models.
Course of Parts i and ii. Difference of Treatment in Part iii. The
Methods in the Composition of the Work. Metre of Hudibras. Main
Purpose of the Satire. Butler's Gifts and Powers .... 65

vi Contents



By C. W. Previte-Orton, M.A., Fellow of St. John's College


Causes of the New Development of Satirical Literature on Political Subjects
in the Period following the Restoration. Denham. Marvell. The
Popish Plot Panic: Oldham. His Satyrs Upon the Jesuits. His Powers
and Influence as a Satirist. Lesser Satires of this and the Following
Period: Poems on Affairs of State. Advices to a Painter. The Ghost
and Last Will Motives. Dialogues. Ballads. Litanies. D'Urfey.
Lilliburlero. Prose Satires: The Rehearsal Transpros'd. Satirical Narra-
tives and Dialogues. Low Literary Quality of these Satires as a Whole 9 1



By Edward Grubb, M.A,

George Fox and the Rise of the Quaker Movement in England. The Pur-
pose of Early Quaker Writings not Literary. George Fox's Journal.
Thomas Ellwood's History of his Life. Other Quaker Journals and
Memoirs. William Penn, and his No Cross No Crown. Isaac and
Mary Penington. James Nayler. Early Attacks upon the Quakers,
and their Replies. Samuel Fisher. Barclay's Apology. More purely
Literary Efforts: Penn's Some Fruits of Solitude. Ellwood's Collection
of Poems on Various Subjects. Mary MoUineux's Fruits of Retirement . 115



By Professor Felix E. Schelling, University of Pennsylvania

Players and Plays after the Closing of the Theatres. Drolls. Relaxation
of the Laws against Dramatic Entertainments towards the Close of
Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate. Sir William D'Avenant's Entertain-
ments : The Siege of Rhodes. Dramatic Companies Formed immediately
before the Restoration. The King's and the Duke of York's Com-
panies "Created" after it. Thomas Killigrew's and Sir WiUiara
D'Avenant's Later Plays. Old Masterpieces Revived. Comedies re-
flecting the Political Reaction: The Rump and Cutter of Coleman Street.
Tatham. John Wilson. Stapylton. The Duke of Newcastle.
Early Spanish Influences in English Drama. Spanish Personages in
Enghsh Plays. The Indebtedness of Beaumont and Fletcher, and of
other Dramatists, before and after the Restoration, to Spanish Novels,
and to Spanish Plays, Examined and Summarised. Influence of French
Literature on the Restoration Drama. Moliere and Restoration
Comedy. Influence of French Opera. Etherege and his Place in the
History of Restoration Drama. Sir Charles Sedley. Lacy. Aphra
Behn. Wycherley. The Plain Dealer ...... 131

Contents vii



By Charles Whibley, Jesus College


Congreve. The Old Bachelor. The Double-Dealer. Love for Love. The
Mourning Bride. The Way of the World. Congreve and the Comedy
of Manners. His Comic Art. His Diction. His Friends and Way of
Life. Vanbrugh's Life and Character. The Relapse. The Provok'd
Wife. The Confederacy. Vanbrugh and Perrault. Earlier Attacks
in this Period on the Stage: Rymer's Short View of Tragedy. Jeremy
Collier's Short View. Its Invective and its Fallacies. Replies to Col-
lier by Vanbrugh, Farquhar, Dryden, D'Urfcy and Dennis. Farquhar
as a Comic Dramatist. Love and a Bottle; The Constant Couple; The Re-
cruiting Officer; the Beaux' Stratagem. Shadwell. D'Urfey. Colley
Gibber's Earlier Plays. His Apology for his Life . . . .166



By A. T. Bartholomew, M. A., Peterhouse, and of
the University Library

Characteristics of Lesser Restoration Tragedy. Public Interest in Acting.
The Operatic Element. The Heroic Play. Fresh Influence on Restora-
tion Tragedy. Translations of Corneille. Influence of Racine.
Revived Influence of Earlier English Work. Otway and his Career as
a Dramatist. The Orphan and Venice Preserved. Their Enduring Popu-
larity. Nathaniel Lee. Characteristics of his Plays. The Rival
Queens. Crowne. Sir Courtly Nice. His Tragedies. Southerne.
The Fatal Marriage and Oroonoko. Settle. Dennis. Banks. Hughes.
Lansdowne. Ravenscroft. Nicholas Rowe as a Link between the
Later Restoration Drama and that of the Augustan Age. The Fair
Penitent ........... 202



By Charles Whibley

The Lives and Writings of the Court Poets as a Protest against the Puritan
Domination. The Circle of Whitehall. The Pranks of the Wits. The
Court Poets as Men of Action: Rochester, Buckhurst and Mulgrave.
The Mark of the Amateur on their Writings. Dryden's Flattery of
them. Rochester's Life and Character. His Quarrel with Mulgrave
and Dryden. Rochester as a Satirist: The Satire against Mankind.
Sir Charles Sedley. His Songs. Buckhurst: To all you Ladies now at
Land. Mulgrave's Essay upon Poetry. Roscommon's Essay on Trans-
lated Verse ........... 224

viii Contents



By George Saintsbury, M.A., F.B.A., LL.D., D.Litt., Pro-
fessor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University
of Edinburgh


The Spenserian Era of English Versification. Loss of Elasticity and Diver-
sity. Variations of the Iambic Line. Insufficient Understanding as to
Equivalence in Feet. Decline of Blank Verse. The Redundant Sylla-
ble and other Means of Varying the Measure. "The Battle of the
Couplets": Waller and Cowley. Miscellaneous Metric: Jonson and
Others. Milton's Metrical Development. The Anapaest as the Chief
Base-foot of Metre. The Octosyllabic Couplet. The "Pindaric" of
Cowley and his Followers. Dryden and the Heroic Couplet. Percep-
tive Prosody : Jonson and Dry den . . . . . . .253



By Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A.

I. Evelyn and Pepys

Diaries of Evelyn and Pepys Published as Written. Narcissus Luttrell's
Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs. Evelyn's and Pepys's Diaries
Compared. Evelyn's Father, Younger Days, Travels and Marriage.
His Later Life and Activities. Evelyn and the Royal Society. His
Love of Planting: Sylva. His Public Services. His Life of Mrs.
Godolphin. Pepys's Early Life and Marriage. Pepys on the Naseby.
His Service in the Navy Office. His Blindness and the Closing of the
Diary. Pepys and the Popish Plot. His Later Years. Character
and Charm of the Diary ........ 274

II. Other Writers of Memoirs and Letters

Anthony Hamilton's Memoires de la Vie du Comte de Gramont. Question of
the trustworthiness of these Memoirs. The writer and his work.
Memoirs of Sir John Reresby 296


By A. W. Ward, Litt.D.

Letters and Memoirs of Sir Richard Bulstrode. Diary of Henry Sidney (Earl
of Romney). Diary of Lady Warwick. Her Occasional Meditations.
Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe. Letters of Rachel Lady Russell. Memoirs
of Queen Mary II ......... . 303

Contents ix



By J. Bass Mullinger, M.A., formerly librarian of St. John's



Distinction between the Cambridge Platonists and the Latitudinarians.
Benjamin Whichcote. His Position as Defined by Himself. His
Aphorisms and Sermons. Whichcote not a Platonist. Henry More.
His Life and Habits. Cudworth and his Treatise concerning Eternal
and Immutable Morality. More's Song oj the Soul. Joseph Beaumont's
Psyche. More's Immortality of the Soul, Grand Mystery of Godliness and
Mystery of Iniquity. His Divine Dialogues. Cudworth's True Intellec-
tual System of the Universe. More and Cudworth Compared. John
Smith's Select Discourses. John Smith and Henry More Contrasted.
Culverwel's Light of Nature. George Rust (Bishop of Dromore).
Glanvill's Lux Orientalis. His Controversy with Henry Stubbs.
Richard Cumberland (Bishop of Peterborough) and other Contributors
to the Latitudinarian Movement . . . . . . .311



I 660- I 700

By the Ven. W. H. Hutton, B.D., Archdeacon of Northampton,
Canon of Peterborough and Fellow of St. John's College,

Old and New Influences on the Style of the English Pulpit in the Period
Following the Restoration. Gradual Transition. Herbert Thorndike,
John Cosin and George Morley. Isaac Barrow: his Sermons and his
Treatise On the Pope's Supremacy. Pearson's Exposition of the Creed.
John Wilkins as a Link with the Later Generation. Robert Leighton
and his Preaching. Burnet as a Theologian. His Exposition of the
Thirty-Nine Articles. His Pastoral Care. Stillingfleet and Patrick.
Fashionable Preachers of the Age. Extempore Preaching begins to be
Popular. Tillotson. South and the Controversial Style. Sherlock.
Samuel Parker's Discourse of Ecclesiastical Polity. Henry Compton's
Episcopalia. George Bull. Sancroft's Fur Praedestinatus. Henry
Wharton. Non-jurors: Ken, Kettlewell, Dodwell and Hickes. Robert
Nelson's Companion for the Festivals atid Fasts. Influence of Foreign,
and especially of French, Culture upon English Divines . . . 335




By F. J. C. Hearnshaw, M.A., LL.D., formerly scholar of
Peterhouse, Professor of Modem History in Armstrong
College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, University of Durham


The Beginnings of English Legal Literature. The Laws of Ethelbert of
Kent and other Early Kings. The Era of the Capitularies. Complica-
tions Introduced by the Norman Conquest. English Common Law
in the Twelfth Century. New Type of Legal Writings: Tractatus de
Legibus et Consuetudinibus R. Angliae, called by the Name of Ranulf de
Glanvil. Bracton's Treatise Bearing the Same Title. Fleta and
Britton. The Year Books and their Value. Fortescue's De Laudibus
Legum Angliae and Littleton's Tenures. Early Printed Law Books.
Law Reports. Equity and Common Law: Bacon andCowell; Coke.
Selden and his Legal Works. English as the Language of the Law.
Sir Matthew Hale. Revival of the Common Law, and of the Use of
Latin and French. Sir William Dugdale and William Prynne. Hobbes
and the Advent of a New Era ....... 354


Selden's Table-Talk
By A. W. Ward, Litt.D.

Predecessors of Selden's Table-Talk. Authenticity of the Book. Scanty
References to Personal Experiences. Chief Political and Religious
Topics. Selden's Wit and Wisdom ...... 367


By W. R. SoRLEY, Litt.D., F.B.A., Fellow of King's College,
Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy

Locke the Most Important Figure in English Philosophy. His Personal
and Literary Life. Controversy with Stillingfleet. The "New Way
of Ideas " Opened by Locke. Plan of ^n Essay concerning Human Un-
derstanding. Locke's Doctrine of Knowledge. Its Nature and Extent.
"The Twilight of ProbabiHty." Two Treatises of Government. Eco-
nomic Writings. Economists Contemporary with Locke: Sir William
Petty. Letters concerning Toleration. Earlier Pleas. Locke's Views
on Church and State. Thoughts concerning Education; Locke's Theory.
His Critics and Followers. Richard Burthogge. John Norris and his
Ideal World 375

Contents xi



By A. E. Shipley, Sc.D., F.R.S., Master of Christ's College


Lateness of the Scientific Reawakening. Outburst of Scientific Enquiry
in the Seventeenth Century and its Causes. The Heritage of Bacon.
Milton and Scientific Enquiry. Lord Herbert of Cherbury. His
Knowledge of Medicine and Allied Subjects. Evelyn and Pepys.
Witches, Astrologers and Alchemists. Intelligence of the Stewarts in
Matters Scientific: Charles II and Prince Rupert. The Marquis of
Worcester. Sir Kenelm Digby. Mathematics: John Wallis and Seth
Ward; Newton. Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood. Other
Great Physiologists and Physicians: Sir Theodore de Mayerne; John
Mayow; Thomas Sydenham; Francis Glisson. Robert Boyle. Origin
and Beginnings of the Royal Society. Contemporary Poets and Scien-
tific Research: Cowley, Donne, Butler. Political Economists of the
Seventeenth Century: Sir William Petty and Locke . . . • 399




By A. A. TiLLEY, M.A., Fellow of King's College

The New Prose and its Causes. Interest in Science and Demand for Clear-
ness of Style. Growing Plainness and Simplicity of Pulpit Oratory.
The Style of Dryden and its Conversational Character. Early Begin-
nings of French Influence on English Literature; its Increase under
Charles I. English Exiles in France: D'Avenant, Cowley and Others.
French Influence through Translations. Heroic Romances. Urqu-
hart's Rabelais; Pascal; Descartes; Corneille, Racine and Molifere.
Influence of French Criticism. Boileau. Chapelain, Le Bossu and
Dacier. Evidence of Dryden, Rapin and Rymer. Saint-Evremond
and the Renewal of the Popularity of Montaigne in England. Francis
Osborne. Cowley's Essays. Sir William Temple, Dorothy Osborne
and Lady Giff'ard. Temple's Letters and Memoirs. His Miscellane-
ous Works: Essays. Influence of Montaigne. Halifax's Miscellanies:
The Character of a Trimmer; A Letter to a Dissenter. Clarendon's
Essays. Dryden's Influence on English Style. The Preface to the
Fables . . . . . . . . . . .421

Bibliographies ........... 447

Table of Principal Dates . . . . . . . . . 543

Index . . . . . . . . . . , . 547




HE Age of Dryden" seems an expression as appropriate
as any description of a literary period by the name of a
single writer can be, and yet, in one sense, it is a mis-
nomer. On the one hand, in the chapter of English literary
history which more or less covers the forty years between the
restoration and the opening of the eighteenth century, not only
is Dryden's the most conspicuous personality, but there are few
literary movements of importance marking the period of which
he did not, as if by right divine, assume the leadership, and
which did not owe to him most of what vitality they proved
to possess. On the other hand, as has been again and again
pointed out, Dryden, of all great English writers, and, more
especially, of all great English poets, was the least original,
the least capable of inspiring his generation with new ideas,
of discovering for it new sources of emotion, even of producing
new artistic forms. Many currents of thought and feeling
suggested to him by his age were supplied by the power of his
genius with an impetus of unprecedented strength; more than
one literary form, offering itself for his use at an inchoate,
or at a relatively advanced, stage of development owed the
recognition which it secured to the resourceful treatment of it
by his master-hand. Whether or not the debt which his extra-
ordinary productivity as a writer owed to the opportunities
given him by his times can be taken into account as against
the transformation of his material by his genius may be re-
garded as a question open to debate. There cannot, however,
be any doubt at all that neither can Dryden's own achieve-
ments be appreciated apart from the influences of his age, nor
is any judgment of the literary produce of that age, as a whole,


2 Dryden

to be formed without an estimate of his contribution to it
being regarded as the dominant factor in the result. Thus, in
an attempt to sketch, once more, the course of his Hterary en-
deavours, it would be futile to detach their succession from the
experiences of his personal life, largely determined, as these
were, by political reaction and revolution, and by other changes
in the condition of the country and in that of its intellectual
centre, the capital.

John Dryden (he wrote his name thus, though, before him,
the spelling was varied both by his kinsmen and by his parents)
was bom 9 August, 1 631, in the parsonage house of Aid winkle
All Saints, near Oundle in Northamptonshire, of which his
maternal grandfather, Henry Pickering, was rector.^ His
parents were of good county descent ; but his father, Erasmus
Dryden, was a younger son with many brothers and sisters, and
his estate at Blakesley, on the other side of the county (near
Canons-Ashby, the family seat), which afterwards descended
to the poet, considerably burdened, was valued at sixty pounds
a year in the money of the time. He appears to have resided
generally at Tichmarsh, the chief seat of his wife's family,
near Oundle. On both the father's and the mother's side, the
future laureate of the Stewarts was connected with the parlia-
mentary side ; his mother's cousin-german, Sir Gilbert Pickering,
was one of the judges of Charles I (though he did not sit on the
final day), and, afterwards, became chamberlain at the pro-
tector Oliver's court and a member of his House of Lords. * After
receiving his early education either at Tichmarsh or (as is the
more usual tradition) at Oundle grammar school, Dryden — at
what precise date is unknown — was admitted as a king's scholar
at Westminster, where he was trained under the redoubtable
Busby. In a note to a translation of the Third Satire of Persius,
published by Dryden in 1693, ^ Dryden states that he remem-
bered translating this satire at Westminster school "for a
Thursday-night's exercise." The direct influence which exer-

' See a valuable article in The Saturday Review, ij April, 1875, entitled " The
Birthplace of Dryden," which, besides summarising what is known as to the locali-
ties of hia birth and childhood, gives an accoimt of most of what remains on re-
cord concerning his kith and kin.

» It would seem to be this Sir Gilbert, who, in The Medal of John Bayes, and
elsewhere, is held up to scorn as a committee-man or sequestrator.

3 The translation of the Fifth Satire is inscribed to Busby.

School and College Years 3

cises of this kind, vigilantly supervised, must have had upon
the formation of his style as a writer of English verse is obvious ;
but, though Dry den siumises that copies of his translations
were preserved by Busby, none is extant, and the sole poetical
relic of his Westminster days is his contribution to Lachrymae
Musarum (1649), in memory of his schoolfellow, Henry Lord
Hastings — a small volume, whose black-bordered title-page her-
alds not less than thirty-three elegiac pieces, by Herrick, Den-
ham, Marvell and others. About Dryden's juvenile elegy, much
that is superfluous has been written ; it was not wonderful that
a schoolboy poet should exaggerate the bad taste into which
the followers of an artificial school of poetry frequently lapsed;*
but the verses also give proof of that rapidity in connecting
thoughts (the very essence of wit) and that felicity in express-
ing them which were among the chief characteristics of the
formed style of Dry den.

In May, 1650, he was admitted as a Westminster scholar
at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he matriculated in the
following July. Of his college career, nothing is known, except
that, quite early in his third year of residence, he underwent a
not very serious disciplinary punishment. ^ He took his B .A. de-
gree in January, 1654, t>ut did not proceed to M.A., which degree
he obtained only in 1668, when it was conferred on him at the
king's request by the archbishop of Canterbury (Sheldon).
It appears, probably on his own authority,^ that he continued
in residence at Cambridge till 1657; but there is no evidence
as to the date when he began his life in London, though he
may be concluded to have done so before the death of the
protector Oliver (September, 1658).

Cambridge would not seem to have fascinated the imagina-
tion, or to have enchained the sympathies, of an alumnus
destined to hold a prominent place in her long list of poets.
In the earUest years of the second half of the century, the

' See, besides the notorious allusions to the small-pox, the concluding apos-
trophe to the young lord's betrothed.

' There is no evidence to support the assertion of Shadwell (in The Medal of
John Bayes) that Dryden, having " traduced a nobleman" and suffered castigation,
narrowly escaped expulsion from his college in consequence.

3 In Notes and Observations on The Empress of Morocco (1674), cited by Malone,
Life of Dryden, p. 27, Dryden is spoken of as "a man of seven years' standing
at Cambridge." He had himself a hand in this pamphlet.

4 Dryden

university had much to suffer from the ascendency of the army,
and may even momentarily have trembled for its existence.
During Oliver's protectorate, however, when the university
was represented in parliament by his son Richard, it began
to revive under a more tolerant regime. Dryden's family
connection was, as has been seen, with the party in power;
nor was his a nature into which the iron of political tyranny
was likely to enter very deeply. But it is quite unnecessary
to seek for explanations of the preference which, a quarter of
a century later, in one of the several prologues^ addressed by
him to the university of Oxford, he avowed for it, as "Athens,"
over his own mother-imiversity , ' * Thebes ' ' — nor need this pre-
ference be taken very seriously. * And, in any case, it is quite
out of keeping with his usual indifference to such attacks to

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