Agassiz Association. Wilson Ornithological Chapter.

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The Reviewer thinks differently on the subject. He believes
that the law^ of priority should be rigidly enforced. The time
will come, and is nigh at hand, when most of the disputed
cases will be settled. It is not honorable to take away from
some man the right and honor of having coined a name,
though it may cause its a good deal of inconvenience to find
out to whom that first right belongs. Because men have
blundered in the past, or have been careless, is no reason
why we should not right things and give honor to whom
honor is due.

Dr. Reichenow also comes out against Trinomialism, espe-
cially in regard to geographic variations. Undoubtedly sins
along this line have been too frequent, l)ut the reason is
simply because many geographical variations have been named
that deserved no name whatever; not that the differences
do not exist, but the utility • of name-giving ceases in such
cases, e. g., our Song Sparrows. This fact is pointed out in the
great work, ' ' The Macrolepidoptera of the World, ' ' and what
holds true in regard to butterfiies, where the differences are
much less conspicuous than in birds, is true in a far greater
sense in regard to birds. Outside of these geographical varia-
tions. Dr. Reichenow is, of course, a trinomialist. The rela-
tion of a geographical variation to its main species, however,
must find some kind of expression, and, if not trinomials, what
then ? Any other way would be far more cumbersome ! The
rest of the general remarks are of minor importance.

The Ratitae are divided into four orders and five families,
and, of course, include the Ostriches, Rheas, Emus, Casso-
waries and the Apteryges.

The Natatores include the Penguins and Divers (families
Alcidae, Colymbidae), the Longipennes (Albatrosses, Fulmars,
Petrels, Shearwaters, Gulls, Terns), all the Steganopodes, and
all the Lamellirostres, five orders and fourteen families and
ten subfamilies. While we do not expect to have all of the
American birds treated as stated in the preface of the work,
we note the following: In the enumeration of the Alcidae

34 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

the series breaks off abruptly with Simorhynchiis cristatelliis.
Aethia pygmaea and pusilla coukt easily have been mentioned
to complete the series, Ptyehorhamplms aleuticus not being
recorded at all, while several rarer forms are given. The
common Loon is mentioned from Greenland only, and the
Blackthroated not credited to America at all. We consider
this a grievous fault because it creates the impression that
both of these species are not found on the North American
continent at all, and while, of course, any American ornithol-
ogist knows better, some of the younger European beginners,
who will no doubt use the book in their studies, will get an
incorrect idea. In accordance with Dr. Reichenow's ideas as
to trinomialism, Colymbus nigricollis cal. gets credit as a
full species, as, for instance, among the Geese, Chen Hyper-
borea nivalis and Branta C. Hutchinsii, Colymbus holbolli is
not given ; if considered identical with griseigena, the geo-
graphical habitat of the latter should be extended to cover
America. None of the Albatrosses is credited with an occur-
rence in America. Among the Petrels Oceanodroma hornbyi
is given a place, while many other more common forms are
omitted. We do not understand why such an undue prom-
inence should be given this form and others not even men-
tioned. No distinction is made between the genera ^Nlegales-
tris and Stercorarius, and, we think, justly so. Under Procel-
sterna only two species are mentioned; the new form from
Necker Island is not recorded. No record of Hydrochelidon
n. surinamensis is found ; if considered identical with nigra,
the habitat should include America. The Frigate birds are
credited with laying two or three eggs, on what authority we
know not. The American ornithologists have found them lay-
ing only one egg. For the Surf Scoter the generic name
Macrorhamphus Lesson is chosen. Now, as far as we know,
Lesson 's"Traite d'Ornithologie" was published in 1831, while
in 1817 already T. Forster, in his ''Synopsit. Cat. Brit.
Birds," used the name for the Dowitcher, the specific name
of which (griseus) dates back to Gmelin, in 1789 ; and under
the name for the Dowitcher we again find Macrorhamphus,
this time quoted from Leach.

Handbucii der Systematischen Ornitiiologie 35

The Grallatores are divided into three orders: Cursores,
with four sii])orders: Liiuieolae (families Charadriidae (sub-
families Chioniiiae, Ilaematopinae, Cursoriinae, Charadriinae
and Oedicneminae), Dromadidae (African), Scolopacidae
(subfamilies Himantopodinae, Totaninae and Scolopaeiuae) ;
suborder Calamieolae (families Eallidae (subfamilies Rallinae,
Gallinulae and Fulicinae), Aramidae, Jacanidae, Eurypygi-
dae and ]\Iesitidae) ; suborder Arvieolae (families Otididae
and Gruidae) ; suborder Palamedeae (families Palamedeidae).
Order Pelopatidae, with one family : Phoenicopteridae. Order
Grcssores, five families : Ibididae, Ciconiidae, Seopidae, Balae-
nicipidae and Ardeidae.

This row is very complete, though we would like to have
seen Himantopus mexicanus, Totanus flavipes and Totanus
solitarius mentioned, as well as others. The very peculiar
form, Numenius tahitiensis, should certainly not have been
omitted. Several Japanese forms are also missing which we
would like to have seen embodied in the work. Nycticorax
nycticorax is not distinguished from naevius, and here the
Reviewer thinks Dr. Reichenow right and our American orni-
thologists wrong.

The Cutinares are divided into five very different orders :
1. Deserticolae, with three families, none of which is ne-
arctic. 2. Crypturi, with one family, neotropical. 3. Rasores.
with five families, of which the second Cracidae is represented
in our fauna by the Chachalaca, the fifth and sixth by the
Grouse, Quails and Partridges. Here the wrong name, Pedio-
caetes, appears again instead of Pediocoetes, while we know
that Baird originally and correctly wrote Pediocoetes, as Dr.
Gill has pointed out in the "Auk." 4. Gyrantes, the Pigeons,
with four families, of which the second and third only are
found in the nearctic region. Of Chamaepelia no subspecies
are given, and the Island of Jamaica is the only habitat men-
tioned. Leptoptila is, of course, spelled correctly, and not
wrong, like in our check list, but not attributed to the ne-
arctic region, as is the case with several others. 5. Raptatores.
two orders. Aecipitres and Striges. The former order has four
families: Cathartidae, Vulturidae, Serpentariidae and Fal-

36 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

conidae. The Cal. Condor is said to be apparently extinct.
We can assure Dr. Reichenow that it is by no means extinct.
Accipiter cooperi is given, but not velox. Buteo lineatus is
likewise omitted, but the rare Buteo brachyurus is fully
treated. The treatment of the Gyrfalcons will also not meet
with the approval of our ornithologists. Striges: All of the
subspecies of the Strix flammea are given, but nothing is said
of the North American form, Pratincola.

The Fibulatores are divided into two orders : the Parrots
and the Scansores. Only the former are discussed in the
present volume and our two forms are duly given, but it
should have been stated that the Carolina Parrakeet is appar-
ently extinct.

It is, of course, a very unpleasant task to call attention to
such minor details and defects in a work of this kind, and
they certainly do not detract materially from the value of
the work, but in a critical review the minor points as well
as the major ones should be taken into consideration and
due attention given them. As it is, however, Dr. Reichenow 's
book will long stand out as a work of phenomenal learning
and knowledge and his system of classification will be recog-
nized as not only thoroughly scientific, but also as eminently
practical. He has presented us with a work for which we
all should be very thankful and which any student of orni-
thology will do well to use in the pursuit of his studies and


The accompanying illustration represents the wing bone of
the Greater Snow Goose (Chen hyperborea nivalis) found
when skinning the bird in the fall of 1912. The fracture,
made by a No. 4 shot, must have been made either during its
flight south or else upon its feeding grounds during the sum-
mer. The illustration shows how well nature heals its wounds
and how quickly. Harold H. Bailey,

Newport News, Va.


A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to the Study of Birds.
Official Organ of the Wilson Ornithological Club.

Edited by LYNDS JONES.

Price in the United States, Canada and Mexico, one dollar a year, 30 cents a
number, postpaid. Price in all countries in the International Postal Union,
$1.25 a year, 40 cents a number. Subscriptions should be sent to P. B. Coffin,
3232 Groveland Ave., Chicago, 111.


President : Dr. T. C. Stephens, Morningside, Sioux City, Iowa.
- Vice-president : Geo. L. Fordyce, Youngstown, Ohio.
"Secretary: Orpheus M. Schantz, 5215 West 24th St., Cicero, 111.
Treasurer: P. B. Coffin, 3232 Groveland Ave., Chicago, 111.
Editor "The "Wilson Bulletin"; Lynds Jones, Spear Laboratory, Ober-
lin, Ohio.

Business Manager: Edvr. R. Ford, 1100 Great Northern Building,
Chicago, 111.

For information concerning the organization address either the presi-
dent or secretary; concerning membership dues and subscriptions address
the treasurer; concerning articles or notes or correspondence intended
for, publication in ' ' The Wilson Bulletin, ' ' or books or magazines or
other publications for review, address the editor; concerning business
relating to "The Wilson Bulletin" address the business manager.

The result of the vote in favor of ratifying the action taken at the
Chicago meeting to j^rovide for a regular annual meeting, and the rati-
fication of the list of officers tentatively chosen at the meeting, is most
gratifying. There are suggestions for changing minor points i5f the
proposed constitution which will be taken up at the next annual mefeting.
Therre was no dissent of the list of officers nominated. Their names
appear above. The toTal-v'ote'to date has reached 72, with all appiT^^'ing.

-^ o- -

A perusal of any number of the ' ' Auk ' ' brings out the fact clearly that
at least in the eastern sections of the country there are many unusual

Editorial 39

occurrences of birds. While it is true that more work has been done iu
those sections, and therefore probably better ground for knowing Just
what occurrences are unusual, we believe that in this particular the East
does not outrank the Middle West. If all of the unusual occurrences for
the region which we are supposed to especially cover are written up and
sent in for publication, that department of the " Wilson Bulletin " would
assume the importance which it should assume. Fresh notes of tliis
sort right from the field not only add a peculiar interest to the magazine,
but also go to show the activity of the folks who live and work in the
region. Send vour notes in.

The virtual reorganization of the Wilson Ornithological Club from a
purely corresponding organization to one which will hereafter hold annual
meetings marks an epoch not only in the organization but as well in the
central districts of North America, which is the particular field of the
organization. The region has witnessed the rise and fall of various
organizations of a local character, but none has ever appeared even for
a short period which served to weld together the men and women of
the region who are interested in the study of birds and who are
working iu the same field. With such an instriunent there should be,
is certain to be, as substantial a growth here as we have seen along the
two coasts where it has been possible, for yeais, for folks of the same
mind to get together and work together.

Before the next number of the ' ' Bulletin ' ' is in the mails the opportunity
will come for all of us to undertake the intimate study of one or more
pairs of nesting birds. By how much would our knowledge of the life
history of even the Eobin be advanced if somebody could have the oppor-
tunity to compare the accounts of the nesting activities of ten pairs
of Eobins sent in from as many different localities ! Perhaps not all of
us have the training which is necessary to carry on such intensive studies,
but any of us can add to our sum total of knowledge in this field by
painstaking effort. We earnestly hope that there will be many careful
studies of the nest activities of many species during the coming nesting

At the Washington spring meeting of the American Oriiithologists'
Union there is to be a discussion concerning insectivorous birds — as to
whether they are or are not decreasing in numbers. To supplement this
discussion it would be valuable if a large number of people from the
central districts would give their opinions on this topic. The editor will
undertake to prepare such matter for ijublication in the June number
of the "Bulletin" if such reports are sent in to him. It is a vital subject
and should receive our earnest attention.

40 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

In entering upon the plan of having the offices of editor and business
manager presided over by different individuals and the office of publi-
cation transferred to Chicago, 111., while the office of the editor remains
at Obei'lin, Ohio, there is certain to be some delay until we become
adjusted to the change. We are certain, however, that in the long run
the change will work to the great advantage of the ' ' Bulletin ' ' as well as
to the Club of which it is the official organ. A little more time must be
allowed for getting copy to the printer and for the correction of proofs
and their return. But if every contributor will get his copy to the editor
by the fifteenth of the month preceding publication the wheels will be
seen to run smoothly and each issue will be out on the date set.


The "Auk" is entering upon its 31st volume, the "Wilson Bulletin"
upon its 26th volume, and "Bird-Lore" and "The Condor" upon their
16th. The Wilson Ornithological Club has actually been publishing its
own official organ for 22 years, and the present number marks the begin-
ning of its 21st volume under its present title. It has witnessed the birth,
growth and death of many worthy efforts of local organizations. It is out-
ranked in age only by the "Auk" and the "Oologist. " From small be-
ginnings it has gone steadily forward until it deserved to rank among the
few survivors of a once numerous host. Its future was never brighter.

The ' ' Bund Deutscher Forscher, ' ' President Georg August Grote, Han-
over, Germany, has arranged with the Eev. W. F. Henninger, of New
Bremen, Ohio, to publish a book on the North American birds in the Ger-
man language, entitled ' ' Ne-Arktisches Vogelleben, ' ' the same to con-
tain the life histories of the North American birds, i. e., of all those
birds which are found to breed in the ne-arctic region, waifs and siib-
speeies to be described and recorded but not to receive an exhaustive
treatment. The work is to be illustrated by about 150 colored plates and
numerous photographs and to be published in about 35 to 40 parts. The
classification used will be that of Dr. A. Eeichenow, in order to be in
accord with German investigations. If sufficient subscribers are found
after the first part is issued, which will be about June the first, the work
will be continued. Such men as Prof. G. Eifrig, Lynds Jones, F. C.
Willard, of Tombstone, Ariz., Oscar E. Baynard, of Clearwater, Fla., and
Isaac E. Hess, of Philo, 111., will assist Rev. Henninger in the work, be-
sides many other noted ornithologists. The work will be authentic in
every particular, and should find numerous subscribers in this country
as well as in Europe. The price will be one mark and 50 pfennig in
Germany, and will come to about 40 cents a part in this country. Sub-
scriptions will be received by the president in Hanover, or by Rev. W. F.
Henninger, New Bremen, Ohio. Later on the agency for America will
be transferred to some German publishing house in America.

The Wilson Ornithological Club 41

Minutes of the First Meeting of the Wilson
Ornithological Club

The first session of the first meeting ever held by the Wilson Ornitho-
logical Club was opened on Feb. 5, 1914, at 10 o'clock a. m. at the Acad-
emy of Sciences, Lincoln Park, Chicago, Illinois. In the absence of the
president and vice-president, the secretary, C. W. G. Eifrig, called the
meeting to order and introduced Mr. F. C. Baker, the curator and acting
director of the Academy, who welcomed the club on behalf of the man-
agement of the institution, extended the liberties of the academy to the
club and wished it success in its deliberations. The secretary, on behalf
of the club, thanked Mr. Baker for his kindly, well-chosen words.

The first business for the meeting was the election of a temporary
chairman, which was done by selecting Dr. T. C. Stephens, of Morning-
side College, Sioux City, Iowa. The secretary then read a tentative order
of business for the meeting. Resolved that this be more or less closely
adhered to.

Concerning the election of officers, it was resolved to have the mem-
bers of council present at the meeting submit at one of the next sessions
a list of nominations for the various offices, also that they first pass on
the proposed candidates for active and associate membership.

Then the matter of the ' ' Bulletin, ' ' the official organ of the club, was
taken up. The editor, Mr. Lynds Jones, was called upon to address the
club on the status and needs of our publication. He gave a resume of
the published transactions of the club and of the club itself from the be-
ginning, showing the ups and downs in the life of both and the difficulties
the editor has had to contend with, these latter being mostly of a finan-
cial kind, often imposing great hardships and sacrifices on him. Further
deliberation of this matter was postponed to the afternoon meeting.

Next the treasurer, the Rev. W. F. Henninger, of New Bremen, Ohio,
read a detailed report of the finances of the club for the last five years.
This again told a story of financial storm and stress, but ending with the
statement that for the first time in the history of the club there was a
balance amounting to $43.00, instead of the usual deficit. The report
was adopted. Then the secretary reported on the membership of the
club, which shows the experiences of similar clubs the world over, viz.,
of losses in membership due to the lack of interest or the non-payment
of dues, which are, however, more than offset by gratifying accessions
to the membership. Especially have some members in Iowa been busy
of late in increasing the membership by new recruits. Resolved, that the
list of members, together with the reports of the officers, be annually
printed and sent to the members.

Since the holding of meetings is a new departure in the life of tlie
club, making it essentially a somewhat different kind of organization.

42 The Wilson Bulletin — No. 86

for which no provision has been made in the constitution, the advisability
of drafting a new or revised constitution was next broached. All the
speakers were unanimous in the conviction that the time was ripe and
opportune for broadening and extending the usefulness of the club and
its official organ, as well as for increasing the membership, if only prop-
erly organized, systematic efforts were made. Here the discussion was
adjourned and resolved to hold the afternoon meeting from 2 to 4:30


The meeting was called to order by the chairman. Dr. T. C. Stephens.
The matter of the ' ' Bulletin ' ' was again taken up and Prof. Lynds Jones
spoke at length on the finances and literary contributions for the same.
Eesolved that an auxiliary editorial committee be formed, composed of
one or more members in each state and province in the natural territory
of the club, i. e., the interior of North America, such members to see
to it that field notes and other pertinent articles from their respective
states or provinces be regularly sent for publication to the editor. The
nominating committee is to nominate the members of this committee also.

In order to relieve the editor of some of the too great burdens he has
hitherto borne in connection with the editing and publishing of the
' ' Bulletin, ' ' it was resolved to create the office of business manager for
the "Bulletin." Eesolved, to appoint a committee for revising the con-
stitution, said committee to embody in the draft the changes so far
adopted. The chairman appointed the following gentlemen: Dr. R. M.
Strong, Chicago, chairman; Prof. L. Jones and the Eev. W. F. Hen-

Eesolved, to appoint a standing committee to make a campaign for
increasing the membership. The following were elected: The chair-
man. Dr. T. C. Stephens; Messrs. J. H. Fleming, of Toronto, Ontario;
0. M. Schantz, of Chicago, Illinois.

Eesolved, that the club look upon as its special field of investigation the
interior of North America, from the Gulf to the Arctic Ocean, including
tli,e Great Lakes.

Eesolved, that regular rates for reprints of papers appearing in the
"Bulletin" be secured and published.

Adjournment followed, after which the members inspected the exhibits
of the academy, especially the unique celestial sphere.

Members present during first day: Dr. T. C. Stephens, Prof. Lynds
Jones, Eev. W. F. Henninger, Mr. E. W. Joluis, of Kingsley, la.; Mr. F.
M. Phelps, of Elyria, 0.; Mr. Euthven Deane, of Chicago; Mr. O. M.
Schantz, Mr. Geo. Fordyce, of Youngstown, O. ; Mrs. Irene G. Wheelock,
of Chicago; Mr. G. A. Abbott, of Chicago; Dr. E. M. ' Strong, of the
University of Chicago; Mr. C. J. Hunt, of Chicago, and the secretary,
C. W. G. Eifrig.

The Wilson Ornithological Club 43

FRIDAY, FEB. 6, 1914.

The chairman called the meeting to onler. The secretary read the
minutes of the two meetings of the day before, which were approved.

First the nominating committee, comjjosed of Mr. Lynds Jones, Rev.
W. F. Hcnuinger and the secretary, reported and submitted its nomina-
tions. Eesolved, that the secretary cast unanimous ballot for the follow-
ing officers: President, Dr. T. C. Stephens; vice-president, Mr. G. L. For-
dyce; secretary, Mr. O. M. Schantz; treasurer, Mr. P, B. Coffin, 3232
Groveland Ave., Chicago, 111. Resolved, that the election of a business
manager be postponed.

The following new members and associates were elected: Active, Dr.
Joseph Grinnell, Berkeley, Cal. proposed by Prof. Lynds Jones; Mr. E.
A. Cleasby, Portage, Wis., proposed by Dr. T. C. Stephens; Mr. F. M.
Woodruff, Chicago, Mr. B. T. Gault, Glen Ellyn, 111.; Mr. K. W. Kah-
mann, Chicago, Mr. F'. A. Schantz, Berlin, Ont., proposed by the secretary.
Associate: Mr. Wier R. Mills, Pierson, la.; Mr. Arthur A. Osborne,
Peabody, Mass. ; Mr. E. W. Johns was promoted from associate to active
membership; Mrs. I. G. Wheelock, in addition to being an active mem-
ber, became a sustaining member.

Resolved, to elect the following as members of the auxiliary editorial
committee: For Illinois, O. M. Schantz and I. E. Hess; Indiana, R. C.
Norris and A. W. Butler ; Ohio, F, M. Phelps and Dr. B. R. Bales ; Mich-
igan, A. D. Tinker and N. A. Eddy; Wisconsin, Dr. R. M. Strong and
Mrs. loda Malin; Minnesota, Dr. T. S. Roberts; Iowa, Prof. I. N.
Gabrielson and Miss Althea R. Sherman ; North Dakota, Adrian Larson ;
Pennsylvania, Frank L. Burns and W. E. Clyde-Todd; Canada, P. A.
Taverner and L. McI. Terrill ; Kansas, Dr. W. I. Mitchell and the Rev.
P. B. Peabody; Louisiana, G. S. Guion; Florida, O. E. Baynard; Texas,
Dr. A. R. Shearer.

Note: This is at the same time to serve as the official notification to
the members of this standing committee of their election.

Resolved, that this committee be active also in increasing the member-
ship of the club, under the standing membership committee.

Eesolved, that the secretary prepare resolutions of thanks to the
of the Academy of Sciences. Resolved, that we tender our thanks to the
editor of ' ' The Wilson Bulletin, ' ' Prof. Lynds Jones, for his labors and
sacrifices in behalf of the club and that he be reimbursed as soon as the
finances of the club allow it.

Adjournment followed.

In the afternoon session the following papers were read: A critique

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