al-Armanī Abū Ṡāliḣ.

The churches and monasteries of Egypt and some neighbouring countries online

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heart of the Sultan and the hearts of the Emirs with fear; they continued
their way, while he was deeply sunk in thought, until lie came to the hippodrome.
As meanwhile the shouts of the people did not cease, he held it best to act
cautiously, and he bid the Chamberlain go out and proclaim that he who should
find a Christian should demand money and blood from him. The Chamberlain
went out and made this proclamation, and the people cried : ' God protect thee ! '
and gave him their congratulations. The Christians then used to wear white
turbans, so it was proclaimed at Cairo and Mi^r that any one who should
find a Christian in a white turban should be allowed to kill him and to seize
his goods ; and a similar permission was granted to any one who should meet
a Christian on horseback. A decree was issued that the Christians should wear



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APPENDIX.



339



blue turbans, and that none of them should ride a horse or a mule, but that
they might ride asses with their heads to the tail; that no Christian might
enier a bath without a bell round his neck; and that none of them might
wear the dress of the Muslims. The Emirs were forbidden to take Christians
into their service ; the latter were removed from the Sultan's Divan, and it was
commanded in all the provinces that all Christians holding office should be
dismissed. The attacks of the Muslims upon the Christians increased so that
the latter no longer walked in the streets, and a large number of them accepted
Islam.

Nothing had been said at this time of the Jews, and so the Christians
began, when they wished to leave their dwellings, to borrow a yellow turban
from one of the Jews, and to wear it so as to be safe from the people. Then
it happened that one of the Christians in the Divans was owed 4,000 dirhams
by a Jew, so he came by night in disguise to the Jew's house to demand the
money ; then the Jew seized him and cried : * Help from God and the Muslims 1 '
and shouted so that people ran together to seize the Christian; but he fled
into the inner part of the Jew's house and hid himself with the wife of the
latter; he was, however, obliged to write a receipt stating that the Jew had
paid him his debt, and then he was set free.

Several Christians of the Monastery of Al-Khandak were accused of having
prepared naphtha to set fire to the houses; they were captured and nailed up.
A decree was issued that the people might safely be present when the Sultan
rode to the hippodrome according to their custom; this took place because
they stood in fear of their lives on account of their having too frequendy
attacked the Christians and overstepped all bounds. Now they became bold,
came as usually to the neighbourhood of the hippodrome, offered good wishes
to the Sultan, and began to cry: *God protect thee. Ruler of the land I we
are spared, we are spared I' The Sultan heard this favourably and smiled at
their words. At night a fire arose at the dwelling of the Emir and Chamber-
Jain Alamds in the Castle; the wind was strong, so that the fire took hold
and reached the house of the Emir itmish, and the inhabitants of the Castle and
of Cairo were so much terrified that they believed that the whole Castle was burnt

More terrible events than these have never been heard of, for the Christians
burnt the houses at Cairo in the Roast-meat -Vendors' market and the alley of
Al-'Ar!shah in the street of Ad-Dailam, sixteen houses near the dwelling of Kartm
ad-Dfn, a number of houses in the quarter of the Romans, the house of Bahidur
near the Chapel of Husain, some dwellings at ^he stable of At-Tarimah and in

X X 2



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340 CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT.

the street of Honey, the palace of the Emir Silih, and the palace of the Emir
Saldr in the street between the two castles, the palace of Btsharf, the Khin
al-Hajar, Al-Jamaldn, the hall of Al-Afram, the house of Baibars in the street of
As-SSlihtyah, the house of Ibn Al-Maghrabt in the street of Zawflah, many
dwellings in the street of the Swallows* Well and at Al-Hakar, in the Castle
on the Mountain, by several mosques and oratories and other buildings, which
it would take too much space to mention.

Among the churches, destruction was wrought on the church at the Ruins
of the Tartars in the Castle of the Mountain, the Church of Az-Zuhrt on the
spot where the Pool of An-Ndsir now is, the Church of the Hamrd, a church
near the Seven Wells, which is called that of the Daughters, the' Church of
Saint Mennas, the Church of Al-Fahhddtn (the Trainers) at Cairo, a church
in the quarter of the Romans, a church near the Archers, two churches in the
quarter of Zawilah, a church near the Flag-Store, a church at Al-Khandak ; four
churches in the frontier-city of Alexandria, two churches in the town of Damanhiir
Al-Wahsh, a church in the province of Al-Gharbiyah, three churches in the
province of Ash-Sharktyah, six churches in the province of Al-Bahnas4 ; at SuyCiJ,
Manfaldt, and Munyat Ibn al-Khastb eight churches, at Ki)? and Aswdn eleven
churches, in the province of Itfih one church ; in the market-place of Wardin
in the city of Misr, in the quarters of Al-Musdsah and Kasr ash-Shama' at Misr
eight churches. A great number of monasteries also were destroyed, and the
Monastery of the Mule and the Monastery of Shahr&n remained long deserted.
These important events, such as could with difficulty be found a second time
during a long series of years, took place in a short space of time ; so many persons
perished, so much property was destroyed, and so many buildings ruined that for
their multitude they cannot be described. The end of all things rests with God I

16. Church of Michael, This church was by the canal of the Bant Wd'il
before the city of Mi^r to the south of 'Akabah Yahfub, and is now near the
Bridge of Al-Afram ; it was newly built under Islam, and is of fine architecture.

17. Church of Mary, in the Gardens of the Vizier to the south of the Lake
of Al-H abash ; it is empty, and no one goes there.

18. The Church of Mary, in the district of Al-*AdawJyah towards the south, is
old, but ab-eady ruined.

19. The Church of Anthony, in the district of Baydd, north of It^ih, has
been renewed. In the district of Shamiib there were many churches now
destroyed; one of them is in the district of Ihrit on the mountain, two days
to the south of Baydd, and still exists.



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APPENDIX. 341

20. The Church of the Virgin^ in the neighbourhood of Ashkar; at its
gate stands a tower built of large bricks, which is said to be the place where
M(bd ibn *Imrdn (the prophet Moses) was bom.

21. Church of Mary, in the district of Al-Khusiis; it is a house of which
they have made a church, which, however, is neglected.

22. Church of Mary, Church of Al-Kasfr, and Church of Gabriel ; these
three churches stand in the district of Abnftb.

23. Church of Asiitir, which means [<r«r4p=] the Saviour; this stands
in the city of Ikhmim, and is much revered among the Christians; it bears
the name of the Martyrs, and there is a well there, the water qf which, if it be
put into a lamp, becomes of a deep-red colour like blood.

24. Church of Michael, also at Ikhmim. There is a custom among the
Christians at these two churches that when they are keeping the Feast of Palms,
also called the Feast of Hosanna, the priests and deacons go in procession
with censers, incense, crosses, the gospels, and lighted candles, and stand before
the door of the Cadi, and then before the doors of the most respectable Muslims,
where they bum incense, read a passage of the Gospel, and sing a hymn, that
is to say, praise him.

26. The Church of Saint Pachomius, in the district of Atfah, is the last
church on the eastem bank, Bakh(im or Pachomius was a monk at the time
of Saint Sinuthius; he is called the Father of the Community, because he
increased the number of the monks and gave a teacher to every two monks.
He did not allow wine or meat to be brought into his monastery, and he com-
manded that the fast should be kept until the end of the ninth hour of the
day; he gave his monks roasted chickpeas to eat, and they called them chick-
peas of scarcity. His monastery has long been destroyed, but this church of
his still exists at Atfd, to the south of Ikhmim.

26. The Church of the Evangelist Mark, at Al-Jizah, was ruined after
A. H. 800 and then rebuilt. This Mark was one of the Disciples of Christ, and
founder of the patriarchal see of Egypt and Abyssinia.

27. The Church of Saint George, in the district of Bd 'n-Numrus in [the
province of] Al-Jizah, was destroyed in a.h. 780, as it has been related above,
but afterwards restored.

28. The Church in the district of BH Fdrd, on the farthest limit of th^
province of Al-Jizah.

29. Church of Sinuthius, in the district of Harabshant.

30. Church of Saint George, in the district of Band, is celebrated among



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S42 CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT.

them; they bring thither votive oflferings, and swear by it, and relate many
remarkable stories of it.

31. Church of Saint Mdriif4, in the district of Shumustl This Marfltd is
highly honoured among them ; he was a revered monk, and his bones are
kept in a chest in the monastery of BiX Bishd'i on the plain of Shihit, and
are visited even now.

32. Church of Mary at Al-Bahnas&. It is said that there were 360 churches
at Al-Bahnasd, which have all been destroyed, so that this church alone remains.

33. The Church of the Monk Samuel, in the district of Shinarah.

34. The Church 0/ Mary, in the district of Tunbudd, is old.

35. The Church 0/ Michael, in the district of Tunbudi, is large and old. There
were here many churches now destroyed ; the greater part of the inhabitants of
Tunbudd consist of Christian artisans.

36. The Church of the Apostles, in the district of Ishnfn, is very large.

37. The Church 0/ Mary, in the district of Ishnln, is old.

38. The Church of Michael, and 39. The Church of Gabriel also, in the district
of Ishnin. In this district there were 160 churches, which have all been destroyed
with the exception of the four above mentioned ; the greater part of the inhabi-
tants of Ishntn are Christians, and they maintain themselves by keeping watch
over the palm-trees. Further on there are still remains of churches in which they
keep their festivals, as the Church of Saint George, that of MdrHtd, that of
Barbara, and that of Gafrtl, \,t,fabrtl (Gabriel).

40. In Munyat ibn Khasib there are six churches, that of Al-Mu^allakah, i.e.
the Church of the Virgin, that of Peter and Paul, that of Michael, that of
Saint George, that of Saint Paul of Tamwaih, and that of the three youths,
namely, Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, who were warriors in the time of Bukht
Nasr (Nabuchadnezzar) and worshipped God in secret; when they were dis-
covered Bukht Nasr wished to bring them back to the worship of idols, and
when they refused this he had them thrown into prison for a long time that
they might be perverted ; but they would not, and so he had them brought out
and cast into the fire, which, however, did not bum them. The Christians hold
them in great honour, although they lived long before the time of Christ.

41. Church in the district of Tahd in the name of the Disciples of Christ, who
are called by them Apostles.

42. Church of Mary ^ also in the district of TaM.

43. The Church of the Two Wise Men, in the district of Manhari, keeps a great
festival in the month of Bashans at which the bishop is present, and a great



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APPENDIX. 343

fair is held at the festival. These two wise men are Cosmas and Damian,
the two monks.

44. The Church of the Virgin^ in the district of Bft Karkds, is old and large.

46. In the district of Mallawi there is the Church of the Apostles, and two ruined
churches, one named after Saint George and the other after the angel Michael,

46. In the district of Daljah there were many churches of which only three
are left; the Church of the Virgin which is large, that of Sinuthius, and that of
Saint Mercurius; they (the others) are entirely destroyed.

47. In the district of Sanabft is the Church of Saint Paul and that of
Saint George ; ^anabii numbers many Christians.

48. In the district of BiblS'ti, to the north of Sanabft, there is an old church
on the western side of the city named after George; there are many Christians
who practise agriculture.

49. In the district of Darfit there is a church near the town, like a monastery,
and named after the Monk Serapion who lived in the tim^ of Sinuthius and was
elected bishop ; many things are told of him.

60. In the district of £(ik Bant Zaid there is a large church named after
the Apostles, in which a festival is kept

61. In the province of K(if is the Church of Mary and that of Gabriel,

62. In the district of Damshtr is the Church of the Martyr Mercurius; it is old
and there are many Christians there.

53. In the district of Unmi al-Kusftr is the Church of Saint fohn the Dwarf
which is old.

64. In the district of BallOt, on the frontier of the district of ManfaWt, is
the Church of Michael, which is small.

B5, In the district of Al-Ballgharah, on the borders of ManfaKi^, is a small
church, inhabited by the priest with his family.

66. In the district of Shakalktl are three large old churches, named respec-
tively after the Apostles, Michael and Saint Mennas.

67. In the district of Munsha'at an-Nasdrd is ^ church of Michael,

68. In the town of Suyftt is the Church of BH Sadrah (i. e. St. Theodore)
and that of the Apostles; and before the town is the Church of Saint Mennas,

69. In the district of Udrunkah there is a very old church named after the three
youths Ananias, Azarias, and Misael; it is a school for poor Christians. The
inhabitants of Durunkah are Christians, and understand the Coptic language,
which is the means of communication there both for children and adults, and
they are able to explain it in Arabic.



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344 CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT.

60. In the district of Rtfah al-Gharbi is the Church of Saini Coluthus, who was
a physician and monk, and performed wonderful cures of inflammation of the eye ; ,
a festival is held in his honour at this church. There is also a Church of Michael here.
Worms have already gnawed away one side of [the church at] Rifah al-Gharbi.

61. In the district of Mftshah there is a church built over a bath, in
the name of the martyr Victor; it was built in the time of Constantine, son
of Helena, and has a terrace ten cubits wide, and three domes, each of which
is about eighty cubits high ; the whole is built of white stone ; but the western
half is already fallen. It is said that this church stands over a treasure which
lies beneath it; and it is said that there was a passage under the earth from
Suyii^ to this town of Miishah.

62. In the district of Buk(ir, at the border of Biitij, there is an old Church
dedicated to the martyr Claudius^ who stands among them on a par with
Mercurius, Georgius i.e. Bft Jurj, the commander Theodoras, and Mind'iis.
The father of Claudius was one of the prefects of Diocletian, and he was himself
celebrated for his bravery. When he became a Christian, the emperor had him
seized and tortured that he might return to the worship of idols, but he remained
steadfast until he was killed. Many things are related of him.

63. In the district of Al-Ka^fah there is a Church named after the Virgin,
where there was a bishop named Alduwtn, who had a quarrel with his own party,
so that they buried him alive ; they are among the worst Christians, and are
notorious for their wickedness. There was among them a Christian named
George, son of the Nun, who overstepped all bounds, so that the Emir and
Majordomo Jamil ad-Din cut off his head in the reign of Al-Malik an-Ndsir
Faraj ibn Barkiik.

64. In the district of Bfttlj there are several rained churches ; and the Christians
are accustomed to say their prayers secretly in one of their houses, and when day
breaks, they go out to the rains of a church, there erect an altar of palm-stems in
the form of a cage, and perform their devotions.

65. In the district of Bft Makriifah there is an old Church dedicated to Michael^
where two festivals are kept yearly. The inhabitants of that district are Christians,
chiefly shepherds, and are people of a low class.

66. In the district of Duwainah there is a Church named after SairU John
the Dwarf who is much revered among them ; there lived there a man named
Jonas, who was elected bishop, and was celebrated for his knowledge, in several
sciences ; they were irritated against him for envy of his knowledge, and they
buried him alive, but his body had already ascended to heaven.



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APPENDIX. 345

67. In Al-Mardghah, between Tah^d and TimS, there is a church, and in the
district of Kilfi*(i a large church. The Christians of this place are celebrated
for their knowledge of magic and kindred sciences, and there was there, in
the reign of Al- Malik az-!^dhir Barkdk, a deacon named Absalfits, who possessed
great skill in them, and stories are told of him which I prefer not to repeat
on account of their strangeness.

68. In the district of Farshiit there is a Church of Michael and a Church
of the Virgin Mary,

69. In the city of Hflw there is a Church of the Virgin and a Church of
Saint Mennas,

70. In the district of BahjGrah there is a Church of the Apostles, and at
Isnd a Church of Mary ^ a Church of Michael, and a Church of John the Baptist,
i.e. Fahyd ibn Zakartyd,

71. At Nakidah there is a Church of the Virgin, a Church of John the Baptist,
a Church of Gabriel, and a Church of John the Compassionate, The last was a rich
man of Antioch, who became a monk, divided all his goods among the poor, and
travelled through the world ; and he confessed the Christian religion. His father
consoled himself on his son's account, and it was believed that he was dead.
Afterwards he came back to Antioch in such a condition that no one knew him ;
he lived in a cell on a dunghill, and fed upon that which was thrown upon the
dunghill until he died. At his funeral his father was present and recognized
the cover of his book of the gospels, and on further examination found that
it was his son; so he buried him, and built in his name the Church of Antioch
and that of the Virgin in the town of Kiff.

72. At Asftin there were several churches which were destroyed with the town ;
in the town of K(i§ also there were many monasteries and churches which were
destroyed with the town, so that only one Church of the Virgin is now remaining.

Besides the churches hitherto mentioned by us there is none remaining in the
southern provinces. As for the northern provinces there is at Munyah Surad in
the district of Cairo a Church of the Virgin Mary, which is famous among them ;
in the district of Sanduwah a new church named after Saint George; at Marsdf^
a restored church also named after Saint George; at Samanniid a church named
after the Apostles, built in a house ; at Sanbit a church celebrated among them
and named after the Apostles; at Sandafi a church revered among them and named
after Saint George; at Ar-Raiddniyah a Church of the Virgin, highly revered
among them. At Damietta there are four Churches, of the Virgin, Michael,
John the Baptist, and St, George, which are celebrated among them. In the district



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346 CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT.

of Subk al-'Abid there is a church in a hidden house, named after the Virgin:
at Al-Nahrdrtyah there is* a new church in a hidden house; at Lukinah there is
a Church of Saint John the Dwarf; at Damanhftr there is a new church in a hidden
house, named after Michael, At Alexandria is the Church of AhMtialldkah named
after the Virgin^ the Church of Saint George^ the Church of John the Baptist^ and
that of the Apostles,

These are the churches of the Jacobites in Egypt ; and they have also at Gaza
a Church of Mary and at Jerusalem the Kumdmah (i. e. Church of the Holy
Sepulchre, or rather a chapel in it) and the Church of Zion,

As for the Melkites, they possess at Cairo the Church of Saint Nicholas near
the Archers, and at Mi§r the Church of the Angel Gabriel in the quarter of Kasr
ash-Shama', where the cell of their patriarch is, the Church of the Virgin also in the
Kasr ash-Shama', the Church of the Angel Michael near the Church of Barbara
at MLpr, and the Church of Saint John in the quarter of the Monastery of Aj^Ttn.



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I.

INDEX OF CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES

IN EGYPT,

ACCORDING TO ABXJ gALIH,

enumerating not only the churches contained within the walls of monasteries,
but also the satellite churches or chapels. It is assumed that each monastery
must contain one church if more are not named. It must be remembered that
the churches and monasteries of the greater part of Lower Egypt, Cairo, and
the WSdt Habib are not described, although some of them are incidentally named,
in the existing portion of the work. The folios of the original MS., marked
at the side of the text and translation, are here given.



P/(ue.


No, of
Churches,


No, of
Monasteries.


Folio of MS.


Abtftjah • . . .
Abd n-Numrus, J^^ Bunumrus


4


..•


73 b








Al-'Adawlyah .


3


I


44a, 46b, 48a


Afldh az-Zaitiin


7


I


72 b


Ahnds ....


2


I


92 a


Akfahs ....


6


I


80 a, 91a


Alexandria


...


I


80 a


Andaribd, Mount, see Atrtbah








Ansin^ ....


5


5


79 b, 86 b, 87 a, 92 a


Anthony, Monastery of Saint


I


I


54a ff.


Al-'Arlsh ....


2


*••


56 b


Armant . ...


I


...


102 b


Ashriibah . ...


8


...


75 a


Asiout, see VsytH








Assouan, see Uswdn








Athlidim ....


5


...


92 a


Atrtbah, Mount .




I


82 b


Bahjftrah ....


I


...


81 a


Al-Bahnas4


15


...


73b, 74b, 75a


Al-Bahnasi, Oasis of .


3


I


75 a, 93 a &b, 94 a


Bahiimalfs


5


,,


73 b


Bakik, Island of


2


...


104 a



yy 2



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348



CHURCHES AND MONASTERIES OF EGYPT.





No. of


No. of






Place.


Churches,


Monasteries.


Folio of MS.




Bdliijah ....


I




56 a




Ban^ Biisir


5


...


18 a, 69 a




Bardaniihah


8


...


74 a




BarjanQs ....


I


I


86 a




Al-Bamll ....


2


• * .


56 a




Al-Basittn


2


I


I b, 2 a, 3 a, 4 b,


5a


Bildk, see Philae










Btsfts ....


I


I


76a




Brothers, Monastery of the


I


I


73 a




BAHariik.


I


I


104 b




BQldk [Dakriir]

Bulyana ....


2

I


I


60 b
8ia




Bunumrus or Kasr Khikdn


I


...


60 b




BMr Band [or* Wand]


2


...


17 b, 68 b




BQsir Kiirtdus .


I


I


92 b




Al-Busidn, j^if Al-Basdttn .










BQttj ....


I


...


91a




Cairo ....


4


I


5a, 23b




Cairo, Old, see Fustat Misr










Dahshiir ....


I


I


53 b




Dair at-Tinddah


I


I


90 a




Dald? ....


I


I


91 a




Daljah, District of .


24




78 a, 91b




Damdmtl ....


I




102 b




Damanhftr


I




45 b




Damiih ....


I


• . •


66 b




Darwat as-SaraMm .


2


• *•


77 b




Devils, Mon. of the, see Torch










Dimnii ....


5


4


86 a




Dogs, Mon. of the, see Vine-










dresser










Ekhmeem, see Ikhmtm










Elephantine, see Uswin, Island










of










Esneh, see Isnd










Fdnft and NakaUfah,Districtof


5


I


72 b, 73 a




Fa'ft


I


...


103 b





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INDEX I.



349



Place.


No. of

Churches.


No. of
Monasteries.


Folio of MS,


Fayyiim, the . . .


...


35

(under Omeyyads)


18 b, 70 a


FayyOm, City of the, see Madi-








nat al-Fayyftm








Funkus ....


I


...


77 a


Fustat Misr and suburbs .


37


5


23 b ff., 29 b ff.


Ghizeh, see Al-Jizah








Al-Hamrd, Churches of, see








Fustat Misr








Al-Han4dah, Mon. of, see Rifah








Helouan, see Hulwdn








Honey, Mon. of, see Munyah








Bant Khasfb








Hulwan ....


2


3


52 b


Ibkdh ....


I


I


loi a


IbshS't, Mon. of, see Usyfit








Ibsidfyd ....


I


I


90 a


Idmk ....


1


...


74 b


Idrijah ....


I


...


18 a, 69 b


Ikhmim (at or near) .


70
(before a-h. 552)


3


86 a


Iknft ....


I


...


82 a


Ishntn ....


12


...


91a


Isnd ....


I


...


102 a


Itfih ....


20

• till endofi3th cent.)



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