Albert Allis Hopkins.

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The Scientific American
Handbook of Travel

With Hints for the Ocean Voyage,
for European Tours and a Practical
Guide to London and Paris




Compiled and Edited by

Albert A. Hopkins

Editor of The Scientific
American Reference Book

500 Illustrations



New York a^nti $c Co.y fnc„ puh\i^f)tt0 1910



X)9^.



Copyright 1910
By MUNN & CO., Inc.

Matter Copyright
1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909
by Munn & Co.

All Rights Reserved

Right of Translation Reserved
Into all Languages including the Scandinavian

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4bOy little booh, <!£>ob ^enb ti)ee ooob pa^^age,
nnt ejspeciaflp let tlji^ he tbp praper
Slnto tbem all tftat tbee toill teab or teat,
Whtn tbou att torong, aftet tbeit feclp to call,
(Cbee to correct in anp part or all."



PREFACE



THERE are no conditions of travel in which a few general hints
as to how to adjust one's self to surroundings can prove so
useful as on a sea voyage, and it is with the object of preparing the
traveler for his trip by telling him how to go, how much it will cost,
how to amuse himself, and what to do on arrival at the coveted
shore, that this book has been written. The writer believes that
by giving just that sort of information which he himself and others
of his acquaintance have wanted to know on various trans-Atlantic
voyages, he cannot fail to meet pretty closely the needs of the
average voyager. The writer also hopes that the information
contained in this volume will be augmented in subsequent editions
j by the voluntary experience of its readers, — an addition which
I cannot fail to greatly increase the value of the book.

It may interest the reader to know that many hundreds of
1 pamphlets, issued by various transportation companies throughout
I the world, were thrown into the alembic which produced this slender
volume — a fact which will give the reader some idea of the difficulties
which are entailed in editing a work of this character. Within
I the last two or three years steamship and railway companies
have done much to annihilate space; it is now possible to make
I a complete circuit of the earth in 38 days, or less than one-half the
proverbial 80 days of Jules Verne. The trip has been made from
London to San Francisco in something less than ten days. It is
possible to leave New York Wednesday morning and reach London
Monday night in time to connect with trains which land passengers
in Paris very early on Tuesday morning. All of this represents sub-
stantial progress in transportation. All of these matters are re-
ferred to in the appropriate sections of this book. It is too early as
yet to prophesy what may be done in aerial transportation of pas-
sengers, but from the various schemes which have been proposed
and almost carried out, it is possible that the next five years may
see important developments along this line.

M94697



The Editor disclaims any responsibility for changes in times
or rates. These are published in good faith for what they are worth,
and the traveler is requested to write freely to the Editor regarding
any statements which his experience may have shown to be in-
accurate.

The Editor's gratitude is due to Mr. E. Justice, of the North
German Lloyd Steamship Company, for much painstaking care and
a careful reading of the proof, and to Mr. L. Weickum, of the Ham-
burg-American Steamship Company, for much help of the same
character, and to both gentlemen for the use of superb collections
of steamship pictures numbering thousands. Special photographs
haVe been freely used without reference to whether the names of
lines were mentioned or not, the sole effort being to show what a
"Safer Sea" we navigate in. The present volume would appear dry
without this aid. Mr. David Lindsay, of the International Mer-
cantile Marine Company, has also furnished photographs, valuable
tables, traveler's vocabulary, etc. Beyond this, the steamship
companies have been apathetic, showing a lack of appreciation of
publicity which is most extraordinary to the trained newspaper man.
One company never even replied to repeated and courteous letters
requesting information. Nevertheless, all have been treated im-
partially. The American Express Company, The International
Sleeping Car Company, Thomas Cook & Son, have also co-operated
and the Editor can commend their absolutely reliable services. No
advertisements of any description are permitted in this edition in
order to avoid even any suspicion of influence for editorial mention.
Names are only mentioned in the text in the interest of the traveler.
The references to specific lines or boats have been rendered as color-
less as truth would permit.

To Mr. A. R. Bond of the Editorial Staff of the Scientific
American, the writer is indebted for the valuable article on ''Time,"
also for the preparation of the article on the ''Ocean, Navig>ition,
Etc." Much valuable information along these lines has been ab-
stracted from the Encyclopedia Americana, for which our thanks
are due. For revision of sections of the work thanks are also ten-
dered to three or four score officials who have donated their work
under the signature of the impersonal company.

The writer is also indebted to Miss Julia E. Elliott for valuable
assistance in collating and editing; to Mr. N. L. Stebbins, for views
of lightships, lighthouses, etc. References to books are credited in



the text, particularly to the valuable book by Howden. For words
and music of national anthems the writer is indebted to Charles H,
Ditson & Co. and the Macmillan Co.; for statistical matter, to the
New York World and the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac.

In closing, the hope is expressed that this little book will make
some of the hours of the trip more interesting, and that the informa-
tion concerning Europe will prove of value, particularly as regards
economical travel. The section relating to London is by a trained
correspondent of the Scientific American, who is fully competent
to treat of his subject, as the writer can testify by a recent visit to
that city. The notes on Paris and Berlin are the results of recent
visits to these capitals, supplemented in the case of Paris, by the
notes of our Paris correspondent.

A. A. H.

New York, N. Y., April 15, 1910



CONTENTS



Planning the Trip 1

The Voyage 96

The Ship 136

Ocean and Navigation 175

Statistical Information 217

The Arrival 269

Railways 295

Tours 331

Hotels 366

Practical Guide to London 435

Practical Guide to Paris 469

Bibliography 489

Selected Motor and Cycle Tours 495

Index 501



PLA]srNING THE TRIP



SEASOI^ AKD CI.IMATE



Some parts of Europe are available
for tourist purposps at all times of the
year. Switzerland has its winter
sports in winter, while in summer it is
the great playground of Europe. The
summer is preferred liy many travel-
ers, as then England, Ireland and
Scotland are at their best, and Franco,
Belgium, Holland and Germany are



whose temperature is many degrees
cooler than the outside air. Rome can
be visited with impunity at any sea-
son of the year, but at night walks
near the Tiber or Colosseum should
be avoided. A few grains of quinine
will usually drive away any feeling of
fever. The water in Rome is excel-
lent. There are many resorts along




THE END OF PIER FROM THE DECK



also most attractive. It is a mistake
to think that Italy cannot be visited
in summer, as many thousands go
there each year during the hottest
season. If reasonable care is used to
avoid the heat of the day between
twelve and two, there is little danger
to health. The time during these
hours can be spent in the galleries



the Italian shore such as the Viareg-
gio, which are at their best in the
early spring — April, May or June.
The Italian lakes are particularly de-
lightful in July and August. Venice
is not always as pleasant as it might
be in the summer, as the motion of
the tide in the canals is not always
sufficient to render them entirely odor-



SCIEl^T'tMYj AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF TRAVEL



less. 1Io11mi:1 call oe visitp^l ci any
time of the year, as c9n a''so Belgnim.
France and Gerinan.> , Si;aai i.s apt to
be very hot in summer and shoukl be
avoided if possible. Russia is delight-
ful in summer, but owing to the great
expense of reaching it the numl)er of
tourists is limited. All visitors to
Russia must have a passport which
must be viseed by the nearest Russian
Consul before leaving the United
States. This is absolutely essential.
Travelers who are going to make a
trip around the world usually leave
New York in Septeml)er if they travel
by way of San Francisco. Norway



order to lienefit their health. People
who are ill or who are not very strong
still stick to the sea as a rest and air
cure. They select the more comforta-
ble liners, however, as the care and
attention which they receive seldom
fails to benefit their health. After
fighting the sea and its terrors for
thousands of years, man has at last
succeeded in conquering the sea, this
wildest and most unruly of Nature's
children. Against the modern iron or
steel ship, wiiich is equipped with
every measure of protection that
science and engineering can devise,
the sea is almost powerless. Smaller




AU REVOIR— WARPING OUT



and Sweden and Denmark should be
visited in summer only. Austria is
best visited in the spring and fall.
The Mediterranean ports, particularly
the Riviera, are crowded with winter
residents. Monte Carlo is perhaps the
most beautiful point on the Riviera.
Algeria and Morocco and Tunis all
have their share of winter visitors,
while the Holy Land and Egypt are
visited by many thousands. The great
steamship lines run each winter
specially conducted tovirs to Egj'pt
and the Holy Land, reducing the cost
of transportation very materially.

Formerly many persons took poor
accomraodations on sailing ships in



vessels and sailing craft still feel its
fury occasionally, it is true, but the
enormous ships of the present day
forge their way through the mighty
ocean at high speeds.

Men of science have studied and
analyzed the curative powers of the
sea and have aw^akened an understand-
ing and appreciation of these qualities
in ever widening circles of humanity.
Increasing interest is taken by the
medical world and the general public
as to sea trips as a curative remedy,
which is due to a large extent to the
improvements introduced in naviga-
tion of late years. The accounts of



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF TRAVEL



the dangers of ocean trips in former
times, the primitive and unhealthy ac-
commodations, and insufficient cater-
ing on board of ships of earlier pe-
riods are very disquieting to intend-
ing travelers. This has now, however,
all been done away with, so that the
modern steamers of to-day have so
many safety devices, and the perfec-
tion of the instruments for the navi-
gation of the ship, and the reliability
of the charts, the number of light-
houses, have been brought to so per-
fect a standard that a voyage on a
modern steamer entails less danger



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THE NEW
The lookouts in their eyrie sweep the horizon
for signs of danger.

than a journey by train. The old foul-
smelling state-rooms of thirty years
ago have given place to clean, spa-
cious, splendidly ventilated rooms
where there is not a suspicion of an
odor of any description, even in in-
side rooms on the lower decks. Su-
perior methods of keeping food have
resulted in catering which is equal to
that of the very finest hotels. The sea
air is most invigorating, especially for
those suffering from insomnia and
nervous trouliles. The abundance of
sunshine, especially on the Southern
seas, in the Mediterranean and Adri-



atic, exerts a beneficial influence on
the metabolic assimilation and the for-
mation of the blood. Taking it all in
all, sea trips are very strongly recom-
mended as important hygienic factors,
and the development of all that con-
tributes to their facilitation should be
greatly appreciated, especially by the
medical profession. It should be re-
membered that the air of the high
seas is the purest of all, and that there
is an entire absence of dust and germs.
It has been proved that at a distance
of seven and a half miles from land
there was only one germ for 40 litres




THE OLD

The old-time sailor spent much time

aloft setting sails

of sea air, and at a distance of thirty
miles, only one germ for 1.j22 litres of
sea air, and beyond that limit the air
was practically germless. It also
follows from these investigations that
a complete absence of dust and germs
by no means prevails on the coast, as
is generally assumed. The invigorat-
ing effect of the ocean climate is based
upon a good many qualities which vary
not only according to the locality of
the particular sea and the season of
the year, but also have a different ef-
fect upon people according to their
particular constitution. There is



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF TRAVEL



above all the great quai.tity of mois-
ture in the sea air wb'ch facilitates
breathing, and secondly the density of
the atmos])here which acts upon the
body like a permanent bath. It is a
well-known fact that very dry air irri-
tates the respiratory organs and
causes inflammation of the same, and
that on the other hand, extremely
moist air gives rise to heavy breath-
ing, whereas if a normal quantity of
vapor is contained in the air, breath-
ing becomes easy. Tlie sea air con-
tains a considerable percentage of salt,
also some iodine and bromine, and a
large percentage of ozone.

A sea trip is especially recom-
mended for diseases of the respiratory
organs, i. e., chronic catarrhs of the
mucous membranes of the mouth, the
nose, the pharynx, the larynx, the
bronchia and the lungs. In the/ fresh
sea air the diseased organs can recu-
perate and recover better than any-
where on land. Those suffering from
tuberculosis, however, are warned by
most physicians against trying a sea
trip. The best authorities recommend
prolonged sea trips only in cases where
there is only a danger of tuberculosis
or where the disease has come to a
standstill and the patient is otherwise
strong enough to make a sea trip. We
have already referred to the benefit
which a sea voyage gives in nervous
affections. The calming influence
which is exerted on the patient by the
view, the feeling of absolute retire-
ment and forced absence from busi-
ness worries, is practically a cure for
a whole multitude of nervous com-
plaints.

Those who suffer with diseases of
the heart were formerly warned by



their physicians against making sea
voyages, but according to recent ex-
perience, the sea trip cure is recom-
mended for a number of diseases of
the heart, particularly for those who
suffer from a so-called heart neuro-
sis, also from weakness of the cardiac
muscle and valvular defects. Sea
trips are also recommended for pa-
tients recovering from typhoid fever,
scarlet fever, measles, puerperal fever,
pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs,
malaria, and in fact for all persons
who are weak and anaemic. Any rep-
utable physician is qualified to give
advice on the subject of sea cures, and
any special treatments which should
be taken. There is so mucli excite-
ment and so much going on on the ten
or a dozen largest crack steamers that
those who are ill should select a
smaller boat during the rush season.
A boat taking two or three days
longer will only increase the pleasure
and the benefit of the trip.



Go abroad with shoes in perfect
condition. Repairs are apt to be
astonishing, and soles made of paper
instead of leather are not unknown.

Take a new pair of rubbers. They are
sometimes difficult to obtain abroad
and are expensive. Remember that rain
must always be expected in England.
You are safe in carrying an umbrella
everywhere. English umbrellas are
expensive and heavy. Do not buy
them as presents to take home. Rain
coats are good and cheap in England,
Be sure that you buy of a good house.
The ordinary "mackintosh" as worn
in England does not stand our climate.
Select dark colors always.



THERMOMETER SCALES.



Much annoyance is caused by the
great difference of thermometer scales
in use in the different civilized coun-
tries. The scale of Reaumur prevails
in Germany. As is well known, he di-
vides the space between the freezing
and boiling points into 80 deg. France
uses that of Celsius, who graduated
his scale on the decimal system. The
most peculiar scale of all, however, is
that of Fahrenheit, a renowned Ger-
man physicist, who in 1714 or 1715,
composed his scale, having ascertained
that water can be cooled under the
freezing point, without congealing. He
therefore did not take the congealing
Boint of water, but composed a mix-



ture of equal parts of snow and sal
ammoniac, about — 14 deg. R, The
conversion of any one of these scales to
another is very simple, and easily
made. To change a temperature as
given by Fahrenheit's scale into the
same as given by the centigrade scale
subtract 32 deg. from Fahrenheit's de-
grees, and multiply the remainder by
5-9, The product will be the tem-
perature in centigrade degrees.

To change from Fahrenheit's to
Reaumur's scale, subtract 82 deg. from
Fahrenheit's degrees, and multiply the
remainder by 4-9. The product will
be the temperature in Reaumur's de-
grees.



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF TRAVEL





COMPARATIVE SCALES OF


THERMC


VETER.






c.


R.


F.


C.


R.


F.


C.


R.


F.


-30


-24.0


-22.0


14


11.2


57.2


58


40.4


130.4


-29


-23.2


-20.2


15


12.0


59.0


i9


47.2


138.2


-28


- 22 . 4


-18.4


10


12.8


00.8


00


48.0


140.0


-27


-21.6


-16.6


17


13.0


02.0


01


48.8


141.8


-20


-20.8


-14.8


18


14.4


04.4


02


49.0


143.0


-25


-^0.0


-13.0


19


15.2


00.2


03


50.4


145.4


-24


-19.2


-11.2


20


10.0


08.0


04


51.2


147.2


-23


-18.4


-9.4


21


10.8


09.8


05


.52.0


149.0


-22


-17.6


-7.6


22


17.0


71.0


00


52.8


150.8


-21


-16.8


-5.8


23


18.4


73.4


07


53.0


152.0


-20


-16.0


-4.0


24


19.2


75.2


08


54.4


154.4


-19


-15.2


-2.2


25


20.0


77.0


09


55.2


150.2


-18


-14.4


-0.4


20


20.8


78.8


70


50.0


158.0


-17


-13.6


1.4


27


21.0


80.0


71


50.8


159.8


-13


-12.8


3.2 *


28


22.4


82.4


72


57.0


161.6


-15


-12.0


5.0


29


23.2


84.2


73


58.4


163.4


-14


-11.2


6.8


30


24.0


86.0


74


59.2


F)5.2


-13


-10.4


8.6 1


31


24.8


87.8


75


00.0


167.0


-12


-9.6


10.4


32


25.6


89.6


70


00.8


168.8


-11


-8.8


12.2 1


33


20.4


91.4


77


01.6


170.6


-10


-8.0


14.0


34


27.2


93.2


78


02.4


172.4


-9


-7.2


15.8


35


28.0


95.0


79


03.2


174.2


-8


-6.4


17.6


36


28.8


90.8


80


04.0


176.0


-7


-5.6


19.4


37


29.0


98.6


81


04.8


177.8


-6


-4.8


21.2


38


30.4


100.4


82


05.6


179.6


-5


-4.0


23.0


39


31.2


102.2


83


00.4


181.4


-4


-3.2


24.8


40


32.0


104.0


84


07.2


183.2


-3


-2.4


20.0 j


41


32.8


105.8


85


08.0


185.0


-2


-1.6


28.4 1


42


33.0


107.6


80


08.8


186.8


-1


-0.8


30.2


43


34.4


109.4


87


09.0


188.6





0.0


32.0


44


35.2


111.2


88


70.4


190.4


1


0.8 -


33.8


45


30.0


113.0


89


71.2


192.2


2


1.6


35.6


40


30.8


114.8


90


72.0


194.0


3


2.4


37.4


47


37.6


116.6


91


72.8


195.8


4


3.2


39.2


48


38.4


118.4


92


73.0


197.6


5


4.0


41.0


49


39.2


120.2


93


74.4


199.4


6


4.8


42.8


50


40.0


122.0


94


75.2


201.2


7


5.6


44.0


51


40.8


123.8


95


70.0


203.0


8


0.4


46.4


52


41.0


125.6


90


70.8


204.8


9


7.2


48.2


53


42.4


127.4


97


77.0


206.6


10


8.0


50.0


54


43.2


129.2


98


78.4


208.4


11


8.8


51.8


55


44.0


131.5


99


79.2


210.2


12


9.6


53.0


50


44.8


132.8


100


80.0


212.0


13


10.4 55.4 1


57


45.0


134.6









To change the temperature as given
by the centigrade scale into the same
as given by Fahrenheit, multiply the
centigrade degrees by 9.5 and add 32
deg. to the product. The sum will be
the temperature by Fahrenheit's scale.

To change from Reaumur's to Fahr-



enheit's scale, multiply the degrees on
Reaumur's scale by 9.4 and add 32
deg. to the product. Tlie sum will be
the temperature by Fahrenheit's scale.
For those who wish to save them-
selves the trouble we have calculated
the preceding comparative table.



FEES AT PRIVATE HOUSES IN ENGLAND.



England is the land of tips. You
cannot escape them if you try a
"week-end." Saturday to Monday at
a private house of no great pretension
will cost the casual visitor about .$1.50
whether men servants or maid ser-
vants are employed. Two shillings
and six pence is correct for the house-
maid and butler. Where no butler is
employed, the parlor maid gets the
same amount, while the housemaid re-
ceives about two shillings, and the boy,
if he has done anything for you, gets



about the same. English servants
pack and unpack all luggage so that
the fees are not begrudged. Allow
about $5.00 a week, not forgetting the
coachman. Increase this about fifty
per cent, if there are two in the party.
Some hostesses put notices in the bed-
rooms asking guests not to fee. but
try it on just the same, you will* usu-
ally be successful. In very large man-
sions the fees are much greater and
no adequate scale can be given. The
expense will be well up in the pounds.



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HANDBOOK OF TRAVEL



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Online LibraryAlbert Allis HopkinsThe Scientific American handbook of travel → online text (page 1 of 65)