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A short account of the land and the people of India
with a brief description of their manners and cus-
toms, social evils, religious rites and cere-
monies, etc., etc., and a short account
of the author's experience.

— BY—


Calcutta, India.

" Long have they waited in the dark heathen lands
For the pure living water from the dear Savior's hands;
Still they are waiting for the gospel to come,
Let us hasten to tell them of our heavenly home. "

{Illustrated with cuts and maps. )


Gospel Trumpet Company,


(wo Copies Receive*

AUG 1! 1903

C*p>iifci>i fcntty



Copyright, 1903,

J i *,'* BY

GosPHL Trumpet Company.


During tlie camp-meeting held at
Moundsville, W. Va., India's mil-
lions—their miserable condition, thmr
utter darkness, their crying need—
which had been a burden on my soul,
naturally sought expression. Near the
close of this series of meetings I felt
led to write something about India for
the information of the church at large
in this land. A brother's encouraging
words gave me the first impetus toi the
task, and at the suggestion of others
I began at once to write a short de-
scription of the land, and also the peo-
ple I belong to, whom I love with a
sincere love, and for whose salvation I
am devoted to the Lord.

Having only very limited time and
leisure to give to this work, during fre^
quent travels in the States, and also a
limited opportunity to collect mate-
rials, I am afraid my work has not
been complete. This small volume is
by no means free from imperf ectionsi ;
how far it will be satisfactory, is left
with the reader to judge.


Most of the material presented in
these pages was collected from my per-
sonal experience and contact with dif-
ferent nations of the country ; and yet
I have to acknowledge my indehted-
ness to Miss Lucy E. Guiness, author
of Across India at the Dawn of the 20th
Century, to Dr. John Murdock,of Mad-
ras, author of Religious History of
India, The Principal Nations of India,
etc., to John B. Mott, the author of The
Evangelization of the World in this
Generation, and to Annie W. Marston,
the author of The Great Closed Land,
whose helpful works I have consulted
in the preparation of my sketch on
India's millions. Besides these I owe
my indebtedness to the ^* Student and
the Missionary Problem'^ for sonae
helpful diagrams.

For various help in preparing the
manuscript, reading proofs, etc., my
sincere thanks are due to a number of
the brethren engaged in the Lord's
work at the Gospel Trumpet Office.

The statistics have been compiled
from various sources and corrected up
to the latest information and reports.
The account of the Khasi Hills was


largely taken from the writings of Bro.
W. M. Roy, of SMUong, and Bro. J. M.
Roy, of Calcutta, to whom I am indebt-
ed for their valuable help. The Scrip-
tures quoted in the book will be found
in some cases different from the read-
ing of the Common Version, being
usually quoted from the Revised En-
glish Bible.

I have tried to represent India's
Millions as they are, and if I have
missed the mark, it is because I have
fallen short of it, and not gone beyond.
I have not exaggerated the sad condi-
tion of that dark land. I wish I could
paint it as it really is. This is only a
faint glimpse of things as they are.

"I wish, oh, I wish that their helpless cry

Could be heard by you ere they sink and die!

It is such a mournful, low and bitter wail.

Telling of searching, only to fail

In finding the Truth, the Light, the Way;

Ah, who pineth and longeth more than they?' '

May God bless the perusal of the
following pages to every reader, and
may the Holy Spirit who prompted
their writing illuminate themi with
heavenly light unto the glory of Jesus
Christ our Lord and Savior. Amen.



The Land 17

Physical Features 17

Political Divisions 22

Chief Cities 25

The People 29

The Early Inhabitants 29

The Aiyans 32

Parsees 34

Mohammedans, etc 35

Manners and Customs 37

Aborigines 37

Dravidians 42

Aryans 4^5

(a) Bengalis, (6) Orij^s, (e) Hindustanis,

(d) The Punjabis, (e) Mahrattas, (/) Gu-
jeratis, (gr) Eajputs. 45-56

Social Evils . ........ ...,,.., 57

Marriage 57

Purdah or Seclusion 64

Widowhood 71

Caste 75

Religion 79

Hinduism 80

(a) Sacred Books, (6) Eeligious Kites, (c)
Gods of the Hindus, (d) Avatars of the Gods,

(e) Worship, (/) Temples and Priests, [g)
Hindu Devotees 81-130

Buddhism 130^

(a) Buddhist Books, (&) Buddhist Doctrine,!
(c) Buddhist Precepts 133-138g


Jaiuism 138

Zoroastrianism 141

Mohammedanism 144

Sikhism 151

Christianity in India 155

Evangelization of India 157

Necessity of Evangelization .... 162

Criminal Silence 172

Dark India (a poem) 177

From Darkness into Light 179

{Author's experience.)

New Light 205

Callto Work .'..... 215

Our Home 228

Khasi Hills 231

Tibet 236

Our Prospect 250

The Evening Call {a hymn,) 260

Appendix 261

List of Illtistrations.

An Ascetic Burying His Head 251

Bathing in the Ganges 1 18

Benares — Priests on the River Bank 87

Bengali Country Home 49

Bengal — Nomadic Tribe of 78

Bengali Home 180

Boats Carrying Goods 225

Boats Carrying Passengers 47

Bride and Bridegroom — Indian 59

Buddhist Priest .137

Buddha .131

Bullock Cart 249

Burmese Cab 23

Calcutta— a Group from 229

Country Road ... .186

Demon Worshiped in Ceylon .30

Female Bathing in the Ganges 255

Ganesh 103

Goddess Durga 101

Hanuman 89

Hindu Ascetic Sitting on Spikes 126

Hindu Ascetic Burying His Head 128

Hindu Ascetic with Both Hands Stiff. .125

Hindu Ascetics 153

Hindu Ascetic with One Stiff Hand and Arm 154

Hurdwar on the Ganges 119

Jagannath 104

Jain Temple of Calcutta 139

Kali— Goddess 99

Kalighat— Temple of 26

Khasi Village 232

Krishna and His Wife 109

Maidan — Calcutta 208

Mohammedan Dress 36

Mohammedan Festival — Id 149

Monkey Temple — Benares 117

Mundul— N. N. and Wife 218

Portrait of the Author Frontispiece.

List of Illustrations.

Kiver Soene in BeiigaL. 19

Silver Palanquins 66

Steamer Station in Bengal 203

Street-car— Old Fashioned 28

Tibetan Bridal Party 254

*' Carrying the dead 244

" Priest Casting Out Evil 238

" Taking Evil Out of the Land 240

" Woman Turning Prayer- wheel 246

Tower of Silence 143

Village Market 221

Wife — Nine-year-old 60

Worshiping Tulsi 97

Maps and Diagrams.

Colored Map of India between 24j 25

Map of Bogra 216, 217

Population of Globe and India 261

Area of Globe and India 262

Population of U. S. A. and India ... 263

Area of U. S. A 264

Area of India 265

Education in India 266

Religions of India 267

Women and Girls of India 268

India's Boys and Girls 269

Possibilities of Personal Work 270


India is considered a heathen land,
notwithstanding the fact of it being un-
der the government of a Christian na^
tion, and that missionaries have
invaded its territory constantly for
many years. While some here andt
there are learning of the true God,
and accepting the faith of our Lord
and Savior Jesus Christ, tiie masses
of the people are still worshiping
idols. Many of tih.em are living bar-
barous lives, while others are civi-
lized, yet strangers to the Lord of

The inspired words, '^Ask of me,
and I shall give thee the heathen for
thine inheritance," is more vividly
portrayed to our minds as' we have
the situation and present condition of
the heathen nations pictured before
us. It awakens a chord of sympathy,
and brings to remembrance a neglect-
ed dutr toward peri'shing souls who
kEKow not how to serve the true smS'
living Grod. This volume, *'indta's'
MILLIONS," contains miuch valuable in-


formation, not only about that country,
but about its people, their customs,
beliefs, various kinds of worship,
manner of living, etc., during the past
and at the present time.

The author being a native of that
country, having been converted from
Mohammedanism, and having trav-
eled over the land among the various
tribes, is competent to present the
facts concerning these people.

Comparatively few people in Chris-
tian lands know of the suffering and
savage practises among heathen na-
tions. The manner and custom of sac-
rificing to heathen gods, and a descrip-
tion of the things sacrificed, vividly
impress one with the great need of
their enlightenment.

The author not only produces a
compilation of facts from other writ-
ers, but speaks from personal knowl-
edge, and the reader is assured of the
reliability of what is presented. Hav-
ing been present with him during the
writing of the manuscript, while he
was on a tour in America in behalf of
the people of India, it is my desire that
it be widely circulated, and I feel as-


sured that it will be both instructive
and of intense interest, and will meet
the approval of the reader.

Wishing the blessings of God upon
it and those who peruse its pages, I

Yours in Him,

E. E. Byrum.

Moundsville, W. Va., U. S. A.
July 1», 1903.

The Land.

"The kingdom of the world is become the kingdom
of our Lord, and of his Christ: and he shall reign for
ever and ever." Kev. 11: 15.

PHysical Feattires.

Because of its most diversified sur-
face and varied scenery, India has
rightly been called ' ' an epitome of the
world." Its lofty mountains with per-
petual snow-clad tops, its extensive and Natural scen-
^ ery.

fertile plains with rich verdure and

luxuriant foliage, its vast and numer-
ous watercourses, its sunny sandbanks
and extensive coast-lines— all contrib-
ute in making India one of the most
beautiful countries. Almost all the
different climates of the world can be
found in India; possessing as it does
a great variety of landscape, vegeta-
tion and natural features, it is indeed
a multum in parvo of the world.

In the north the Himalayan regions,
with the loftiest mountain in the
world, reaching an elevation of 29,002
feet, far above the clouds, have





an icy cold climate. In the sontli the
intense sunshine, and the equatorial
heat make it almost unbearable, while
the temperate and mild climate on the
plains form a happy medium between
the two extremes, and is very pleasant
and agreeable. But the people of the
land are perhaps more diversified in
color and stature, temperament and
nature than the natural scenery.

India is by no means a small coun-
try. It forms the central peninsula of
southern Asia. It is bounded by the
Himalayan mountains on the north,
and the great Indian Ocean on the
south, by the bay of Bengal and the
transgangetic peninsula on the east,
and the Arabian Sea and Afghanistan
on the west. The total area is 1,559,603
square miles, equal to half the area of
the United States, or the whole of Eu-
rope, Eussia excepted. Compared to
the area of the habitable earth it is
one-fifteenth of the globe.

The great mountains are Himalayas
in the north, Solaiman in the west,
Bindhya range in the south, the east-
ern and western Ghats on the two sea-
coasts. Besides there are hills and


forests almost all over the land except-
ing the plains. The great tableland of
northern India has an elevation of
about 2,000 feet above the sea-level.

The river system of India is on a
grand scale. The Ganges with a course



of 1,500 miles on the northeast, to-
gether with its tributaries, drains
about 500,000 square miles. The In-
dus taking its rise in the north trav-
erses the northwestern part of the
country, and w^itli its ^ve tributaries
drains about 400,000 square miles,
while Brahmaputra has a course of 600

20 India's millions.

miles in Indian territory alone. Eight-
een rivers water the east side of In-
dia, the principals being Godavary,
830 miles long ; Kristna, 800 ; Kavery,
470; Mahanadi, 520; Brahmani, 400.
There are twenty others on the west
side, of which the Nurbudda, 800 miles
long, and the Tapti, 400, are the most

Vegetation of India is as varied as
its soil and climate. Kice is the prin-
Vegetation. cipal food, and grows in abundance
wherever irrigation is practised. In the
northwestern provinces maize (corn)
and wheat are cultivated with great
success. Opium is one of the most
valuable but pernicious products of
the country. Cotton and jute are also
produced and extensively exported to
foreign lands. Tea, coffee, and tobac-
co are largely cultivated. Indigo is one
of the important products. The im-
proved implements of husbandry are
unknown in India. Wooden ploughs
are drawn by bullocks or buffaloes.
Almost all the implements are made of
wood or bamboo. There are no sow-
ing or reaping-machines, everything
is done by hand.


Beautiful palm groves, the shady
avenues of banyan trees, the umbra-
geous mango topes form the character-
istic features of Indian scenery. Man-
goes, jack fruits, wood apples, tama-
rinds, cocoanuts, areca nuts, pomegran-
ates, oranges, bananas, palms, dates,
apples, pears, peaches, grapes, lemons,
melons, papitas and pineapples are
the principal fruits. Cabbage, cauli-
flower, beets, potatoes, onions, garlic,
ginger, and saffron are some of the
vegetable products.

Besides the ordinary domestic ani-
mals, India has the elephant, camel, Animals.
hum.ped ox, yak, and Kashmir goat.
The Bengal tiger is the most formida-
ble of wild beasts. There are also leop-
ards, wolves, jackals, panthers, bears,
hyenas, lynxes and foxes. Several
varieties of poisonous snakes are also
found, and there is an average of 2,700
deaths in ayear from snake bites alone.

Having such a great variety of ele-
vation and surface, the climate of In-
dia must differ greatly. There are Climate.
three well-marked seasons in northern
India— the winter, the summer, the
rainy. The cool months are November,

Mineral prod-


December, January and part of Feb-
ruary. The climate of South India is
greatly influenced by monsoons, pre-
vailing in southern Asia. Mean tem-
perature of Calcutta 78 degrees, with
an average rainfall of 65.6 inches;
Bombay, 80 degrees, rainfall 74.4
inches ; Madras, 82 degrees, rainfall
49.1 inches.

(^al, iron, and rock salt are the
principal mineral products. Gold, sil-
ver, cox)per, lead, antim±ony, tin, salt-
peter and petroleum are also obtained.

Political Divisions.

There are eight large provinces, and
four small states, under the direct rule
of the British govermiient.

Under Lieutenant-Governors.

1. BENGAL. — Situated in the northeast on the bay
of Bengal, forming the basin of the lower Ganges,
Area, 187,222 square miles, with a poinilation of
81,000,000. Capital city, Calcutta.


on the northwest of Bengal along the foot of the
Himalayas, forming the main basin of the Upper
Ganges and the Jumna, its main tributary. Area,
107,503 square miles. Population, 49,000,000.
Capital city, Allahabad.

3. THE PUNJAB (including Beluchistan). — Situa-
ted on the northwestern frontier, watered by the
five tributaries of the Indus. Area, 110,667 square


miles. Population, 27,000,000. Capital city, La-

Under Governors.

4. MADRAS PRESIDENCY.— Lies along the East
coast, from Bengal to the south. Area, 141,189
square miles. Population, 41,000,000. Capital city,

5. BOMBx^Y PRESIDENCY. — Situated on the west
coast of India, from Beluchistan to Mysore. Area,
125,144 square miles. Population, 26,000,000.
Capital city, Bombay.

Under Chief Commissioners.

6. CENTRAL PROVINCES. — Those form the northern
part of the Deccan. Area, 86,501 square miles.
Population, 12,000,000. Capital city, Nagpur.

7. ASSAM. — Assam forms the valley of the
Lower Brahmaputra, along the Himalayas. Area,
49,004 square miles. Population, 6,000,000. Chief
city, Shillong.

8. BURMA. — East of Bengal and Assam. Area,



171,430 square miles. Population, 10,000,000.
Chief city, Mandalay.

The four smaller states of A j mere, Berar, Coorg
and the Andaman Islands, are under the direct
administration of the Governor-General of India.

The Chief Native States^
They cover an area of over 600,000
square miles, with a population of
more than 66,000,000. They vary
greatly in size. There are about 800
native states, but only 200 are of any
importance. The following are the
most important ones.

1. BAJPUTANA.— Consists of twenty-one states
south of the Punjab. Chief town, Jaipur.

2. CENTRAL INDIA. — Comprises an agency of over
eighty-two native states, lying between Eajputana
and the Central Provinces. Chief town, Indore.

3. HAIDAEABAD. — Haidarabad is a large territory
on the Central Deccan. Chief city, Haidarabad.

4. MYSORE.— Mysore is south of Haidarabad.
Chief city, Bangalore.

5. BARODA.— North of Bombay. Consists of six
native states. Chief city, Baroda.

6. KASHMIR.— Kashmir is in Valley of the Him-
alayas, north of the Punjab. Chief city, Srinagar.

7. NEPAL.— North of the Northwestern Provinces,
on the Himalayas, and is a mountainous region.
Capital, Katmandu.

8. BHUTAN.— This is a petty Himalayan state,
and inaccessible to foreigners. Capital, Tassisudon.

These last two states are closed against the Gos-
pel. No missionaries are allowed to enter these


^*^^effree Channel
SCALE OF STATUTE MiLES. ' 4i^'^^vM,,J'\.^ ^

or.0 100 200 300 490 3.ow...:ra M-. ^^«. "• ^ %t?^i2



90" 100°



Ctiief Cities of India.

1. CAI.CUTTA.— On the Ganges, and eighty milea
from the Bay of Bengal. It is the flourishing cap-
ital of British India, and the residence of the Gov-
ernor-General and Viceroy. On account of its mag-
nificent buildings, Calcutta is often called **The
city of Palaces"; and it so unites the luxury of
the East and the West that it has often been
styled the ''London and Paris" of Asia. As a
port its trade is immense. Including Howrah, on
the other side of the river, with which it is con-
nected by a bridge, it is the second largest city in
the British Empire. Population, 1,698,310. (Calcut-
ta and suburbs.)

2. BOMBAY.— In Bombay Presidency, on the west
coast. Is one of the most beautiful cities of the
East. In commerce it stands next to Calcutta.
It is the capital of Bombay Presidency. Population,

3. MADRAS. — Capital of Madras Presidency, on
the Bay of Bengal. Population, 509,346.

4. HAIDAE.ABAD. — Capital of the Deccan. Popula-
tion, 415,000.

5. LUCKNOW. — In the Northwest Provinces. Cap-
ital of Oudh. Population, 273,000.

6. BENARES. — In the Northwest Provinces. The
sacred city of the Hindus, on the Ganges. There
are over 1,000 Hindu temples. It is a pilgrim,
rather than an industrial city. Population,

7. DELHI.— Ancient capital of India, a place of
great historic importance. Population, 193,000.

8. MANDALAY.— In Burma. Ancient capital of
Burma. Population, 189,000.

9. CAWNPUR. — In the Northwest Provinces. Noted
for its memorable siege and the horrible mas-



.^im *,^m.m^



sacre during tlie mutiny of 1857. Population,

10. BANGALORE.— Capital of Mysore, situated on
the beautiful plateau of the Deccan. It is famous as
a sanitarium. Population, 180,000.

11. RANGOON.— In Lower Burma, on the Ira-
wadi. Population, 180,000.

12. LAHORE. — Capital of the Punjab. An ancient
city. Population, 177,000.

13. ALLAHABAD.— Capital of the Northwest Prov-
inces, situated on the Jumna. Population, 175,000.

14. AGRA.— In the Northwest Provinces, noted
for ''The Taj," one of the most beautiful build-
ings in the world, built upon the tomb of one of
the Indian Queens.

15. PATNA. — In Bengal. Population, 105,000.
10. POONA.— In Bombay, was capital of the

Mahratta Princes. Population, 101,000.

17. JAIPUR.— In Rajputana. Ote of the chief
cities of Eajput states. Population, 159,000.

18. AHMAD ABAD. — In Bombay. Population,

19. AMRiTSAR. — In the Punjab. For some
time it was the capital of the Sifeh chiefs. Popula-
tion, 137,000.

20. BAREJTJ.Y. — In the Northwest Provinces.
Population, 121,000.

21. MEERUT. — Is in the Northwest Provinces. Pop-
ulation, 119,000.

22. SRiNAGAR.— Is thc capital of Kashmir.
Population, 119,000.

23. NAGPUR. — Capital of the Central Provinces.
One of the ancient capitals of the Mahratta
chiefs. Population, 117,000.

24. HOWRAH. — Iq Bengal. The other side of the
Ganges, 0])posite to Calcutta, with which it is
joined by a bridge. Population, 117,000.

25. BARODA.— In Bombay Presidency, under the
Gaehivar of Baroda, a native chief. Population,

20. SURAT. — Is an important cotton port in


Bombay. The first English factory of the East
India Company was established here in 1612.
Population, 109,000.

27. KARACHI.— Is a great port in Sindh, one of
the divisions of the Punjab. Population, 105,000.

28. GWALiOR. — Is in the Centrallndian Agency. It
is a place of historic importance. Population,

Numerous other cities with population less than
100,000, we do not mention.


THe People.

"God hath made of one blood all nations of
men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and
hath determined the times before appointed, and
the bounds of their habitation; that they should
seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him,
and find him. ' ' Acts 17 : 26, 27.

Tlie Early Inliabitants
of India.

The. ahorigines.—lndm was inhab-
ited, from prehistoric times, by: a sav- tribes.'"^
age race of people generally supposed
to be Negritos— a small black negro-
like race spread over the eastern archi-
pelago. They seem to have been in
the rudest state of society, called the
Hunting Stage, and lived on wild ani-
mals, fruits and roots.

The northeastern tribes.— Ki a very
early period some tribes from central
Asia crossed over to India by the
northeastern passes and settled near
the foot of the Himalayas.

Other tribes succeeded them by the
same route and proceeded southwest-
erly further in the country; these are




called the Kolarians, and in the south-
west of Bengal their descendants can




still be found in different hilly tracts,
in an uncivilized savage state. Tliey
number about 2,000,000.

D rav idian tribes. — Dravidians — the
ancestors of the principal nations of
southern India seem to have entered
India by the northwestern passes and
settled further down the country. All
these early inhabitants of India w^ere a
semi-barbarous, half civilized people.
They believed in one supreme God,
buttheyworshiped— asclo some of their
descendants even to-day— demons or
evil spirits, who, they believe,^ inflict
punishment ani bring misery upon

Demonolatry still prevails in India, Their reiig-
especially among the hill tribes. Sir
Moiiier William says :

"The great majority of the inhabitants of In-
dia are, from the cradle to the burning-ground,
victims of a form of mental disease, which is best
expressed by the term demonophobia.* They are
haunted and op^jressed by a perpetual dread of
demons. They are firmly convinced that evil spir-
its of all kinds, fromi malignant fiends to merely
mischievous imps and elves, are ever on the watch
to harm, harass and torment them, to cause
plague, sickness, famine and disaster, to impede,
injure and mar every good work. ' '

* Fear of evil spirits.

ioiis faith.

The Aryan

32 India's millions.

THe Aryans.

After the Kolarian and Dravidian
races settled in their respective divi-
sions, there came the great body of peo-
ple called the Aryans, who entered
India from the northwest. They are
supposed to be a great branch of the
same people who went westward, set-
tled in Europe, and became the fore-
fathers of the principal European
nations. Before their separation, cen-

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Online LibraryA[lá ud] D[in] KhánIndia's millions. A short account of the land and the people of India → online text (page 1 of 11)