Agassiz Association. Wilson Ornithological Chapter.

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Mergansers, Lesser Scaups, Golden-eye and Ruddy Ducks,
also Gulls and Terns. The most important record for this
lake was a male and female Surf Scoter that remained from
April 21st to April 24th, 1911.

In 1907, Lake Glacier, at the lower end of the park was
fiUed with water, with an area of about 43 acres. This lake
is wide enough so that any species of water bird is liable to
stop in passing. Within a year or two of the formation of
this lake, the water birds almost deserted Lake Cohasset, and
my records show that at some time during the past five years,
nearly every species of water bird to be seen in this locality
has visited this lake, including Grebes, Gulls, Terns, Ducks
and Coots. It was on this lake — October 28th, 1913, that I
established the remarkable record for Ohio of the Western
Grebe. December, 1913, a Loon, Two-Hooded Mergansers,
and a Black Duck remained in a small area of open water
on Lake Glacier until a day or two after Christmas — really
staying until the ice closed in and forced them to leave.
White-winged Crossbills, March 3rd, 1907; Crossbills, March
3rd, 1909, and Pine Siskins at different times are among the
rare winter visitors that have visited "SUM Creek Park.

22 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

Lake Hamilton in tlie Yellow Creek Valley was filled in
1905 with an area of about 100 acres. This larger reservoir
greatly increased the numbers of water birds that stopped
over in this locality, and some years there have been thou-
sands of ducks on this body of water for one or two days at
a time. My first and only record for the Black-crowned
Night Heron was along the shore of this lake April 21st, 1911.

In 1910, Pine Lake, with an area of 400 acres, near the
head waters of Yellow Creek and about 12 miles south of
Youngstown, began to fill with water, and during the spring
migration of 1911 great numbers of water birds stopped over
for days and weeks at a time. This was probably on account
of the decaying vegetation in the water, which furnished
unusual feeding conditions. Since this larger reservoir was
filled the water birds have not been as abundant at the other
reservoirs or visited them as frequently. I am satisfied that
during the year 1913 I observed more water birds and shore
birds about Pine Lake as to numbers than during all other
years of observation in the Youngstown district put together.
My first record for the Canvas-back, April 9th, 1913, and a
few later dates, was on this lake. On April 15th, 1913, more
than 100 Horned Grebes were on the lake at one time. Octo-
ber 3]st, 1913, while standing on the east shore of Pine Lake
with i\Ir. John P. Young, about 200 Canada Geese and a
flock of 13 Blue Geese circled over the lake for a time, and
then continued their southward journey. This is my first
and only record for the Blue Goose. Previous to 1913 I had
not recorded the Wood Duck, except April 2ud, 1911, when
a male visited IMill Creek Park. However, during the fall
of 1913 I listed three Wood Ducks — September 12th, and
about 30 September 14th at Pine Lake. Some of these, or
others, remained at this lake until September 28th. During
the season of 1913 I added to my list quite a number of species
of shore birds for this locality around the shores of Pine
Lake: Golden Plover, October 23rd; Semi-palmated Plover,
May 9th ; Baird Sandpiper, May 10th ; Red-backed Sandpiper,
October 23rd ; Semi-palmated Sandpiper, May 10th ; Sander-
ling, September 14th. While these were my first records for

The Wilson Ornithological Club 23

these species in this locality, all the other and more common
shore birds were quite abundant during the spring and fall
migration about the shores of this lake. The Pipit and
Savannah Sparrow were frequently seen during the summer
of 1913.

As near as I can estimate from my records there are over 60
species of birds that have been added to my list in this locality
since the opening of the park and the building of these

It will perhaps emphasize the opportunity for bird observa-
tion in the vicinity of Youngstown to refer to all-day lists
last ]May, when Prof. Lynds Jones was in the field with me:
May 9th, 1913, 116 species; May 10th, 1913, 113 species,
nearly all of which were in the park or about the reservoirs.
For the year 1913 we listed 196 different species of birds in
the vicinity of Youngstown. Previous to the building of these
reservoirs an all-day list of 75 species was considered very
good, and a yearly list of 130 species, including residents and
migrants, was about the limit.

With such favorable conditions for bird study; the people
of Youngstown and vicinity have become quite generally
intereste# in the birds. At the present time we have a num-
ber of men and women who are reliable in observation and
identification, and a great many with a good general knowl-
edge of the birds.



The actual founding of the organization out of which this
Club grew occurred on December 3, 1888, when President
Harlan H. Ballard, of the Agassiz Association, issued a
charter to the Corresponding Wilson Ornithological Chapter
of the Agassiz Association. The movement was inaugurated
by Mr. J. B. Richards, of Fall River, IMass., who was elected

24 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

its first President, with the writer as Secretary. It is pretty
clear that this Chapter grew directly out of the Young
Ornithologists' Association, which was organized some years
earlier by Mr. L. 0. Pindar, of Hickman, Ky., in an informal
way, and became a formal organization on May 29, 1886, by
the adoption of a constitution.

Of the 36 members on the original roll of the Wilson
Ornithological Chapter of the Agassiz Association but four
are on our present roll. They are : Frank L. Burns, Ber-
wyn. Pa. ; John H. Sage, Portland, Conn. ; R. M. Strong,
University of Chicago, and Lynds Jones, Oberlin, Ohio. Mr.
Burns has held all of the offices of the organization, includ-
ing the editorship of its official organ for the year 1901, and
has written the most notable papers which the Club has pub-
lished. Mr. Sage has long been a member of the Executive
Council. Dr. Strong has also occupied every office and in
addition handled the business end of the official organ in
1892, when the Wilson Quarterly succeeded the Semi-Annual
as our official organ. The writer has tried to do his part in
keeping the movement going.

Perhaps the greatest interest clusters around the various
publications which have served as the official organ of the
organization, but mention should be made of the change in
the name which resulted in casting loose from the parent
Agassiz Association, late in 1902, and reorganizing under a
new constitution and adopting the present name. The first
organization had been avowedly for the purpose of bringing
together, in a mutual sort of way, the yoUnger ornithologists
of this country, but with the passage of time so many grew
to man's estate that the inevitable must happen, so the apron
strings were cut. To those who have followed the career of
the Club it will seem clear that this cutting loose was neces-
sary for the further growth of the cause which the organiza-
tion represented.

The first official organ of the then Agassiz Chapter was the
Curlew, a twelve-page 3x5 printed page monthly published
by 0. P. Hauger, Orleans, Ind. This little paper enlarged
the size of page to 4x6i/2 with the sixth number, issued the

The Wilson Ornithological Club 25

seventh and then suspended, in April, 1889. Beginning with
January, 1890, the Ornithologists and Oologists' Semi-
annual, published by W. H. Foote, Pittsfield, Mass., became
the ofSeial organ until its suspension with the first number of
the third volume, April, 1891. Beginning with the fourth
number of the first volume of the Taxidermist, edited by
E. W. Martin and managed by C. F. Mignin, both of Akron,
Ohio, space was used until its suspension with the May num-
ber, 1892. Beginning with April, 1892, Dr. Strong undertook
the task of publishing The Wilson Quarterly, which was the
successor of the Ornithologists and Oologists Semi-annual.
After publishing the July number the funds available were
exhausted, and financial support was lacking, so suspen-
sion became necessary. In January, 1893, a much smaller
publication, known as ''The Journal," was issued, under the
same management, the writer remaining the editor, and after
two numbers it also suspended because of lack of funds. This
ended, for the time being, the efforts of the organization to
publish its own official organ. Lack of support is the proper

President Ballard furnished space in the Popular Science
News for ^lay, 1893, for a report of the Owls, which was com-
piled by the writer. Following this report and the suspension
of "The Journal" communication between the members was
maintained by means of mimeographed sheets, done on the
writer's typewriter and the mimeograph of the Oberlin
Department of Zoology.

Beginning with February, 1894, the present series of Bul-
letins was begun by the then Secretary, William B. Caulk.
These were post card size, and the three which were issued
bear the dates of February, May and July, 1894. To supple-
ment these several printed postal cards were sent out.

Two reports had been prepared and it was thought best to
publish them as a fitting end to the organization. The two
were the "Warbler Report," issued as Bulletin No. 4, Janu-
ary 15, 1895, by the writer, and "The American Crow," as
Bulletin No. 5, by Frank L. Burns. These were mostly
financed by the writers of the reports. Instead of killing the

26 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

organization, as we expected, these reports seemed to infuse
it with such life that the Avriter of this sketch was encouraged
to plan for the publication of a modest official organ to be
known as The Wilson Bulletin, with a bi-monthly appear-
ance. AcCordingl}^ the publication was begun in January,
1896, as a twelve-page magazine with a printed page of
5xdy2, brevier type. This publication continued through
1899, with regularly recurring deficits which the editor met
for the good of the cause, with some occasional assistance
from ]\Ir. Burns and others.

During the several years preceding 1900 Mr. Burns had
been working on an exhaustive study of the Flicker, and the
editor upon a study of the songs of the warblers. Both of
these papers were ready for print by the beginning of 1900,
and plans were made for putting them into print. The
deficits were becoming so onerous that it was decided to issue
these two reports as a grand finale and disband the organiza-
tion. But history repeated itself and it was found that a
continuance of the publication was demanded by the member-
ship. The editor was not able to spare the time necessary
for the preparation of a bi-monthly, so it was decided to
increase the size of the printed page and increase the num-
ber of pages in order to make a quarterly magazine of rea-
sonable size. Volume 12, 1900, thus became the first of the
enlarged volumes, as at present.

An unusual stress of work during 1901 precluded the possi-
bility of the present writer carrying the Bulletin during that
year, so Mr. Frank L. Burns, of Berwyn, Penn., edited and
published that volume. Beginning with the year 1902 the
writer has both edited and published the Bulletin. It has
been too hard a task. For the lifting of the burden of pub-
lishing fro]n his shoulders he is indeed grateful, and pre-
dicts a future full of great achievements for the Club which
the change of policy will make certain. The help which has
been given, both financial and of other but not less real sorts,
he is certain not to forget.

The thought that inspired the original founders of the
organization had its roots in mutual helpfulness among the

Handbuch der Systematischen Ornithologie 27

younger ornithologists. Regular gatherings were assumed
to be impossible, hence the expedient of cooperation through
correspondence was hit upon as the instrument to bring
about the results aimed at. That good has resulted from this
necessarily rather loose organization cannot be denied, as
witness the several papers of no mean value which were based
upon this idea of cooperation by correspondence.

The time came when a change was demanded, and it was
made. Now the time has come when another more profound
change is demanded, and it has been made. That it will result
in a decided forward movement those who have lived the life
of the Club are confident.



(Read at the meeting of the Wilson Ornithological Club, at Chicago,
February 6, 1914.)

The first volume of this work contains one map, 185 cuts
and 529 pages.* The writing of this phenomenal work was
caused, according to the author's own words, by the fact that
in spite of the richness of German ornithological literature
there was no German "Handbuch" or Manual of Systematic
Ornithology in existence that took into consideration all the
existing forms of birds. To supply this obvious need Dr.
Anton Reichenow has presented us with a splendid work, that
gives us in terse language as complete a ^Manual as seems
necessary for placing a bird in a system of classification and
in its proper relation to other forms. It is limited in its
scope, however, as to subspecies and closely related species.
Still all European birds, all the birds of the German colonies

* The second to be published in the summer of 1914.

28 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

and all of the more important species are given. The paper
on which it is printed is good and the binding, as in all
European works, perfect, in great contrast to the majority
of American works, with their absolutely miserable binding.
The type is clear and errors are not to be found, no index of
errata being necessary.

The general notes occupy 66 pages, with an extra page of
references to works on systematic ornithology and current
literature, among which the Auk and Condor of American
journals are mentioned. This chapter contains information
on the skeleton, muscles, brain, senses, digestive apparatus,
respiratory and vocal organs, vascular system, genital organs,
eggs, time of incubation, feathers, colors, moult, uropygial
glands, bill, feet, caruncles and phosphorescent tracts, flight,
ability to swim, voice, mating, nesting, care for young, nutri-
tion, propagation of plants by birds, intellectual qualities,
bastardy, mimicry, age, numbers of species, faunas and geo-
graphical distribution, migration, height of same, velocity of
flight, origin, genealogy, system of classification, nomencla-
ture, abbreviation of authors' names, terminology given in
German, Latin, English, French and Italian, and instruction
as to measurements.

In spite of its brevity this chapter contains for instance
splendid explanations of terms as dromaeognathous, desmog-
nathous, schizognathous, aegithognathous, schizorhine, holo-
rhine, diastataxism and eutaxism, so that in short terms we
have here that for which otherwise an extensive library is
needed. Feather change without moult or aptosochromatism
is disposed of with the statement that a feather once com-
pleted is apparently no longer in any connection with the
circulation of the blood. However, such a change without
moult seems to take place in the appearance of the salmon
color on the lower side of Mergus merganser and americanus,
and on the head, back and lower neck of Bubulcus ibis in the

Special attention is paid to the forms of feet found in
birds, and later in the explanation of the system of classifica-
tion this becomes of the utmost importance.

Handbuch der Systematischen Ornithologie 29

The intellectual or psychic qualities of the birds are neither
anthropomorphised nor considered to be merely reflexive.
The brain activity of birds is stated not to differ from human
thinking in quality but only in quantity. Attention is called
to the fact that the young bird will build its nest as carefully
as the old one, but on the other hand, the young bird learns
to know danger and perfects his song by imitating older ones.
Wc incline to the opinion that of the four essential qualities
of human brain activity, i. e., conception, memory, perception
and language, birds certainly have a conception of things and
memory, and this explains the imitative ability, but that the
bird lacks perception and language. At times it seems as if
birds do have a perception of things, e. g., the Crow, but upon
closer investigation we will find in the majority of cases it
is only a matter of conception and memory.

The Faunas (10 or 11 in number) as given are:

1. A North Pole Fauna. Characteristic forms are the
Alcidae, Colymbidae, Stercorariidae, the genera Rissa, Xema,
Pagophila and Rodostethia ; some species of Ducks and
Tringidae, Lagopus, Falco, Nyctea and Passerina.

2. The South Pole Region. Characteristic forms : Sphenis-
cidae, Procellariidae, a few Terns, Ducks, the Sheathbills
(Chionidae) and but one land bird, Anthus antarcticus.

8. The Palaearctic Region, with no peculiarly characteristic

4. The African Region, south of the 20th parallel north lat-
itude. Characteristic forms : Families Scopidae, Balaenicipi-
dae, Musophagidae, Coliidae and Struthionidae. This region is
also the center of abundance of many other forms, as the
Larks, Bustards, Weaverbirds, Vultures and others.

5. The Madagascar Region, characterized by the Mesitidae
and many peculiar genera of Parrots, Cuckoos and Oscines.

6. The Indian Region, characterized by the Pheasants, Pea-
fowls, Argus Pheasants, certain Parrots, the Eurylamidae,
Chloropsidae, Perirocotidae and Dicaeidae.

7. Australian Region. Characteristic forms are the Dromae-
idae, Casuariidae and Paradiseidae.

30 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

8. New Zealand Region, characterized by the Apterygidae,
Nestoridae and Stringopidae, several Ducks, Rails, Plovers,
Hawks and others.

9. Nearctic Region, North America from the limit of tree
growth in the north to northern JNIexieo, with the exception of
the extreme southern part of Florida. No peculiar forms.

10. Neotropical Region, the remainder of the Western
Hemisphere, is by far the richest in bird life and bird forms
and also in peculiar families : Rheidae, Palamedeidae, Eury-
pygidae, Aramidae, Thinocoridae, Tinamidae, Opisthocomidae,
Cracidae, Rhamphastidae, Bucconidae, Galbulidae, Momoti-
dae, Cotingidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Pteropto-
chidae, Dacuididae. Also as having the center of abundance
there : Conuridae, Trochilidae Tyrannidae, Icteridae, Tana-

11. Birds of the Ocean.

The migration of birds is then spoken of and no attention
whatever paid to the fallacies of a Gatke in his "Birds of
Heligoland," and the migration routes in general are given.
As to the origin of bird migration Weissmann's theory (1878)
is considered the most plausible one, namely, the emigration
of birds after the glacial period from the tropics during the
warmer season of the year and the return at the approach
of cold weather along the same routes, which in time became
an established habit through natural selection among those
who possessed the inherited custom.

We beg to differ with the learned author. We think that
Mr. Frank ^I. Chapman has so far given the best reason for
the migration of birds. "Auk," XI, 1894, pp. 12-17, shows
that the causes of bird migration are internal and not external,
that many animals have an instinctive desire for seclusion
during the season of reproduction, and that in the case of
Sea-birds, for instance, dissection will show an enlargement
of the sexual organs and that it is this physiological change
which warns the birds that the season of reproduction is at
hand. "The object is the same wdth the Warbler, as well as
with the Sea-birds. Dr. Allen later on calls attention to the
fact, the great fundamental fact, that the life of animals,

Handbuch der Systematischen Ornithologie 31

and especially of migratory animals, is made up of annual
cycles, as is the life of plants, which have their fixed and
determinate seasons for flowering and fruiting. This is the
key to the impulse of the spring migration, of which the fall
migration is but the necessary complement, inasmuch as in
most instances the winter conditions of the breeding grounds
of most species are prohibitive of their continued residence
therein throughout the year. " {" Auk, ' ' XXV, 1908, pp. 332-
333.) These facts and conclusions are so correct and final
that no other theory is necessary. As the ' ' Auk ' ' is numbered
among the journals used by Dr. Reichenow, we fail to under-
stand why he overlooked these investigations of ]Mr. Chapman.
In fact, I do not believe that he overlooked them, but it seems
impossible to convince any of the European savants that any-
thing good can come out of America. It is high time that a
good many of them should have their eyes opened to the fact
that the "uneducated Americans" are doing a goodly piece of
the world's scientific work, but from personal experience I can
say that they die hard. Several pages are devoted to the
fossil birds and the classification of birds according to Fiir-
bringer is quoted in full. The writer then proceeds to give
his own system. He says that a system based upon the inter-
nal organs has a high value, but that the internal organs are
just as much subject to changes as the external parts through
the conditions of living, food and motion. The author says
that such genealogical rows as Fiirbringer's have a high
value to give further investigations the right direction, but
can not ser\e as systems which have the practical value to
give a clear perspective of the masses of forms so as to learn
to know the manifold forms. For this there is needed a
"logical system" based on a few apparent characteristics.
The genealogical representation, which should teach how the
various forms have developed out of one another, presupposes
the knowledge of the separate individual forms, while the
system should first teach us the knowledge of these forms.
In a practical system the principal point is to limit the coordi-
nate groups as much as possible in regard to number, and
rather to create subordinate categories and in a logical way to

32 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

divide every major group into smaller ones down to the
species. System and genealogy pursue absolutely different
purposes and must be coordinate.

He points out the contradiction between calling the former
a natural system and the other one an artificial one, because
nature builds up no such categories, but creates individuals
only. Nature has the desire to vary, the inclination to
divergence and the wiping out of dividing lines. The point
is evidently well taken, but we can not see why later on he
then speaks against Trinomialism, at least in part.

Dr. Reichenow's system is as follows:

1st Row. Ratitae: Short-winged birds, i.e., birds without
a keel on sternum and rudimentary wings.

2nd Row. Natatores: Swimmers. Characteristic is the
webbed foot. Exceptions : Anseranas with split toes and Fre-

3rd Row. Grallatores: Stilt footed birds. Characteristic
is the foot, tarsus not feathered, bill without cere. Excep-
tions : Scolopax, which has the tarsus feathered, webs be-
tween the feet have Droma, Recurvirostra, Cladorhynchus and

4th Row. Cutinares: Cerebills. Bill with a cere, feet
often raptorial or fissorial. A cere is found in the Parrots,
but their feet are not raptorial.

5th Row. Fibulatores : Pair-toed birds. Birds with climb-
ing feet.

6th Row. Arboricolae: Treebirds. Forms of feet are char-
acteristic ; bill without cere, except Caprimulgidae, which have
an incomplete or rudimentary cere.

This system is certainly scientific and simple. Of course
difference of opinion will continue, but Dr. Reichenow's is as
good as any that has been advocated and has the advantage
that it is more in conformity with the classification of other
classes of animals.

Dr. Reichenow then proceeds to tell us that the last inter-
national congress of zoologists has modified the law of priority
in regard to names, i. e., to retain certain well-established
names, as Falco, Buteo Psittacus and others, regardless of

Handbuch der System atischen Ornithologie 33

the law of priority. This will be received with great satis-
faction by a great many scientists and perhaps all amateurs.

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