Adrien Jean Quentin Beuchot.

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ISSL] A Mdmw Ch$pd. * 108

Hebrews the history aarrates, Behold the mother of the Lord and
his brethren said to him, John Baptist is baptizing for the remissioa
of sins ; let us go and be baptized bj him. But he said to them.
What have I sinned, that I should go and be baptized bj him?"

Comm, in Isa. XL I : ^* According to the gospel which the Naza-
raeans read^ the fount of every Holy Spirit shall be upon him.
Moreover we find these things written : And it came to pass when
the Lord ascended from the water, the fount of every Holy Spirit
descended and rested upon him and said to him, My Son, in all the
prophets I was expecting thee) that thou shouldst come, and I sliould
rest upon thee. For thou art my rest^ thou art my first bcMrn Son^
who shalt reign foreren"

Comm» in Mich. VXL 6 : '^ In which (gospel aeoordlng to the He*
brews) it m smd in the person of the Sttviovr, My mother, the Holy
Spirit, teob meJatdiy by one of my hairs/?

Comni. in Ephes. Y^ 3 1 ^^ Also in the Hehreip gospel we read, that
^ Lord, speaking to the.disciplesy said,. You nay neveP rc^iee egc«
cept when you see your hvof her is charity*''

Do Vir« lU. c 2 : ''The gospel actfordhig 44 the Hi^brews, afiier
the resurrection of the Saviour, reports: Botdie Lord, when he had
given the linen doth ta a. servant of tfaeptriest^ went to James and
appeared to him* .For James had smom ^hat he would not eat
bread from that hour in which he had drank the -cop of the Lord^
oatil he bad seen him arise from them that sleep. And again, a Kttle
after, The .Lord said, Bring a table and bread. And immediately il
adds, He Dook the bread and blessed and brake and gave to James
the just, and said to him, My brother, eat thy bread, for the Son of
aoan has risen from them that sleep."

Comuv. FeU HL 2 : ^^ And in the same volume (ge<«pel of the He^
btrews), be says. If thy brother sin against thee in word, and make
satisfaction to thee seven times in a day, receive him. Simon, his
disciple, said to him. Seven times in a day ? The Lord answered and
said unto him, Yes« I say unto Uiee, until seventy times seven^! For
even in the prophets, after they are anointed with the Holy Ghost, is
found matter of shi.''

Cumm* in MatiK YL 11 : ^ Li the (Hebrew) gospel^ the man who
had the withered hand, is said tn be * brick^layer {€aemenim%m9\ and
be prayed for hel(>'iQ this manner: I was a briok4ayer, earning my
living by my hands; I pray tbee, O Jesns, that thou wonldat restore
health to me, that I may not basely beg my bread."

£|K 120^ 4id Hedib^ ^ In the (Hebrew) gospel we read^ not that

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104 The Four Chtptlt. [Jajt.

the veil of the temple was rent, but that the lintel of the temple, of
wonderful magnitude, was broken down."

From the above extracts, it is manifest that the Gotpd according
to the Hebrews was vastly superior to the later apociyphal gospek, of
which an abstract has already been given ; and greatly inferior to
the canonical gospels of our New Testament The ground-work of
it would seem to have been the Hebrew gospel of Matthew, in some
places mutilated, and in others enlarged bj augmentations from a
tradition not then remote. There were probably several different
recensions of it ; and it seems to have been substantially the same
with that which was sometimes called the gospel according to the
twelve apostles.

The gospel according to the Egyptians. Epiphanius, in speaking
of the Sabellians, has the following passage (Haer. L. XXIL 2) :
" Their whole error, and the power of their error, they derive from
certain apocryphal books, especially from one called the Egyptian
gospel^ to which some give this name. For in it are contained many
such things, as it were mysteriously in a jumble, from the person of
the Saviour, as that he declared to his disciples that he was the Fa*
ther, and he the Son, and he the Holy Ghost"

Clemens Alex. (Strom. IIL 6. etc p. 445, 52, 58.) : « To Sa-
lome, inquiring how long death should have power, the Lord said.

As long as you women bear children Moreover, she saying, I

have done well in not bearing children, the Lord answered, saying,
Eat every herb, but that which is bitter thou mayest not eat ; by
which words he signifies, that celibacy or marriage is a matter within
our own choice, neither being enforced by any prohibition of the other.
This, I suppose, is contained in the gospel according to the Egyptians,**

Clemens Romanus. In the second epistle, ascribed to this au-
thor (6: 12), there are two quotations from a certain gospel, which,
when compared with what is said of the Egyptian gospel by Clem-
ens AlexandrinuSy learned men have inferred to be from that work.
The first is as follows : <^ For the Lord saith, ye shall be as lambs io
the midst of wolves. Peter answered and said, What if the wolves
shall tear the lambs in pieces ? Jesus said unto Peter, Let not the
lambs, af^er they are dead, be afraid of the wolves. And ye alsoy
fear not them that kill you, and are then able to do nothing to you ;
but fear him who hath power, after that ye are dead, to cast both
soul and body into hell-fire." The aeoond passage is this : " Where-
fore also be saith thus : Keep the flesh pure and the soul unspotted^
that ye may receive eternal life.''

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1S52.] JuiUfCs MBmorabiUa. 10$

The above is nearlj all that remains of the go9pd according to the
EgypHcau ; and it is not absolntelj certain that all even of these pas-
sages are from that work, for Clemens Alexandrinas onlj supposes^
and the source of the quotations of Romanus is wholly conjectural.
So ^ as we are able to judge, this Egyptian gospel was stiQ more
faulty than that of the Hebrews.

Besides these, there are mentioned by ancient writers a gapel of
Peter (Theodoret Haeret Fab. IL 2), and a gotpd of CerirOhus
(Epiphan. XXYTI. 5. X!!CX. 14.) ; but no extracts are given from
them, and from what is said about them, it would seem that the latter
was doeely connected with ^e gospel of the Hebrews, and the for-
mer with that of the Egyptians. According to this, the goepd of
Cerinthus would have some connection with our canonical Matthew,
and the gospel of Peter with our canonical Mark. (Guerike, Einleit
N. T. 198, 199).

JIfemoraldlia of Justin Martyr.

This fa&er, in bis writings, frequently refers to the deeds and
words of Christ, and cites passages finom certain apostolic writings,
which he calls memoroMia or memoirs^ and also gospels. These writ-
ings he affirms were the work of apostles and of the companions of
apostles. Two passages from his second Apology may be sufficient
to illustrate the manner in which he refers to these authorities. Of
fOQ dnoctoXoi if tmg fevofiifoig in avtmp ajtOfinjfwrsvftdtciP a xo-
Ihtoi evayyiha oSzoog ftaQt'dantap, For the apostles, in the memoirs
composed by them, which are called gospels, have thus handed doum, etc
'Elf yoQ toig dTrofirrjfiovsvfiaaif a (p^fu vno tw inoaiohov avrov xai
tiSf ixsiroig ftagaxoliovdt^aavroDf avrretaxd-eu. For in the memoirs
which I say were composed by the <q>osUes or by those who accompanied
them, etc

Some of the passages which Justin quotes, are literal transcripts
from our canonical Matthew ; many are quotations, with slight verbal
differences, from Matthew and Luke ; some combine the sense of
passages found in two or more of the gospels ; and others merely
give the meaning of a text without attempting to give the words.
There are still others which differ very much from our present gos-
pels, and some few, of which no trace can be found in our canon.
Of the two kinds last mentioned we will give a full selection, and
specimens of the others.

By comparing all the quotations, it would seem that Justin used

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106 The Four Cfospek. [Jah.

mainlj oar Matthew, and was quite familiar with Luke ; while he
makes very little direct use of Mark, and still less of John. He seems
also to have had traditionarj reports of some passages in the life of
Christ not contained in our gospels, and access to some writings not
now extant, as perhaps the original Hebrew gospel of Matthew, and
some of the ^^many" referred to bj Luke in the introduction to his
gospeL All this is very easily accounted for by the fact that Justin
was a native and resident of Palestine, where these traditions and tiie
writings from which he draws, originated and were longest preserved ;
while, of the two gospels which he passes over almost without notice,
the one (Mark) was written and published for the use of the Latins,
Uie other (John) was originally designed for the Gre^ of Asia

We begin our extracts with the sentences which di£fer most widdy
firom our canonical gospels.

DiaL c. Tr3rph. : ^ And then the child, having been bom in Bethle-
hem, since Joseph had not in that village a place to lodge, was lodged
in a certain cave near the village. They being there, Mary brought
fbrth the Christ, and laid him in a manger ((pat9tj)y wh^re the Ma^
coming fhmi Arabia, found him."

^ Then Jesus came to thf river Jordan, where John was baptizing^
and when he went down to the water, a fire was kindled in the Jordan ;
and while he was ascending from the water, his apostles write, the
Holy Ghost like a dove fiew upon him .... and at the same time
a voice came out of the heavens, Thau art my Son, Itki$ day ham
hegimm thee.**

(Jesus) ^ being among men, did carpenter's work, making ploughs,
aad yokes, by these things even teaching the symbols of righteous-
ness and an industrious life."

^ And they, seeing these things take place, said it was a magical
fantasy, for they dared to call him a magician and a deceiver of the

'^ Christ said, In what things I apprehend you, in those als^ I shall
judge you."

The matters in the above statements, to which there is nothing
corresponding in our canonical gospels, are evidently traditionary no-
, tices ; and some of them very closely resemble what the fathers quote
fix>m the gospel according to the Hebrews.

We proceed to give extracts, of which the sense is found in the
canonical gospels, though not always in one passage nor in the same

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1853i] JuHin's Memorabaia. 107

ApoL n. : "Be not anxious as to what ye shall cat, or li^herewilh
je shall be clothed. Are je not better than birds and beasts ? yet
God feedeth them. Be not anxious, then, as to what ye shall eat or
wherewith ye shall be dotbed ; for your heavenly Father knoweth
diat ye have need of these things ; but seek ye the kingdom of heaven,
9od all these things shall be added unto you ; for where the treasure
is, there is also the mind of the man."

^Ifony will say to me, Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and drank
iort^ name, and wrought miracles? and then I will say to them,
Depart £rom me y« workers of iniquity. There shall be weeping
and gnashing of leelh, when the righteous shall shine like the sun,
and the wicked shall be seat into eternal fire. For many sfaaU come
in my name, being clothed outwardly with the skins of sheep, but in«
wmrdiy ajre.aravening wokes» By their works ye shall know them.
Every tree not bearing good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the

" Be not afraid of those who destroy you, and after that are not
aUe ta do any^ing; but fear him who after death, is able to cast
both soul aad body into helL''

These extracts all have the appearanee of being quoted from mem/*
oiy oat of difiereat parts of the canonical Matthew and Luke, without
reference to the particular place, or any attempt at verbal accuracy*

ApoL IL] ^Whosoever it angry, shall be obnoxious to the fire."

^ For whosoever beareth me and doelh what I say, heareth him
that sent ue^''

•* Woe to you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites ; for ye tythe sea-
BODiDg and rue ; but consider not the love of God and the judgment'*

^Many (Use Christo and fiUse apostles shall arise, and shall lead
astray many of the faithful."

** For Christ also said, Except ye be bom again, ye cannot enter
into the kingdom of heaven. But it is plain to all, that it is impossi-
Ue for those who have once been bom, to enter again into the womb
of those that bare them."

DiaL c Tr3rph. : ^ A certjun one saying to him Good Master, he
answered. Why callest thou me good ? theire is one good, my Father
who is in heaven."

These are the quotations by Justin which differ most widely from
the text of our canon. He quotes very often, generally withont any
▼anation in sense, and frequently with literal exactness. Very many
Tenes of the New Testament are found complete in his writings*
Jt is evident, on comparison of the whole^ that his memorabilia or

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106 The Fowr Gotpdi. [Jait.

memoirs were the flame goepels which we now have, with perhaps
the addition of a Hebrew Matthew ; and when he gives what is not
in our gospels, he copies from the traditions of his own times, either
oral or written, oi* both.

Diatessaron of Tatian.

Tatian is described by Ensebius (Hist Ecc. IV. 29) as once a
hearer of Justin Martyr, in good repute among Christians ; but after
the death of Justin, he became an ascetic Encratite, abstaining from
f esh and wine, and denying the lawfulness of marriage. He wrote
against the gentiles a book which Eusebius commends, the object of
which was to prove the superior antiquity of Moses and the prophets
to the sages of Greece and Rome. He also wrote the DiaUssaron
(Pw, TMnaQODP), an abridgment and harmony of the four gospels ; and
of this Eusebius speaks disparagingly.

Theodoret (Haer. Fab. L 20) informs us that Tatian cut off the
genealogies of Jesus and the account of his birth ; and Bar-8alibi, an
oriental writer (Asseman. BibL Or. L 57), says his Diatessaron be-
gan with the first words of John's gospel, *Ep oi^xv V^ ^ >t<>/«^.

Epiphanius (Haer. XLVL 1.) says, that some cdled his ti dia
tMnaQtop eiayyikMP the gospel according to the Hebrews.

This, I believe, is all the reliable information we have respecting
this work of Tatian, which some modem critics, as Eichhom and
Schmidt, would have to be a biogn^hy of Jesus, independent of our
canon. There is not the least evidence of any such thing, but of the
exact reverse. The most probable supposition is, that it was a hai>
mony of our four canonical go^>els, somewhat mutilated and modified
to suit his Encratite views, and based mainly on the Hebrew Mat-
thew ; as Tatian, it seems, was taught Christianity in Palestine, and
by Justin Martyr. In any event, certainly, nothing can be made oat
of it to the disparagement of our canonical gospels.

Qospel of Marcion,

Marcion, an anti-Judaizing Gnostic, according to the uncontradict-
ed testimony of antiquity, published for his followers a gospel, which
was simply the gospel of Luke, mutilated and changed to suit his
own views. This is the testimony of both TertuUian and Epiphanius
(adv. Marc IV. 2, 6. Haer. XLIL 11.). Some of the important
parts omitted are Cap. L 11. and III. 1—9. 29^ - d5. XV. 11 - 82.

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1852.] Mlmi4mU OatpeL 109

XIX. 29—46. XX. 9— Id, d7, 88, XXIL 85-^, 42—44. Goe-
rik<s Einleit. N. T. 906.

The beginntng of Mftfewn's gospel, aecording to the edition of
Hahn, is as follows : ^ In the fifleenth year of the reign of Tiberius
Caesar, God came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and was
teaching on the Sabbath days. And they were astonished at his
doctrine, for his word was with power. And there was in the syna-
gogue a man, haying a spirit of an unclean doTil, and he cried out
with a loud Toice, saying :" and so on, word for word, according to
Luke 3: 1. 4: 31 — 33, etc In accordance with the above represen-
tation of the first appearance of Christ in Galilee, an ancient writer
informs us that ^ the Marcionites frequently afiirm, that the good
Gtod suddenly appeared and came down immediate^ from heaven
iBto the synagogue." (PBeudo«>Orig. Dial p. 823. Thilo, Codex. Apoc
N. T. L 403.)

The extract given above may be considered a faip spedmen of the
book, and of the manner in which it compares, with the canooical Luke.
It is perfectly plain from the teitin0»y<of the aacieBta, and from an iQ-
-specdon of the work itself, that it is ib ao sense a rival of our canon-
ical gospels, nor derived from any souiroea independent of them.

0£ the other early goapefe, sometimes iJhided 4a,: that of Bartholo-
mew, according to the testuncmy. <if .^usebMB (Hi^^, £ea Y. 10^)
and Jerome <I>e Vir* JU. ^ 3Cu)>.tira$i nothing /else than the Hebrew
gospel of Miitthew. Of those ascribed to Matthias and Thomas, no
aathenfic teaqeijfemaina; md^ i^^eos .not the. sbsdow of. evidence
that eithenpC .those aposUea ei^ar wvote a gosfNBl. Thoee asaihed to
ApeUes.and Basilide^ W/ai^ iM4hiiig.ta«i|e thai* extracts from the <»•
B o n i gat gmp^ imripusly mutilated a«d intor{N»]Aled« None of these,
cettaioly^ are fitito hoId.4way rivAlshif^ with i^r.foitf which. are con-
tained ia the Jfew Te^tao^ent.

Aj^diia has been pooli^ In the apocryphal literature, of the Kew
Testament; several of the apocryphal gospels have been preserved
to us through the Arabic language ; and Mohammed was much in-
debted to this source for his materials in the construction of the Ko-
ran. Chapters IIL and XIX. of that strange book are well worthy
(he perusal of ev^ery dhristian, (ot they contain a minute account of
the fa m ili e s of Chjrist and Joh% and all the wondecful circumstances
sucking their birth,, in the true Arabic feshion.

In drawing up the precediag account of the gospel fragments of
tfa« eariy age, we hare been largely indebted to De Wette*s learned
Vol. IX. No. 33. 10

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110 £oman OathoUe Mmcns in Ckngo. [Jai/«

and vigorous Introductioii to the New TestMnent The Crermaa
unbelief cannot now be suoeeasfully «iieoiuitered without the help of
the German learning. The antidote is soaroely to be found except
where the poiaon growB. The climes wiuch jield the nest nozioui
plants, are the very climes which prodoce the .most eiactive medi«
cines, the sweetest fruits, the most luxudous Tegetatiott. *

[To be concluded.]



By Rev. John Leighton Wilson, Missionary- in Western Africa.

Ko part of Western Africa is so well known to history as the
kingdom of Congo. For this distinction, however, it is not so modi
indebted to an j importance which it ever possessed itself, as to other
causes of an Incidental nature. It borders upon, and has given its
name to, one of the finest rivers on the continent of Africa, and is
therefore somewhat known merely from it? geographical position.
And the circumstance that has contributed to its notoriety, but not to
its honor as a nation, is the fact, that from the earliest period of its
discovery by the Portuguese Up to the present moment, it has always
borne the lead in the foreign slave trade, and in all probalnlity, has
furnished & lai*ger number of victims for the maricets of the new world
than any other region of Africa whatever. Congoe or their descend*
ants may still be identified in many parts of the United States,
throughout the West India islands, and in large numbers in Brazil,
where they have not yet laid aside their vernacular tongue.

But the circumstance which, above all others, has contributed to
give it interest in the eyes of the dvilized worid, is the fact that it
has been the stage upon which has been achieved one of the most
successful experiments ever made by the church of Borne, to redaiai
a pagan people from idolatry. For more than two centuries, the
kingdom of Congo, according to the showing of the missionaries them*

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1852.] IXicoverp tmd SituaH&n of Congo. Ill

sehresy was as ccmpletdij under the inflaeiice of Rome, as any sist^
kingdcHn in Eorope ; so that if tiie inhabitants of that country are not
BOW, in pomt of civilisation and Christianity, what Rome would have
them to be, or all that a pagan people are ci^[>able of being made
under her training, the ^ftult lies at her own dobr. In relation to the
missions whidi she planted about the same time in India, China and
other parts of the world, it has been alleged with some degree of
justice, that her designs were thwarted in consequence of political
changes in Europe, whidi placed protestant nations in the ascendant,
and gave them a preponderant influence in those countries where her
missions had been established. With no less justice it has b^en
urged, that the £Eulure of her efforts among the Indian tribes, both of
North asd South America, ought to be ascribed to the fact that these
tribes have been overshadowed and borne down by the presence of
more powerful races, without allowing sufficient Ume for the full de-
velopment of her peculiar principles. But whether these things can
be regarded as satisfactory exphmations of the causes of failure in
other parts of the world or not, noUiing of the kind can be urged in
relation to her nussions in Congo. Here she has always had the
field to herself; and for more than two centuries, enjoyed facUities
and advantages for propagating her religioli among this pe<^le, which
she can scarcely ever expect to have again in any future efforts of
the kind thai she may make.

It is our intention in the present article to examine tiie dharacter
and resoUs of this mission. But in <M*der to render our views intel^
Ugible, we must give a hasty sketch of the civil as well as the
ffcHgioas history of the country, before entering upon the proposed

The kingdom of Congo, as also the great river of the same name,
was disoovo^d by the Portuguese about the year 1485.^ It was not
a new or isolated discovery, but an extension of those they had made
aome years previously higher up the coast At the time, however,
it was regarded as immensely valuable, and it awakened an interest
in Portugal, in behalf of this people and country, that has not entirely
subsided af^ the li^se of more than three centuries.

The kingdom of Congo lies entirely on the south side of the river,
whi^ forms its northern boundary ; while on the south it is bounded
by the Portuguese province of Angola, on the west by the Atlantic,
and on the east by ^e mountains of Matamba, which separate it from

^ By the nativea of the country the riyer is called the Zairey a name that is
adopted also by most modern geographers.

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112 Soman (htMk Mi$titm$ in Congo. [Jav*

the coantiy of die SB^age and warlike G^a^^is. It is of an oUoag
figure, extending along the sea-coast about 250 nules and interior-
wards about 850. At the time of its discoyeiy, or very soon after-
wards, it Was divided into six proyinoes, vie So^o, Bamba, Pemba,
Batta, Pango and Snndi, to the chiefs of which the Portuguese gave
the names of duke% eonnte and marqneses^ which thej ever after re-
tained. Of these proYinces, Sogno and Bamba were the largest and
altogeUier the most important. Bamba was said to have been about
as large as Sieilj or Naples, and bordered on the province of Angola.
Sogno was stiU larger, and not onlj formed the frontier of the whofe
kingdom, but commanded the entrance of the river, and therefore
acquired importance proportioned to the amount of commerce carried
on with the civiliced workL San Salvadoi^ the capital and metropc^
of the whole kingdom, was sitnated in the provinoe of P^nba, about
50 Italian mUes south-east of the mouth of the Coi^o, and about
140 north-east of Loando St. Paul, the capital <tf Angola. It was
situated upon the summit of a high mountain, and net only enjoyed
a magnificent prospect of the surrounding countryi but was reputed
healthful even for Europeans* It was net only the residence of the
king, but was the head quarters of the missionaries, as also for a large
number of Portuguese merchants, who resorted thither on account of
the facilities it ofiered for trade. At the time of its greatest pros-
perity, which was probably the early part of the seventeenth century,
it is said to have contained about 40,000 inhabitants. The palace
was a large wooden building, surrounded in part by a stone wall, and
was constructed no doubt under the direction of the Portuguese resi-
dents, and probably at the expense of the king of Portugal. For
many years, a bishop and his chapter, a college of Jesuits and a mo-
nastery of Capuchins, were supported in San Salvador at the expense
of the Portuguese government. Besides a cathedral of large dimen-
sions, there were ten smaller churches, to which the ordinary names

Online LibraryAdrien Jean Quentin BeuchotThe Bibliotheca sacra and American biblical repository → online text (page 13 of 98)