Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

. (page 1 of 31)
Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 1 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


^t ^, P, ^tll pbrarg




^ortlj Carolina ^Me Colkge

B6



^;



iiillililliij



S00484990 Y



JOSEPH RUZIJCKA
&0OKBrKDERS



This book may be kept out TWO WEEKS
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE
CENTS a day thereafter. It is due on the
day indicated below:



%i^J'^'



h



fm 1 3 13613



FEB 10 1965

iAR3 1965 APR ^1

0CTinS£6




DEC 6

DEC 20



1967



V)67



50M— 048— Form 3



TREES IN WINTER



|6



^^^y^



•T

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO
DALLAS • SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO





Oak and Chestnut in winter and in summer



TREES IN WINTER

THEIR STUDY

PLANTING, CARE AND

IDENTIFICATION

BY
ALBERT FRANCIS BLAKESLEE, Ph. D.,

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY' AND
DIRECTOR OF SUMMER SCHOOL
CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE

AND

CHESTER DEACON JARVIS, Ph. D.,

HORTICULTURIST, STORRS
EXPERIMENT STATION



ILLUSTRATED



'^m IJTark

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1913

A// rights resettled



Copyright, 1913,
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY.



Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1913.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PEEFACE 7-10

INTRODUCTION

THE STUDY OF TEEES 11-30

Tree identification — Tree study in relation to poetry and
art — tree photography — tree ecology — tree measurement
— tree collections — tree study in high schools and
colleges — field work — students' collections — tree study in
graded schools.

PART I., PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES

CHAPTEE I

STEUCTUEE, LIFE AND GEOWTH OF A TEEE 31-45

The parts of a tree — the root — the leaf — the stem —
reproduction.

CHAPTEE II

THE PEOPAGATION OF TEEES 46-60

Propagation from seeds — nature's way — the forest nursery
— collecting seeds for planting — storing seeds — testing
the vitality of seeds — planting seeds — care of seedlings —
transplanting — propagation by cuttings — making cuttings
— setting cuttings — propagation by graftage — grafting —
budding.

CHAPTEE III

TEEE PLANTING IN EUEAL DISTEICTS 61-74

The conservation of good scenery — a national park system
— sign boards must go — arousing interest — the problem
of the country roads — making the best use of existing
conditions — roadside planting — the use of trees around the
home — adaptation — the function of trees in home de-
coration — shrul)s — planting for winter effect — the planting
plan — the finished picture.



CHAPTEE IV

TREE PLANTING IN TOWNS AND CITIES 75-95

Trees in relation to city life — suggestions for street
planting — arrangement of trees on the street — parking
strips — permanent and temporary planting — the l)cst
species for city streets — trees of rapid growth — municipal
control of shade trees — parks and public sqnares — the
natural type — the artificial style — planting suggestions
for city homes — types of city homes — the suburban
lot — back yard planting.



CHAPTER V

THE SELECTION OF TREES FOR SPECIAL PUR-
POSES 06-101

Trees with showy flowers — blooming before or with the
leaves — blooming after the leaves — trees with showy fruits
— trees with strikingly-colored foliage — trees with
brilliant autumnal tints — deciduous trees valued for
their winter effects — very tall trees — columnar or
narrow pyramidal trees — weeping trees — trees resistant
to smoke — desirable shade and avenue trees — trees for
seaside planting — trees for dry situations and dry
climates — trees best adapted to wet soils — trees best
adapted to calcareous or limestone soils — varieties of fruit
trees for home planting — apples, pears, quinces, peaches,
plums, cherries.



CHAPTER YI

HOW TREES ARE PLANTED 102-113

Preliminary considerations — prune before planting-
preparing the ground — staking the ground — setting the
trees — time to plant — making the holes and filling in —
moving large trees — staking and guarding young trees —
stakes — guards — grills.



CHAPTER VII

THE CAEE OF TREES ,.....,.. 114-123

Improving soil conditions — the need of humus in the soil
— fertilizers for trees — cultivation — pruning shade trees —
how to cut off a limb — time to prune — pruning tools —
taking care of the wounds.

CHAPTER VIII

COMMON INJURIES TO SHADE TREES 124-145

Sources of injury — injuries caused by gas and smoke —
injuries from overhead wires — injuries from regrading
streets — injuries from improper pruning — injuries from
horse bites and careless driving — injuries from wind and
ice — injuries from improper soil conditions — renovation
of trees — the natural age limit — tree surgery — dehorning
trees — taking care of recent injuries — filling cavities —
bolting and chaining.

CHAPTER IX

THE CONTROL OF PARASITES 146-173

Fungus troubles — insect troubles — how insects injure trees
— methods of combating insects — spraying for insects —
hand-picking of insects — banding and trapping — pre-
ventive measures — natural enemies of insects — some com-
mon shade tree insects — leaf-eating insects — bag worm^
brown-tail moth, canker worm, elm-leaf beetle, gypsy
moth, slugs, spiney elm caterpillar, tent caterpillar and
fall webworm, tussock moth — sucking-insects — aphis or
plant louse, spruce gall louse — scale insects — borers.

CHAPTER X

INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES AND SPRAYING . . . 174-182
Insecticides — stomach poisons — contact insecticides —
fungicides — spraying — spraying machinery.



PART II., IDENTIFICATION OF TREES

EXPLANATION OF TERMS 185

ANALYTICAL KEY 192

METHOD OF USE^ KEY TO GENERA AND SPECIES.

DESCEIPTION OF SPECIES 210

The Pines (p. 210-221)— the Larch (p. 222)— the
Spruces (p. 224-233)— the Douglas Fir (p. 234)— the
Balsam Fir (p. 236)— the Hemlock (p. 238)— the Coast
White Cedar (p. 240)— the Arbor Vitae (p. 242)— the
Junipers and Red Cedar (p. 244-247) — the Ginkgo
(p. 248)— the Willows (p. 250)— the Poplars (p. 252-
263)— the AYalnuts and Hickories (p. 264-275)— the
Hornbeams (p. 276-279)— the Birches (p. 280-291)— the
Alders (p. 292)— the Beech (p. 294)— the Chestnut
(p. 296)— the Oaks (p. 298-321)— the Elms (p. 322-
329)— the Hackberry (p. 330)— the Mulberries (p. 332-
335)— the Magnolias (p. 336-339)— the Tulip Tree
(p. 340)— the Sassafras (p. 342)— the Witch Hazel
(p. 344) — the Sweet Gum (p. 346) — the Sycamore
(p. 348)— the Pear (p. 350)— the Apple (p. 352)— the
Mountain Ash (p. 354) — the Quince (p. 356) — the
Shadbush (p. 358)— the Hawthorns (p. 360)— the Cher-
ries (p. 362-371)— the Plums (p. 372-377)— the Peach
(p. 378)— the Kentucky Coffee Tree (p. 380)— the
Honey Locust (p. 382)— the Redbud (p. 384)— the Yel-
low Wood (p. 386)— the Locusts (p. 388)— the Ailanthus
(p. 390)— the Sumachs (p. 392-395)— the Holly (p. 396)
—the Maples (p. 398-413)— the Horse-chestnut (p. 414)
— the Linden (p. 416) — the Dogwoods (p. 418) — ^the
the Tupelo (p. 420)— the Ashes (p. 422-427)— the
Catalpas (p. 428).

GLOSSARY 430

INDEX 435



PEEFACE

The title, Trees in Winter, might seem to one unacquainted with
the subject to confine the usefulness of this book to the months De-
cember, January and February. Winter, as we shall use the term,
is not defined by the human calendar. It is that period when the
tree is in its resting condition, and may be considered to extend
from the shedding of the leaves in the fall to the bursting of buds
in the spring. The period is different for different trees and in dif-
ferent localities, but in the northeastern United States it may be-
gin as early as the latter part of September, with such forms as
the Butternut, and may extend even into the middle of May with
the Catalpa. The title would further emphasize the general rule
brought out in Part I that the buying, planting, and care of trees
should take place only in their dormant condition. Such excep-
tional treatment as spraying for leaf diseases will be discussed
for the sake of completeness but it still remains true that a tree
generally would better be left untouched during its growing season.
The material in Part II, first appeared in pamphlet form as a bul-
letin of the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station. The demand
for the bulletin, especially for use in the schools, has proven so
great throughout the state that it seems desirable to publish the
information in book form and thus render it more widely avail-
able than could be the case in a state publication of necessarily lim-
ited distribution.

Part I, on the planting and care of trees, has been added in car-
rying out the suggestion of the publishers and many of our corre-
spondents who have thought that such an introductory part would
broaden the usefulness of the book, especially among those who
possess trees of their own. The section is written primarily for
the individual and his home grounds rather than for a municipal
street planting commission. The viewpoint, therefore, will be
more that of the country and of the home than that of the city.
Xo especial originality is claimed for the material in this part, a
considerable number of publications including government bulle-
tins have been consulted in its preparation. If the arrangement
of the subject matter renders needed information easily obtain-
able, it will have served its purpose.

Library
N. C, State Collee:©



8 TREES IN WINTER

Part II is intended as a guide to tlie indentification of our com-
mon trees in winter. Although lumbering and the commercial
handling of trees is chiefly carried on in the leafless season and their
identification at this period consequently is of the greatest import-
ance, still there has been up to the present time little assistance ac-
cessible in this country to one who has wished to be able to dis-
tinguish the trees in their interesting winter condition.

The text with keys in Part II, is an outgrowth of outlines that
one of the authors has developed and used with various modifica-
tions for the last five years in his college classes in Botany and
Forestiy. The photographic illustrations are all originals, most
of them by the other author. In Part II, one of us is responsible
for the text and for the selection of the material photographed, and
the other for the majority of the photographs, while in Part I, one
of us has written the introductory chapter on the study of trees and
the chapter on the structure, life and growth of a tree, and the
other the subsequent chapters. We have, however, frequently con-
sulted throughout in the preparation of the book.

The order of arrangement of the species in the text and the
scientific names follow the usage of the seventh edition of Gray's
Manual, and the latter are in accord with the rules laid down in
the Vienna Congress. The figures and descriptions given are of
trees for the most part growing wild in the northeastern portion of
North America, including as its center New England, and the
neighboring regions. A few rarer species which occur only very
locally or in isolated instances within this region have been omitted
from illustration. In their places, however, some of the more
frequently cultivated trees have been included because of their
value for forestry purposes or because of their familiarity in orna-
mental plantings. The varieties of cultivated forms are so num-
erous that it is obviously possible to take account of only the most
common types. Their inclusion, it is believed, will add to the value
of the publication especially for its use in cities. The keys can be
absolutely relied upon only for the species just mentioned from New
England and the neighboring regions. New England, including
as it does the meeting ground between the northern and southern
floras, is extremely rich in the species of trees represented. Part
II, therefore, especially in its descriptive text and illustrations



PLANTIXG AND CARE OF TREES VI

should prove of service outside of the geographically restricted
region described.

The photographs of the twigs and of the fruit of the deciduous
trees are very nearly natural size. They have been slightly reduced
in production but all of them to same scale, except the fruits
of the Catalpa, the Chestnut and the Honey Locust as indicated
under these species. Line drawings or touched-up photographs
would no doubt show important details more clearly by emphasiz-
ing certain of the minute markings. Since, however, these details
are often obscure, and moreover receive full recognition in the ac-
companying text, it has been thought that a truer idea of the twigs
would be gained if they were left as they appeared in the photo-
graphs. Accordingly, they have not been "doctored" in prepara-
tion or reproduction. The leafy twigs of the cone-bearing ever-
greens have been more or less reduced as indicated under the de-
scriptions of the genera in the key. All the twigs of a single gen-
us, however, are on the same scale.

Part II follows the same general plan as in the bulletin. Another
winter's study has made possible a number of additions, especially
among the habit characters and some minor corrections have been
made in the text. New habit photographs are given of the Eed
Mulberry, the Sassafras, the Swamp White Oak and the Chinqua-
pin Oak and bark photographs of the Carolina Poplar and the
Chinquapin Oak. Last winter's classes in Botany and Forestry
made use of galley proofs of the keys and descriptive text, and the
present year's classes have used the finished bulletin. The keys
especially have in consequence been considerably modified since
their first arrangement. Many of the explanatory phrases which
may appear to be unnecessary have been inserted at the demand
of the students. Where possible the most obvious characters have
been employed and though the keys in consequence have become
somewhat more cumbersome it is hoped they will prove more
usable. Errors and omissions have no doubt crept in despite the
efforts to avoid them. We would be grateful for any additions or
corrections that may be suggested in the descriptions or keys in
view of a possible further revision of the text

Acnowledgements are due to the Storrs Agricultural Experiment
Station for the use of the half tone plates of figures 34, 37, 38, 45,
48, 49, and 50 in Part I, and for most of those in Part II; to



10 TREES IN- WINTER

the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for the use of
illustiations represented by figures 30, 44, 46, 47, 57, 75, 76, 77,
78,- 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93 and
95; to the Cornell Experiment Station for the use of figures
41, 42, 51, 52, 53, 55, 62, 68 and 69; to the U. S. Department
of Agriculture for the use of figures 71, 72, 73, 74 and 98; to
Messrs. Isaac Hicks and Son for the use of figures 39 and 40 ; to
the Newark Shade Tree Commission for the use of figure 54; to
the Frost Bartlett Company for the use of figures 61, 63, 70, and
96; to Mr. A. D. Taylor for the use of figure 23; to Mr. George

A. Cromie for the drawing represented by figure 36; to P.

B. Mann for taking one of the habit photographs of the Sassafras
on page 342 ; to Mr. J. M. Johnson for taking the habit photograph
of the Eed Mulberry on page 332, to Mr. C. C. Laney for the habit
and bark photographs of the Chinquapin Oak on page 306; to Mr.
A. F. Schulze for compiling the index; to many other people for
assistance in various ways; and especially to the students whose
interest in trees in winter first suggested this publication and
whose cooperation in its production has helped to give it its
finished form.

Albert Francis Blakeslee.
Chester Deacon Jarvis.
Storrs, Conn., March 1912.



PLANTING AND CARE OP TREES 11

INTRODUCTION.
THE STUDY OF TREES.

It is frequently the practice in an introductor}^ chapter to show
the importance of the subject to be discussed and to attempt to
prove that it, of all subjects for study, is most worthy of the
.•eader's consideration. Many words could thus be used in de-
scribing the misfortune to civilization, literature and art had our
world been devoid of trees and the product of trees. The for-
ester and the lumberman bear testimony to the utilitarian value
of trees and the landscape architect to their use in making our sur-
roundings more beautiful. It is not necessary, therefore, to jus-
tify the interest in our subject.

Although the botanical specialist and the student of tree dis-
eases, may, it is hoped, find in the present volume added means of
identifying their tree specimens, the book is not intended pri-
marily for the indoor laboratory. It is meant to serve as an intro-
duction to the study and appreciation of one phase of outdoor life.
The present chapter will suggest some of the ways in which the
study of trees may be carried on.

Tree Identification — In the early stages of knowledge come
names. If one objects that so large a part of the book is
given over to the means of distinguishing one tree from another —
in other words to learning their names — it must be remembered
that the natural approach toward knowing a person is learning
his name. It is not otherwise with trees. We who are teachers
know the difficulties in learning the names in a new class of stu-
dents. Some of us may have devised temporary expedients as
jotting down in our roll book such distingiiishing facial character-
istics of the students as the color of the eyes or of the hair. No
doubt, if it were worth while, a satisfactory key to the identification
of a class of students could be worked out by the use of such
characters. We have never tried it with our students because we
have soon come to know them less by such detailed marks of dis-
tinction than by the whole face and Ave finally learn to recognize
them even at a distance by some indefinable peculiarity of form or
habit of gait.

The more minute characters of the twig used in the keys and
descriptive text are to be used as we use the color of the hair and

Library
JNT. C, State CollefrA



1? TREES IN" WINTER

e3^es in learning our new students. The ideal toward which iden-
tificational studies should tend is the ability to recognize a tree
at a distance. Unfortunately the general appearance or ^Tiabit'^
of a tree as well as the character of its bark is difficult of precise
descri23tion^ but if the markings on the twigs are considered chiefly
as first aids to the uninitiated^ progress toward this ideal will be
more surely made.

Winter is the best time in which to acquire this ability to recog-
nize trees at a distance. They are individually more conspicuous
at this season. Try watching them from a car window in their
winter aspect and you will be surprised to find how many can be
thus recognized after a little practice. A tree in winter 'is far from
being the characterless object many believe. Freed from its cov-
ering of leaves, the skeleton of the tree is revealed and with the
method of branching thus clearly discernible, the species may gen-
erally be more readily identified at a distance than when in its
summer garb. There are many forms, moreover, that are diffi-
cult to distinguish by summer features alone, but which in winter
have twig, bud, or other characters which make their separation
comparatively easy.

We have suggested as the goal of identificational study the
power to recognize trees by the more general features of "habit"
and bark. The present volume can be considered only as an intro-
duction toward this study. Extreme care has been taken in the
attempt to obtain photographs that will represent the most typ-
ical appearance of these features. It must be remembered, how-
ever, that no two trees are absolutely alike l)ut that they vary
more or less as shown on page 184: in response to difference in ex-
ternal conditions as, for example, age, soil, light (figs. 18 and 19 p.
39), and locality as well as to innate differences in the individual
trees themselves. Considerations of space forbid usually the illus-
tration of more than a single type and this in general, in connec-
tion with the descriptive text, will suffice. It is hoped, however,
that the present volume will stimulate similar illustrative work on
other more limited areas or on more limited groups where the re-
strictions of space for illustrations need not be so keenly felt.

When once we have begun to acquire a resonable familiarity with
trees, numerous ways in which the study may be advanced will oc-
cur to the reader. The possibilities in Forestry and Landscape



PLANTING AND CAEE OF TREES 13

Architecture need not be discussed, although some knowledge of
these professional subjects will be of special interest to anyone
who owns a woodlot or landed home, and will be of general inter-
est to all citizens to whom national conservation of our resources
in natural beauty as well as in natural wealth is a matter of con-
cern.

Tree Study in Relation to Poeti-y and Art — Trees to most
people are of interest aside from their scientific or utilitarian
value. It is surprising to many to learn that only a small
proportion of the large mimber of books on trees have been written
primarily from the botanical or the utilitarian point of view. The
marjority view trees as elements in the world of beauty out of doors.
The highest expression of an appeciation of this beauty appears in
the form of poetry or art. It will accordingly be well to consider
trees for a moment from this viewpoint before further discussing
their study.

Poetry is not an unintelligible ebullition of enthusiasm for the
good, the true, the beautiful. Poetry demands S3rmpathy. Sym-
pathy entails familiarity, knowledge; and knowledge is power in
poetry as in business. It is no accident that before a winter book
on trees was ever thought of and the color of the bud used to dis-
tinguish the European Ash from some of its American relatives,
Tennyson was able to characterize a lock of hair as "black as ash
buds in the front of March," and was able to see "a thousand em-
eralds burst from the ruby-budded lime." Few can have a pro-
ductive appreciation for poetry, but if we learn to see clearly and
with sympathy the natural beauty around us we have learned the
foundations upon which poetry is based.

Trees are the most conspicuous living elements in the land-
scape, especially in winter, and as such must appeal strongly to
the student of outdoor life. To the landscape artist they are
more than canvas or pigments, for they are themselves the pic-
l!ure which on canvas with his pigments he tries to reproduce. If
we study art we are led to visit the museums of art. We learn
how in difl'erent times and in different countries men have seen and
interpreted beauty. Some, for example, find beauty in the single
form, others in groups. The result is as varied as the personality
of the artists. Although an advance can be discerned in the
method of expression and, by the process of evolution, such guid-



14 TREES IN" WINTER

ing principles as simplicity and unity have become generally ac-
cepted, still it can be readily seen that art has its styles as well as
dress. Landscape architecture has undergone a development and
is subject to changes like other forms of art.

The landscape is a gallery of art always open. The pictures are
many, varied, and ever changing. Trees are the principal figures.
They are interesting for their individual beauty and for their ef-
fect in harmonious groups. It is for us to find these pictures, to
discover what in form or composition or situation makes them
interesting. The student of art does the same for the gallery
masterpieces and opens his eyes to new worlds of beauty. We also
may have our eyes opened, for the landscape is always with us.

Profitable indeed in this connection will be a study of the land-
scape artists. In what way do trees appeal to them ? What part do
trees play in their compositions? Is it the individual tree or
trees in groups that interest them most? Is it in the foreground,
the background or the middle distance that we find them most
frequently represented? What species are preferred? Compare
Euysdael, Corot, Constable and other landscape artists. Are they
alike in their preference?

Claude Monet has given us a wonderful series of pictures of the
Thames Bridge in varying moods. We may find for ourselves as
interesting a series of even a single tree (figs. 1 to 11). Along a
sloping roadside by a farm house stands a Sugar Maple of some



Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 1 of 31)