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land is the finest for cultivation that ever I in my life
set foot upon.^^ Hudson had not found a passage to
China, but his soul was satisfied of his life labor.

Above Albany, the river became shoaly. Hudson
sent his men forward twice to sound, but thirty miles
beyond Albany the water was too shallow for the
Half Moon.

How far up the river had Hudson sailed? Juet's
ship log does not give the latitude, but Van Meteren's
record says 42^ 40'. Beyond this, on September 22,
the small boat advanced thirty miles. Tradition
says Hudson ascended as far as Waterford.

While the boats were sounding, the conspirators

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were at their usual mischief. Indian chiefs had
come on board. They were taken down to the cabin
and made gloriously drunk. AU went merrily till
one Indian fell insensible. The rest scampered in
panic and came back with oflFerings of wampum —
their most precious possession — for the chief's ran-
som. When they secured him alive, they brought
more presents — ^wampum and venison — ^in gratitude.
To this escapade of the mischief-making crew,
moccasin rumor added a thousand exaggerations
which came down in Indian tradition to the b^in-
ning of the last century. After the drunken frenzy
—legend says — the white men made a great oration
promising to come again. When they returned the
next year, they asked for as much land as the hide of
a bullock would cover. The Indians granted it,
but the white men cut the buflFalo hide to strips nar-
row as a child's finger and so encompassed all the
land of Manahat (Manhattan). The whites then
built a fort for trade. The name of the fort was
New Amsterdam. It grew to be a mighty city.
Such are Indian legends of New York's beginnings.
They probably have as much truth as the story of
Rome and the wolf.

On September 23, the Half Moon turned her
prow south. The Hudson lay in all its autumn
g^ory — a, glassy sheet walled by the painted woods,

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now gorgeous with the frost tints of gold and scarlet
and carmine. The ship anchored each night and
the crew wandered ashore hatching pirate plots.
Finally they presented their ultimatum to Hudson —
they would slay him if he dared to steer for Holland.
Weakened by the death of Colman, the English were
helpless against the Dutch mutineers. Perhaps
they, too, were not averse to seizing the Company's
ship and becoming sea rovers along the shores of
such a land. At least one of them turned pirate the
next voyage. Twice, the Half Moon was run
aground — at Catskill and at Esopus — probably
intentionally, or because Hudson dared not send
his faithful Englishmen ahead to sound.

Near Anthony's Nose, the wind is compressed
with the force of a huge bellows, and the ship an-
chored in shelter from the eddying gale. Signal
fires had rallied the mountain tribes. As the ship
lay wind-bound on the night of October i, the In-
dians floating about in their dugouts grew daring.
One climbed the rudder and stole Juet's clothes
through the cabin window. Juet shot him dead
red-handed in the act, and gave the alarm to the
rest of the crew. With a splash, the Indians rushed
for shore, paddling and swimming, but a boat load
of white men pursued to regain the plunder. A
swimmer caught Juet's boat to upset it. The ship's

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cook slashed the Indian's arm off, and he sank like
stone. It wais now dark, but Hudson slipped down
stream away from danger. Near Harlem River the
next afternoon, a hundred hostiles were seen am-
bushed on the east bank. Led by the guides who
had escaped going up stream, two canoes glided
under The Half Moon's rudder and let fly a shower
of arrows. Much as Hudson must have disliked
to open his powder magazines to mutineers, arms
were handed out. A spatter of musketry drove the
Indians a gunshot distant. Three savages fell.
Then there was a rally of the Indians to shoot from
shore near what is now Riverside Drive. Hudson
trained his cannon on them. Two more fell. Per-
sistent as hornets, out they sallied in canoes. This
time Hudson let go every cannon on that side.
Twelve savages were killed.

The Half Moon then glided past Hopoghan (Ho-
boken) to safer anchorage on the open bay. It was
October 4th before she passed through the Narrows
to the Sea. Here, the mutiny reached a climax.
Hudson could no more ignore threats. The Dutch
refused to steer the ship to Holland, where punish-
ment would await them. Juet advised wintering
in Newfoundland, where there would be other Eng-
lishmen, but Hudson allayed discontent by prom-^
ising not to send the guilty men to Holland if they

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would steer the ship to England ; and to Dartmouth
in Devon she came on November 7, 1609.

What was Hudson's surprise to learn he had
become an enormously important personage! The
Muscovy Gentlemen of London did not purpose
allowing his knowledge of the passage toward the
Pole to pass into the service of their rivals, the Dutch.
Hudson was forbidden to leave his own country and
had to send his report to Holland through Van
Meteren, the consul. The Half Moon returned to
Holland and was wrecked a few years later on her
way to the East Indies. It is to be hoped Hudson's
crew went down with her. The odd thing was —
while Hudson was valued for his knowledge of the
Polar regions, the discovery of Hudson River added
not one jot to his fame. In fact, one historian of
that time declares: '^Hudson achieved nothing at all
in 1609. " All he did was to exchange merchandise
for furs.^^ Nevertheless, the merchants of Amster-
dam were rigging out ships to establish a trading
factory on the entrance of that newly discovered
river. Such was the founding of New York. Money
bags sneer at the dreamer, but they are quick to
transmute dreams into gold, though three hundred
years were to pass before any of the gold drawn
from his dreams was applied toward erecting to
Hudson a memorial.

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CHAPTER IV
1610

HUDSON'S FOURTH VOYAGE

THREE years almost to a day from the time
he set out to pursue his Phantom Dream
along an endless Trail, Hudson again set
sail for the mystic North. This time the Muscovy
Gentlemen did not send him as a company, but
three members of that company — Smith, Wolsten-
holme and Digges — supplied him with the bark,
Discovery. In his crew of twenty were several of
his former seamen, among whom was the old mate,
Juet. Provisions were carried for a year's cruise.
One Colebume went as adviser; but what with the
timidity of the old crew and the officious ignorance
of the adviser stirring up discontent by fault-finding
before the boat was well out of Thames waters —
Hudson was obhged to pack Colebume back on the
first craft met home-bound. The rest of the crew
comprised the usual proportion of rogues impressed
against their will for a voyage, which regular seamen
feared.

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Having found one great river north of the Chesa-
peake, Hudson's next thought was of that arm of
the sea south of Greenland, which Cabot and Frob-
isher and Davis had all reported to be a passage as
large as the Mediterranean, and to Greenland Hud-
son steered The Discovery in April, 1610. June
saw the ship moored off Iceland under the shadow
of Hekla's volcanic fires. Smoke above Hekla was
always deemed sign of foul weather. Twice The
Discovery was driven back by storm, and the storm
blew the smoldering fears of the unwilling seamen
to raging discontent. Bathing in the hot springs,
Juet, the old mate, grunibled at Hudson for sailing
North instead of to that pleasant land they had
found the previous year. The impressed sailors
were only too ready to listen, and the wrong-headed
foolish old mate waxed bolder. He advised the men
"to keep muskets loaded in their cabins, for they
would need firearms, and there would be bloodshed
if the master persisted going by Greenland." And
all unconscious of the secret fires beginning to bum
against him, was Hudson on the quarter-deck gazing
westward, imagining that the ice bank seen through
the mirage of the rosy North light was Greenland
hiding the goal of his hopes. All you had to do was
round Cape Farewell, south of Greenland, and you
would be in the passage that led to the South Sea.

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It was July when the boat reached the southern
end of Greenland, and if the crew had been terrified
by Juet's tales of ice north of Asia, they were panic-
stricken now, for the icebergs of America were as
mountains are to mole-hills compared to the ice floes
of Asia, Before, Hudson had cruised the east coast
of Greenland. There, the ice continents of a polar
world can disport themselves in an ocean's spacious
area, but west of Greenland, ice fields the area of
Europe are crunched for four hundred miles into a
passage narrower than the Mediterranean. To make
matters worse, up these passages jammed with ice-
bergs washed hard as adamant, the full force of the
Atlantic tide flings against the southward flow of the
Arctic waters. The result is the famous "furious
overfall," the nightmare of northern seamen — a
cataract of waters thirty feet high flinging themselves
against the natural flow of the ice. It is a battle of
blind fury, ceaseless and tireless.

Hudson Straits may be described as a great arm
of the ocean curving to an inland sea the size of the
Mediterranean. At each end, the Straits are less
than fifty miles wide, lined and interspread with
rocky islands and dangerous reefs. Inside, the
Straits widen to a breadth of from one hundred to
two hundred miles. Ungava Bay on the east is a
cup-like basin, which the wash of the iron ice has

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literally ground out of Labrador's rocky shore. Half
way up at Savage Point about two hundred miles
from the ocean, Hudson Straits suddenly contract.
This is known as the Second Narrows. The moun-
tainous, snow-clad shores converge to a sharp funnel.
Into this funnel pours the jammed, churning mael-
strom of ice floes the size of a continent, and against
this chaos flings the Atlantic tide.

Old fur-trade captains of a later era entered the
Straits armed and accoutered as for war. It was a
standing regulation among the fur-trade captains
always to have one-fourth extra allowance of pro-
visions for the delay in the straits. Six iron-shod
ice hooks were carried for mooring to the ice floes.
Special cables called " ice ropes " were used. Twelve
great ice poles, twelve handspikes all steel-shod, and
twelve chisels to drill holes in the ice for powder —
were the regulation requirements of the fur traders
bound through Hudson Straits. Special rules were
issued for captains entering the Straits. A checker-
board sky — deep blue reflecting the clear water of
ocean, apple-green lights the sign of ice — ^was the
invariable indication of distant ice. *' Never go on
"either at night or in a fog when you have sighted
"such a sky" — ^was the rule. "Get your ice tackle
"ready at the straits." "Stand away from the in-
" draught between a big iceberg and the tide, for if

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"once the indraught nails you, you are lost." *^To
"avoid a crush that will sink you in ten minutes,
"run twenty miles inside the soft ice; that will break
"the force of the tide." "Be careful of your lead
"night and day."

But these rules were learned only after centuries
of navigating. All was new to the seamen in Hud-
son's day. All that was knovra to the northern navi-
gator was the trick of throwing out the hook, gripping
to a floe, hauling up to it and worming a way through
the ice with a small sail.

Carried with the current southward from Green-
land, sometimes slipping into the long "tickles" of
water open between the floes, again watching their
chance to follow the calm sea to the rear of some giant
iceberg, or else mooring to some ice raft honeycombed
by the summers heat and therefore less likely to ram
the hull — The Discovery came to Ungava Bay, Labra-
dor, in July. This is the worst place on the Atlantic
seaboard for ice. Old whalers and Moravian mis-
sionaries told me when I was in Labrador that the
icebergs at Ungava are often by actual measurement
nine miles long, and washed by the tide, they have
been ground hard and sharp as steel. It is here they
b^;in to break up on their long journey southward.

An island of ice turned turtle close to Hudson's
ship. There was an avalanche of falling seas, "/nto

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the ice we put for safety, ^^ says the record. ^^Some
of our men fell sick. I will not say it was for fear,
though I sazv sntaU sign of other grief. '^^ Just west-
ward lay a great open passage — now known as Hud-
son Strait, so the island in Ungava Bay was called
Desire Provoked. Plainly, they could not remain
anchored here, for between bergs they were in danger
of a crush, and the drift might carry them on any of
the rock reefs that rib the bay.

Juet, the old mate, raged against the madness of
venturing! such a sea. Henry Greene, a penniless
blackguard, whom Hudson had picked off the streets
of London to act as secretary — ^now played the tale-
bearer, fomenting trouble between master and crew.
"Our master," says Prickett, one of Digges* servants
who was on board, "was in despair." Taking out
his chart, Hudson called the crew to the cabin and
showed them how they had come farther than any
explorer had yet dared. He put it plainly to them —
would they go on, or turn back? Let them decide
once and for all; no repinings! There, on the west,
was the passage they had been seeking. It might
lead to the South Sea. There, to the east, the way
home. On both sides was equal danger — ice. To
the west, was land. They could see that from the
masthead. To the cast, between them and home,
the width of the ocean.

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The crew were divided, but the ice would not wait
for arguments and see-sawings. It was crushmg in
on each side of The Discovery with an ominous jar of
the timbers. All hands were mustered out. By the
usual devices in such emergencies — by blowing up the
ice at the prow, towing away obstructions, rowing with
the ship in tow, all fenders down to protect the sides,
the steel-shod poles prodding off the icebergs— T^
Discovery was hauled to open water. Then, as if it
were the very sign that the crew needed — water opened
to the west! There came a spurt of wind. The
Discovery spread her sails to the breeze and carried
the vacillating crew forward. For a week they had
lain imprisoned. By the nth of July they were in
Hudson Straits on the north side and had anchored
at Baffin's Land, which Hudson named God^s Mercy.

That night the men were allowed ashore. It was
a desolate, silent, mountainous region that seemed
to lie in an eternal sleep. Birds were in myriads —
their flacker but making the profound silence more
cavernous. When a sailor uttered a shout, there was
no answer but the echo of his own voice, thin and
weird and lonely, as if he, too, would be swallowed
up by those deathly silences. Men ran over the ice
chasing a polar bear. Others went gunning for
partridge. The hills were presently rocketing with
the crash and echo of musketry. Prickett climbed

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a high rock to spy ahead. Open water lay to the
southwest. It was like a sea — perhaps the South
Sea; and to the southwest Hudson steered past
Charles and Salisbury Islands, through "a whurling
sea^^ — the Second Narrows — between two high head-
lands, Digges island on one side, Cape Wolsten-
holme on the other, eventually putting into Port
Laperriere on Digges Island. Except for two or three
government stations where whaling captains for-
gather in log cabins, the whole region from Ungava
Bay to Digges Island, four hundred miles, practically
the whole length of the Straits on the south — is as
unexplored to-day as when Hudson first sailed those
waters.

The crew went ashore hunting partridge over the
steep rocks of the island and examining stone caches
of the absent Eskimo. Hudson took a careful ob-
servation of the sea. Before him lay open water —
beyond was sea, a sea to the south 1 Was it the
South Sea? The old record says he was proudly
confident it was the South Sea, for it was plainly a
sea as large as the Baltic or Mediterranean. Fog
falling, cannon were set booming and rocketing
among the hills to call the hunters home. It was
now August 4. A month had passed since he en-
tered the Straits. If it took another month to go
back through them, the boat would be winter-bound

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and could not reach England. There was no time to
lose. Keeping between the east coast of the bay
with its high rocks and that line of reefed islands
known as The Sleepers, The Discovery pushed on
south, where the look-out still reported "a large sea
to the jore.^^ This is a region, which at this late day
of the world's history, still remains almost unknown.
The men who have explored it could be counted on
one hand. Towering rocks absolutely bare but for
moss, with valley between where the spring thaw
creates continual muskeg — ^moss on water dangerous
as quicksands — are broken by swampy tracks; and
near Richmond, where the Hudson's Bay Fur Com-
pany maintained a post fop a few years, the scenery
attains a degree of grandeur simUar to Norway,
groves covering the rocky shores, cataracts shattering
over the precipices and lonely vistas opening to
beautiful meadows, where the foot of man has never
trod. But for some unknown reason, game has
always been scarce on the east side of Hudson Bay.
Legends of mines have been told by the Indians, but
no one has yet found the mines.

The fury of Juet the rebellious old mate, now
knew no bounds. The ship had victuals for only
six months more. Here was September. Navigation
would hardly open in the Straits before June. If the
boat did not emerge on the South Sea, they would

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all be winter-bound. The waters began to shoal to
those dangerous reefs on the south where the Hud-
son's Bay traders have lost so many ships. In
hoisting anchor up, a furious over-sea knocked the
sailors from the capstan. With a rebound the heavy
iron went splashing overboard. This was too much
for Juet. The mate threw down his pole and re-
fused to serve longer. On September lo, Hudson
was compelled to try him for mutiny.. Juet was
deposed with loss of wages for bad conduct and
Robert Bylot appointed in his place. The trial
showed Hudson he was slumbering over a powder
mine. Half the crew was disaffected, plotting to
possess themselves of arms; but what did plots mat-
ter? Hudson was following a vision which his men
could not see.

By this time, Hudson was several hundred miles
south of the Straits, and the inland sea which he had
discovered did not seem to be leading to the Pacific.
Following the south shore to the westernmost hay of
all — James Bay on the west — Hudson recognized
the fact that it was not the South Sea. The siren
of his dreams had sung her fateful song till she had
lured his hopes on the rocks. He was land-bound
and winter-bound in a desolate region with a
mutinous crew.

The water was too shallow for the boat to moor.

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The men waded ashore to seek a wintering place.
Wood was found in plenty and the footprint of a
savage seen in the snow. That night, November 2,
it snowed heavily, and the boat crashed on the
rocks. For twelve hours, bedlam reigned, Juet
heading a party of mutineers, but next day the storm
floated the keel free. By the loth of November,
the ship was frozen in. To keep up stock of provis-
ions, Hudson offered a reward for all game, of which
there seemed an abundance, but when he ordered
the carpenters ashore to build winter quarters, he
could secure obedience to his commands only by
threatening to hang every mutineer to the yardarm.
In the midst of this turmoil, the gunner died. Henry
Greene, the vagabond secretary, who received no
wages, asked for the dead man's heavy great coat.
Hudson granted the request. The mutineers re-
sented the favoritism, for it was the custom to auction
oflF a dead man's belongings at the mainmast, and
m the cold climate all needed extra clothing. Greene
took advantage of the apparent favor to shirk house
building and go oflF to the woods with a rebellious
carpenter hunting. Furious, Hudson turned the
coveted coat over to Bylot, the new mate.

So the miserable winter dragged on. Snow fell
continuously day after day. The frost giants set
the ice whooping and crackling every night like

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artillery fire. A pall of gloom was settling over the
ship that seemed to bemimb hope and benumb effort.
Great numbers of birds were shot by loyal members
of the crew, but the ship was short of bread and the
cook began to use moss and the juice of tamarac as
antidotes to scurvy. As winter closed in, the cold
grew more intense. Stone fireplaces were built on
the decks of the ship. Pans of shot heated red-hot
were taken to the berths as a warming pan. On the
whole, Hudson was fortunate in his wintering
quarters. It was the most sheltered part of the bay
and had the greatest abundance of game to be found
on that great inland sea. Also, there was no lack
of firewood. Farther north on the west shore,
Hudson's ship would have been exposed to the east
winds and the ice-drive. Here, he was secure from
both, though the cold of James Bay was quite severe
enough to cover decks and beds and bedding and
port windows with hoar frost an inch thick.

Toward spring came a timid savage to the ship
drawing furs on a toboggan for trade. He promised
to return after so many sleeps from the tribes of the
South, but time to an Indian may mean this year or
next, and he was never again seen. As the ice began
to break up in May, Hudson sent men fishing in a
shallop that the carpenters had built, but the fisher-
men plotted to escape in the small boat. The next

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time, Hudson, himself, led the fishermen, threaten-
ing to leave any man proved guilty of plots marooned
on the bay. It was an unfortunate threat. The
men remembered it. Juet, the deposed mate, had
but caged his wrath and was now joined by Henry
Greene, the secretary, who had fallen from favor.
If these men and their allies had hunted half as in-
dustriously as they plotted, there would have been
food in plenty, but with half the crew living idly on
the labors of the others for ^ winter, somebody was
bound to suffer shortage of food on the homeward
voyage. The traitor thought was suggested by Henry
Greene that if Hudson and the loyal men were, them-
selves, marooned, the rest could go home with plenty
of food and no fear of punishment. The report could
be spread that Hudson had died. Hudson had
searched the land in vain for Indians. All uncon-
scious of the conspiracy in progress, he returned to
prepare the ship for the home voyage.

The rest of The Discovery s record reads like some
tale of piracy on the South Sea. Hudson distributed
to the crew all the bread that was left — a pound to
each man without favoritism. There were tears in
his eyes and his voice broke as he handed out the last
of the food. The same was done with the cheese.
Seamen's chests were then searched and some pil-
fered biscuits distributed. In Hudson's cabin were

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stored provisions for fourteen days. These were to
be used only in the last extremity. As might have
been expected, the idle mutineers used their food
without stint. The men who would not work were
the men who would not deny themselves. When
Hudson weighed anchor on June i8, 1611, for the
homeward trip, nine of the best men in the crew lay
ill in their berths from overwork and privations.

One niglit Greene came to the cabin of Prickett,



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