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Copyright 1911, Munn & Co., Inc.

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE DOUBLE LOCKS AT GATUN. TOTAL
RISE FROM SEA LEVEL TO LAKE LEVEL, 85 FEET.



Scientific American
Reference Book

Edition of 1914



Compiled and Edited

by

ALBERT A. HOPKINS

For Part I. Statistical Information

Editor of Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas
Scientific American Handbook of Travel, Etc.
Member of the American Statistical Association

and

A. RUSSELL BOND

For Part II. Scientific Information

Editor of Handyman's
Workshop and Laboratory

With 1000 Illustrations




MUNN &, CO., Inc.



NEW YORK, 1914



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY MUNN & CO., INC.



COPYTIIGHT, 1913, BY MUNN & CO., INC.



This work is protected by over eighty Copyrights,
and no matter must be reproduced except by written
permission. Rights of translation into all languages,
including the Scandinavian, are reserved.



Published October, 1912.



New Edition, October, 1913.



Printed in the United States by
A. H. Kellogg Co., New York,



PREFACE.

The Editorial staff of the " Scientific American" re-
ceives annually about 15,000 inquiries covering a wide
range of topics no field of human achievement or of
natural phenomena is neglected. The information sought
for, in many cases, cannot be readily found in text-books
or works of reference. The need of a compendium of
useful information presented itself some twenty years
ago, and a part of the field was covered by the publication
in 1901 of the " Scientific American Cyclopedia of Re-
ceipts, Notes, and Queries," of which over 25,000 copies
were sold. This book becoming obsolete in time was
supplanted by its successor, the " Scientific American
Cyclopedia of Formulas, " issued in 1911. There was, how-
ever, another field which was not covered: the public,
or at least the public of the "Scientific American," de-
manded something which did not exist they wanted a
book which should deal with a vast range of topics other
than formulae. They wanted information about the
Antarctic region, the Panama route, shipping, navies,
armies, railroads, population, education, patents, sub-
marine cables, wireless telegraphy, manufactures, agri-
culture, mining, mechanical movements, astronomy
and the weather. The Editors of the present volume felt
constrained to compile such a book, which was issued in
1904, under the same title as this book. Its success was
immediate, and an edition of 10,000 copies was inadequate
to supply the demand. In 1905 a second large edition
was issued, and was eagerly bought up by those who wished
this useful companion for the desk or library. As the



figures became obsolete, it was allowed to become "out of
print, " and now in response to a considerable number of
requests a new book is presented, following to some ex-
tent the old lines, but entirely recompiled and rewritten.
Immense masses of Government material have been
digested with painstaking care by competent statisticians,
and the result will, in the judgment of the Editors, fully
warrant the expenditure of considerable effort and results
in the production of a unique book.

It is perhaps necessary to call attention to the fact
that there are certain inconsistencies in the tables. In
procuring the figures, for example, from different bureaus
and departments of the Government, with reference to
any subject, it is found that statistics vary in certain
particulars. These differences are due to the different
methods of tabulation or to different points of view. In
many cases these discrepancies are noted in this book,
to prevent the reader from forming erroneous conclusions.
These cases must not be regarded as errors, and an attempt
has been made to give, wherever possible, the date of the
figures and the authority. Every available space has
been taken up with useful information, whether germane
to the chapter or not.

The debt for advice and help is a heavy one. The
compilation of this or any similar one would be impossible
without the co-operation of many Government officials.
Our thanks are especially due to Dr. Falkner, late
Assistant Director of the Census, and to the Hon. E. Dana
Durand, Director of the Census; the Hon. O. P. Austin,
late Chief of the Bureau of Statistics and now Assistant-
Chief of the new Bureau of Domestic and Foreign Com-
merce, and to Mr. N. Eckhardt, Jr., of his office; to the
, Hon. Eugene Tyler Chamberlain, Commissioner of Navi-
'gation; to Captain T. M. Potts, of the United States

[iv]



Navy; to Major J. D. Leitch, U. S. A., Secretary
of the War College Division; to Mr. C. F. Talman,
of the Weather Bureau, for his condensed chapter
on the weather; to Senator Wm. Alden Smith; to Mr.
Slason Thompson, of the Bureau of Railway News and
Statistics; to the Hon. S. B. Donnelly, Public Printer;
to Dr. J. A. Holmes, Chief of the Bureau of Mines; to the
Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, Postmaster-General; to Dr.
A. F. Zahm; to Dr. W. W. Share; to Dr. Geo. F. Kunz; to
Mr. Perry B. Turpin; to Dr. F. L. Hoffman, Statistician of
the Prudential Life Insurance Co.; to Captain J. L. Jayne,
U. S. N., Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Observatory;
to Captain A. W. Lewis, of the Associated Press; to Mr.
E. Justice, of the North German Lloyd Steamship Co.; to
the painstaking assistants, Miss Henrietta von Tobel and
Mr. Albert S. Regula; and to a host of other friends whose
help was invaluable. A number of interesting com-
parisons in line are from Prof. A. L. Hickmann's Geo-
graphical-Statistical Universal Atlas and Philips' Chamber
of Commerce Atlas. Acknowledgment is made for mat-
ter from The American Almanac and Year Book, The
World Almanac and the Chicago Daily News Almanac
and Year Book, The Statistical Abstract of the United
States, and the publications of the Census. Many items
are credited where used.

New York,
October 15, 1912.

PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION.

The edition for 1914 has been brought up to date.
The errors found were trifling, so that it is hoped that
the verdict of users of this edition, as well as the
press, will be favorable. Editions of a statistical work
aggregating 35,000 are rare.

New York,
October 22. 1913.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART I. STATISTICAL INFORMATION.

PAGE

Chapter I. Population and Social Statistics .1-42

Chapter II. Farms, Foods and Forests 43-74

Chapter III. Mines and Quarries 75-96

Chapter IV. Manufactures 97-136

Chapter V. Commerce 137-192

Chapter VI. Mercantile Marine 193-232

Chapter VII. Railroads 233-264

Chapter VIII. The Panama Canal 265-278

Chapter IX. Telegraphs and Cables 279-298

Chapter X. Wireless Telegraphy 299-310

Chapter XI. Telephone Statistics of the World 311-322

Chapter XII. Post Office Affairs 323-350

Chapter XIII. Patents, Trade-Marks and Copyrights 351-388

Chapter XIV. Armies of the World 389-408

Chapter XV. Navies of the World 409-436

Chapter XVI. Aviation 437-456

PART II. SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION.

Chapter I. Chemistry 457-462

Chapter II. Astronomy and Time 463-484

Chapter III. Meteorology 485-518

Chapter IV. Machine Elements and Mechanical Movements , ; . . .519-546

Chapter V. Geometrical Constructions 547-560

Chapter VI. Weights and Measures 561-586

NOTE. A complete Table of Contents is of little value where a complete
Index is provided. Those interested hi a subject will find little hardship in
perusing the whole chapter devoted to it.





Copyright, 1912, by Munn & Co., Inc.

THE LONGEST SHIP AND THE TALLEST BUILDING.
The "Imperator," 900 feet; Woolworth Building, 750 feet.



PART I.

STATISTICAL INFORMATION.
CHAPTER I.



POPULATION AND SOCIAL
STATISTICS.



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.



AREA.


1910


1900


The "United States (total area of enumeration)


93, 402, 151


1 77, 256, 630








Continental United States


91, 972, 266


75, 994 575


Noncontiguous territory .


1, 429, 885


1,262,055








Alaska . .... ...


64 356


63, 592


Hawaii


191, 909


154, 001


Porto Rico


1, 118 012


2 953, 243


Persons in military and naval service stationed abroad


55, 608


91, 219



Includes 953,243 persons enumerated in Porto Rico in 1899.

According to the census of Porto Rico taken in 1899 under the direction of the War Department.

COMPARATIVE AREA OF THE UNITED STATES AND
FOREIGN COUNTRIES.



A COMPARATIVE MAP

Of THE

UNITED STATES.




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AREA OF THE UNITED STATES.



ACCESSION.


Gross area
in square
miles.


ACCESSION.


Gross area
in square
miles.


1 Continental TT. S


3,026,789


Outlying possessions . . .


716,517


/Area of U. S. in 1790 1 ... .


892 135


Alaska, 1867


590, 884


(Louisiana Purchase, 1803 ..


827, 987


Hawaii, 1898


6,449


i Florida, 1819


58 666


Philippine Islands, 1899


115 026


Territory gained through




Porto Rico, 1899


3,435


Treaty with Spain, 1819 .


13, 435


Guam, 1899


210


Texas 1845


389 166


Samoa 1900


77


Oreeon, 1846 - . .


286, 541


Panama Canal Zone, 1904


436


Mexican Cession, 1848
Gadsden Purchase, 1853 . . .


529. 189
.29, 670







> Includes the drainage basin of the Red River of the North, not a part of any
acquisition, but previously considered a part of the Louisiana Purchase.





THE THIRTEEN ORIGINAL STATES, WITH THE ACCESSIONS OF TERRITORY GRANTED BY
THE TREATY OF 1783 WITH GREAT BRITAIN.



TIDES.



Tides are caused by the gravitational at-
traction or pull of the sun and moon upon
the water and upon the earth itself. The
close relation which the tides of high water
bear to the times of the moon's meridian
passage shows that the moon's influence in
rising tides is much greater than that of the
sun; it has been estimated that it is two and
one-half times as great. The result of this
attraction of the moon is to draw or heap up



the water, in the parts of the earth nearest
it, successively towards it. The surface of the
earth rises and falls twice in a lunar day of
about 24 hours and 52 minutes. The tides
do not always rise to the same height, but
every fortnight, after the new and full moon,
they become much higher than they were
in the alternate weeks. These high tides
are called spring tides, and the low ones neap
tides.



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK.



CENTRE OF POPULATION.



At the time of the first census, the centre
of population was 23 miles east of Baltimore,
Maryland, since which time it has moved
steadily westward. In 1800 it was 18 miles
west of Baltimore, in 1810 40 miles northwest
by west from Washington, D. C.; in 1820 16
miles north of Woodstock, Va.; in 1830 19
miles west-southwest of Moorefield, W. Va.;
in 1840 16 miles south of Clarksburg, W. Va.;
in 1850 23 miles southwest of Parkersburg,
W. Va.; in 1860 20 miles south of Chillicothe,



Ohio; in 1870 48 miles east by north of Cin-
cinnati, Ohio; in 1890 20 miles east of Colur L-
bus, Indiana; in 1900 6 miles southeast f
Columbus, Indiana; and finally, in 1910 i
the city of Bloomington, Indiana. Dur
the 120 years that the United States hts
existed the centre has moved over 55)
miles westward, or in other words, froii
west latitude 76 degrees 11 minutes 12
seconds to west latitude 86 degrees 32 minut*js
20 seconds.




PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE BY STATES 1900-1910.



INCREASE IN POPULATION.



CENSUS YEAR.


Population of
continental
United States.


INCREASE OVER PRECEDING

CENSUS.


Adjusted
percentages
of Increase.


Number.


Per cent.


1910


91, 972, 266
75, 994, 575
62, 947, 714
50, 155, 783
38, 558, 371
31, 443, 321
23, 191, 876
17, 069, 453
12, 866, 020
9, 638, 453
7, 239, 881
5, 308, 483
3, 929, 214


15, 977, 691
13, 046, 861
12, 791, 931
11,597,412
7, 115, 050
8. 251, 445
6, 122, 423
4, 203, 433
3, 227, 567
2, 398, 572
1, 931, 398
1, 379, 269


21.0
20.7
25.5
30.1
22.6
35.6
35.9
32.7
33.5
33.1
36.4
35.1


21.0
20.7
24.9
26.0
26.6
35.6
35.9
32.7
33.5
33.1
36.4
35.1


1900 ..


1890


1880


1870


I860


1850


1840


1830


1820 . '........! i !


1810


1800


1790











SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK.



II



POPULATION OF CITIES

OF THE

UNITED STATES

Census of 1910



Citi

Albany, N.Y.... 100,253
Atlanta. Ga 154,839
Baltimore, Md . . 558,485
Birmingham, Ala. 132,685
Boston, Mass 670,585
Bridgeport, Conn 102,054
Buffalo, N.Y... . 423,715
Cambridge, Mass 104,839
Chicago, 111 2,185,283
Cincinnati, Ohio. 364,463
Cleveland, Ohio. . 560,663
Columbus, Ohio.. 181,548
Dayton, Ohio.... 116,577
Denver, Colo 213,381
Detroit, Mich.... 465,766
Fall River, Mass. 119,295
Grand Rapids,
Mich 112,571


es of over 100,000 populat

Indianapolis, Ind. 233,650
Jersey City, N. J. 267,779
Kansas City, Mo. 248,381
Los Angeles, Cal . 319, 198
Louisville, Ky... 223,928
Lowell, Mass 106,294
Memphis, Tenn. . 131,105
Milwaukee, Wis. . 373,857
Minneapolis,
Minn 301,408
Nashville, Tenn . . 1 10,364
Newark, N. J. . . 347,469
New Haven, Ct. . 133,605
New Orleans, La. 339,075
New York, N.Y. 4.766.883
Oakland. Cal.... 150,174
Omaha, Neb 124,096
Paterson.N.J... 125,600

from 25,000 to 100,000 po]
Decatur 111 31 140


ion

Philadelphia. Pa. 1.549,008
Pittsburgh, Pa. . . 533,905
Portland , Ore .... 207 . 2 1 4
Providence, R. 1 . 224,326
Richmond, Va. . . 127 ,628
Rochester, N. Y.. 218,149
St. Louis, Mo .... 687,029
St. Paul, Minn... 214,744
San Francisco,
Cal 416912
Scranton, Pa 129,867
Seattle, Wash. ... 237,194
Spokane, Wash . 104.402
Syracuse. N.Y... 137.249
Toledo. Ohio... . 168,497
Washington,D.,C. 331,069
Worcester. Mass. 145,986

Dulation

Kansas City, Kans. . 82,331
Kingston, N.Y 25,908
Knoxville, Tenn 36,346
La Crosse Wis 30 417


Cities of

Akron, Ohio 69,067
Allentown, Pa 51.913
Altoona, Pa 52,127
Amsterdam. N. Y. . . 31,267
Atlantic City, N. J. . 46,150
Auburn, N. Y. 34 668


Des Moines, Iowa. . . 86,368
Dubuque. Iowa 38,494
Duluth, Minn 78,466
Easton, Pa 28,523
East Orange, N. J. . . 34,371
East St. Louis, 111. . . 58,547
El Paso, Tex 39,279
Elgin, 111 25,976
Elizabeth, N. J 73,409
Elmira, N. Y 37,176
Erie, Pa 66,525
Evansville, Ind 69,647
Everett, Mass 33,484
Fitchburg, Mass 37,826
Flint, Mich 38,550
Fort Wayne, Ind. . . .63.933
Fort Worth, Tex. . . . 73,312
Galveston, Tex 36,981
Green Bay, Wis 25.236
Hamilton, Ohio 35,279
Harrisburg, Pa 64,186
Hartford, Conn 98,915
Haverhill, Mass 44,115
Hazleton Pa 25 452


Lancaster, Pa 47,227
Lansing Mich 31 229


Augusta, Ga 41,040


Lawrence, Mass 85,892
Lewiston, Me 26,247
Lexington, Ky 35.099
Lima, Ohio. 30 508


Aurora, 111 29,807
Austin, Tex 29,860
Battle Creek, Mich. . 25 267
Bay City. Mich 45.166
Bayonne, N. J 45,545
Berkeley, Cal 40,434
Binghamton, N. Y. . 48,443
Bloomington, 111. ... 25,768
Brockton, Mass 56,878
Brookline, Mass 27,792
Butte, Mont 39,165
Camden, N. J 94,538
Canton Ohio 50 217


Lincoln, Nebr 43.973
Little Rock, Ark 45.941
Lorain, Ohio 28,883
Lynchburg, Va 29,494
Lvnn, Mass 89,336


Macon, Ga 40,665
McKeesport, Pa. ... 42,694
Madison. Wis 25.531
Maiden, Mass 44,404
Manchester, N. H. . . 70,063
Meriden, Conn 27,265
Mobile, Ala 51 521


Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 32,811
Charleston, S C 58,833
Charlotte, N. C 34,014
Chattanooga, Term. 44,604
Chelsea, Mass 32 452


Montgomery, Ala. . . 38,136
Mount Vernon, N. Y 30,919
Muskogee, Okla 25,278
Nashua, N. H 26,005
Newark Ohio 25 404


Chester, Pa 38,537
Chicopee, Mass 25,401
Clinton, Iowa 25,577
Colorado Springs
Colo. ... 29 078


Hoboken, N. J 70,324
Holyoke, Mass 57.730
Houston, Tex 78,800
Huntington, W. Va. . 31,161
Jackson, Mich 31,433
Jacksonville. Fla. . . . 57,699
Jamestown, N. Y 31,297
Johnstown, Pa 55,482
Joliet, 111. 34,670


New Bedford, Mass. 96 652
New Britain, Conn. . 43,916
Newburgh, N. Y. . . . 27,805
Newcastle, Pa 36,280
Newport Ky 30,309


Columbia, S. C 26,319
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 29,292
Covington, Ky 53,270
Dallas, Tex 92,104
Danville. Ill 27,871
Davenport, Iowa. . . . 43,028


Newport, R.I 27,149
New Rochelle. N. Y. 28,867
Newton, Mass . . . 39,806
Niagara Falls, N. Y.. 30.445


Jopltn, Mo 32,073


Kalamazoo, Mich. . . 39,437



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK.



Norfolk, Va 67,452


St. Joseph, Mo 77,403


Terre Haute, Ind. . . .


58,157


Norristown Pa 27 875


Salem Mass 43,697


Topeka, Kans


43 684


Ogden, Utah 25,580
Oklahoma City, Okla 64,205
Orange N J 29 630


Salt Lake City, Utah 92,777
San Antonio, Tex . . . 96,614
San Diego Cal 39,578


Trenton, N. J. . .
Troy, N. Y
Utica, N. Y


96.815
76,813
74 419


Oshkosh Wis 33 062


San Jose Cal . 28,946


Waco, Tex


26 425


Pasadena, Cal 30,291


Savannah, Ga 65,064


Waltham, Mass


27,834


Passaic N J 54 773


Schenectady, N. Y. . 72,826


Warwick, R. I


26 629


Pawtucket R I 51,622


Sheboygan, Wis 26,398


Waterburv, Conn. . .


73,141


Peoria 111 66 950


Shenandoah, Pa 25,774


Waterloo, Iowa. . .


26,693


Perth Amboy, N. J. . 32,121
Pittsfield Mass ... 32,121


Shreveport, La 28,015
Sioux City. Iowa. . . . 47,828


Watertown, N.Y.. .
West Hoboken, N. J.


26,730
35,403


Portland, Me 58,571
Portsmouth, Va 33,190
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 27,936
Pueblo Colo 44,395


Somerville, Mass. . . . 77,236
South Bend. Ind 53,684
South Omaha, Nebr. 26,259
Springfield, 111 51,678


Wheeling, W. Va. . .
Wichita, Kans
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. . . .
Williamsport, Pa


41,641
52,450
67,105
31,860


Quincy, 111 36,587


Springfield, Mass 88,926


Wilmington, Del


87,411


Quincy Mass 32,642


Springfield, Mo. . . . 35,201


Wilmington, N. C. . .


25,748


Racine, Wis 38,002
Reading Pa 96 071


Springfield, Ohio. . . 46,921
Stamford Conn. ...25,138


Woonsocket, R.I...
Yonkers, N. Y.


38,125
79 803


Roanoke, Va 34,874


Superior, Wis 40,384


York, Pa


44,750


Rockford 111 ... 45,401


Tacoma, Wash 83,743


Youngstown, Ohio. .


79,066


Sacramento Cal 44 696


Tampa, Fla 37,782


Zanesville, Ohio


28,026


Saginaw, Mich 50,510


Taunton, Mass 34,259







Comparison of the population of all states of the world

ordlng to the last censuses and estimation,
i23, OC AFRICA 152,033,000



ritish /"~~^\

o5SS*( ) 43,074,000

and V J

Protectorates x -~_^/

S~~\

( 131.522,000

and V J

Protectoiates \^_^/



Argentine Rep,
6,980,000 fj) A-,,




Uruguay

01,095,000




***

1^0)0
BritishPo.sess. D"'ch



AUSTRALASIA

AND
8,249,000 4320000^1 OCEANIA

4,320,000 {J 7 il3lp0 00 ,

Chile British Possessions .



3,302,000



(2)6.1



.116,000



l^AmJ ( J 7,640,000 2,150,000 O

Liberia 02,000,000
Siam ( ) 6,320,000



2,686,000 O German Possessions

cJba

Dutch Possessions
c 240.000



Tripolis 01,000,000

tar, ( ) 5,000,000 '^''and SS6S 731 ,000

V -^ Protectorates

' O 3 ' 250 ' 000 Span Possess 0675,000
(>ortPos. 0896,000
Omar, O 500.000
Mn^'iMj"") 052,000

sass 37.000 WMf Dan h Pos



Hawai and Guam
ofAmeO 204 ' 000
French Possessions
86,000



2,049.000 O
Haiti
2,030,000 O

Guatemala Independent Oceania
1,992,000 O 28 '



Ecuador
1,400,000 O

Salvador
1,116,000 O



Total population
of the world
1,652,945,900



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Online LibraryAlbert Allis HopkinsScientific American reference book → online text (page 1 of 73)