Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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27. Pith in section lengthwise of twig seen to be interrupted by hollow
chambers or by thin woody partitions (the partitions are fre-
quently inconspicuous) 28

27. Pith continuous; i.e. without hollow chambers or woody parti-
tions 32


28. Pith chambered but with cha«ibers confined to ^^e^^^des.^ . . . ^. . ...

28. Pith" when' chamiaVred with 'chambers 'not confined to the noaes -lii

29 Pith brown, wide, with hollow chambers ; fruit a nut 30

29! Pith light colored, narrow; fruit a small stone-fruit 31

^0 Downy patch present above leaf-scar; nut elongated. ■ • • :,\\

dU. uowny pdtc f Butternut (Jugians ctnerea) p.::64

10 Downy 'patch 'absent 'from leaf-scar ; nut rouna. :•••••• • • •

rfu. i^owny PAH. Black Waluut (Juylans nigra J i».266

^1 Pith with hollow chambers; buds brown, terminal bud absent,
lateral buds appressed Hackberry (Celtis occidentalisj p.330

31 Pith with woody partitions in the solid ground-mass; buds reddish,
' terminal bud present, lateral buds divergent ..........

Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatxca) p.420

32 Leaf-scars regularly 2-ranked, i.e. arranged in 2 longitudinal rows

32. Leaf-scars regularly more tlian 2-ranked, i.e. in more than 2 rows
on the twig '*^

33 Terminal bud absent (the last lateral bud may appear to be ter-
minal but absence of terminal bud is shown by small scar at
end of twig) {^

33 Terminal bud present "^^

34 Stipule-scars nearly encircling twig; buds long and narrow,
generally over 5 times as long as wide, divergent; bud-scales in
pairs, 4-ranked, 10 or more scales visible Beech (Fagus) p.294

34 Stipule-scars when present relatively short; buds stouter, generally
" not over 4 times as long as wide; bud-scales less numerous 35

35. Buds stalked ^I^

35. Buds not stalked "* '

36 Buds, for the most part naked, i.e. with undeveloped leaves serving
■ the function of scales; woody, 4-parted fruits and the remains of

last season's nowers generally present ....... ... ...

Witch Hazel (Hamamehs virginiana) p.344

36. Buds 'covered 'with bud-scales; fruit a woody ^^"j^;^^^^^/^^^^J^\"- p;2»2

37 Leaf-scars very narrow. V-shaped, swollen at the 3 bundle-scars;
buds long, appressed; bud-scale tipped with dark point; .stipule-
scars absent Shad Bush (Amelanchxer canadensis) p.SoS

37 Leaf-scars relatively broad; buds shorter; bud-scale without con-
* spicuous dark point: stipule-scars present though often mcon-

38. Bundle-scars 3; bark of young stem and branches with horizon-
tally elongated lenticels. often peeling into papery layers; pith
generally elliptical often with irregularly toothed edges; fruit a
catkin, immature catkins generally present on tree in winter.

Birch (Betula) 104

3S Buiidie-scar's "several; "lent i'c'e'ls not horizontally elongated; bark
never peeling in papery layers; pith more or less 5-pointed star-
shaped; fruit a bur Chestnut (Castanea dentata) p.29«

39 Leaf-scar almost entirely surrounding the buds; buds brown, hairy,
several massed together to form a bud-like cone; bundle-scars

raised, generally 5 in a single curved li"^- •••••••.••••;••• U'^sft

Yellow AVood (Cladrastts liitea) p.386

39. Le'af -scar' not 'm'o'r'e than half surrounding the bud; buds not massed
together into a hairy cone

40 Bundle-scars 3 or more in a single curved line. . . . . ... . . 43

40 Bundle-scars more than 3 in a closed ellipse, double line, vari-
ously clustered or irregularly scattered 41

41. 2-3 scales visible to a bud; bundle-scars not prominently pro-

41 4 or more scales visible to a bud; bundle-scars rather prominently
■ projecting Mulberry (MorusJ 141


42. Twigs usually zigzag; pith roundish; buds and twigs mucilaginous
when chewed; fruit spherical, woody, about size of |ea, attached to
a leaty bract Ldndeii (Tilia) n 416

42. Twigs nearly straight; pith more or less ' 5-pointed. star-shaped-
buds and twigs not mucilaginous when chewed; fruit a large bur!
Chestnut (Castanea dentataj p.29(i


Buds superposed, at least at some of the nodes; stipule-scars

absent ; older pith with reddish streaks

. „ • • • • Redbiid (Cercis canadensis) p.384

43. Buds never superposed; stipule-scars present; pith without reddish
streaks 44

44. 2-3 scales visible to a bud 45

44. 4 or more scales visible to a bud 46

45. Buds stout; buds and twigs mucilaginous when chewed; lenticels
not horizontally elongated; fruit spherical, woody, about size of
pea, attached to leafy bract Lrinden (Tilia) p.416

45. Buds narrower, buds and twigs not mucilaginous when chewed*
lenticels on stems and branches horizontally elongated; bark often
peeling in papery layers; fruit a winged seed-like body borne in
catkins Birch (Betula) 104

46. Bud-scales 2-ranked (i.e. arranged on the bud in 2 longitudinal
rows); leaf-scars covered with a smooth corky layer; bundle-scars
typically sunken; bark ridged; catkins absent

,^ •••• , Elm (Ulmus) 138

46. Bud-scales more than 2-ranked; leaf-scars not covered with smooth
corky layer; bundle-scars not sunken; fruit borne in catkins. .. 47

47 Lenticels horizontally elongated with age; bark on young trunks
and branches smooth, not becoming fluted, often peeling into
papery layers but not flaky; fruit a flat seed-like body borne in

catkins; catkins generally present on tree in winter

Birch (Betula) 104

47. Lenticels not horizontally elongated; bark flaky or fluted; bud-
scales 4-ranked; fruit a nutlet attached to a bract 48

48. Bark flaky; twigs 1-2 mm. thick; buds usually 3-7 mm. long;
nutlet enclosed by a sac-like bract; staminate catkins generally

abundantly present in winter

Hop Horubeam (Ostrya virginiana) p.276

48. Bark smooth, close, sinewy-fluted; twigs about 1 mm. or less
thick; buds usually 2-4 mm. long; nutlet attached to flattish,
toothed bract; staminate catkins enclosed in enlarged scaly buds,

therefore no catkins visible on tree in winter

American Hornbeam (Carpimcs caroliniana) p.2/78

49. Buds clustered at tips of vigorous shoots; terminal bud not greatly
larger than others of the cluster 50

49. Buds not clustered at tips of vigorous shoots, or if slightly clus-
tered, then terminal bud much larger than others of the cluster 53

50. Bundle-scars numerous, scattered; pith regularly 5-pointed, star-
shaped Oalc (Quercus) 109 and 120

50. Bundle-scars 3; pith not 5-pointed, star-shaped 51

51. Terminal bud absent, but leaving a terminal scar on twig

Plum (Prunus) 150

51. Terminal bud present 52

52. Buds woolly at least at tip; collateral buds generally present

.• Peach (Prunus Persica) p.27S

52 Buds smooth; collateral buds generally absent 145

53. Buds stalked 54

53 Buds not stalked 56

54. Buds bright yellow dotted, often superposed

Bitternut (Carya cordiformisj p.274

54. Buds not bright yellow dotted, not superposed 55

55 Buds always stalked, blunt; stipule-scars present; catkins present
in winter Alder (Alnus) p.292


f^^ Buds except occasionally on rapidly grown twigs, generally not
stalked pointed; corky ridges generally present on branchlets;
stipule-scars and /J^tkin^s^absent^ • - .-^.•^— 'j,- • ■styra

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