Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

. (page 16 of 31)
Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 16 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

nut hairy inside; abortive ovules at the top of the nut; scales

of acorn-cup broad and thin; lobes of leaves bristle-pointed

Black Oaks 110

109. Fruit maturing in one year, ripe acorns therefore borne upon past
season's growth; no immature acorns to be found upon twigs in
winter; shell of nut smooth inside; abortive ovules at base of nut;
lower scales at least of acorn cup more or less thickened at base
giving a knobby appearance to surface of cup; scales more or less
densely woolly; kernel commonly sweetish; lobes of leaves not

bristle-pointed; bark flaky except in Chestnut Oak

W^hite Oaks 114

110. Cup of acorn shallow saucer-shaped Ill

110. Cup top-shaped 112

111. Cup thin, 15 mm. or less wide; buds 4 mm. or less long

Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) p.314

111. Cup thick, 20 mm. or more wide; buds over 4 mm. long

Red Oak (Quercus rubra) p.312

112. Buds under 4 mm. long; twigs slender; shrubs

Bear Oak (Quercus ilicifoliaj p.320

112. Buds over 4.5 mm. long; twigs rather stout; trees 113

113. Upper scales of cup loosely overlapping; buds pointed, whole

surface woolly; inner bark yellow

Black Oak (Quercus velutina) p.318

113. Upper scales of cup closely overlapping; buds blunt, downy above
middle; inner bark pale red. Scarlet Oak (Qtiercus coccinea) p.316

114. Upper scales of cup with thread-like outgrowths forming a
fringe to cup; branchlets often with corky ridges; lateral buds
frequently appressed Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa) p.302

114. Cup without distinct fringe; branchlets without corky ridges;
lateral buds divergent " 115

115. Bark on branchlets peeling back in dark stiff-papery layers;
marginal scales of cup narrow awn-pointed; acorns long-stalked.
Sfvamp White Oak (Quercus bicolor) p.304

115. Bark on branchlets not peeling back in dark stiff-papery layers;
acorns sessile or short-stalked (at times long-stalked in White
Oak) 116

116. Buds sharp-pointed 117

116. Buds blunt 118


117. Nut 20-35 mm. long-; buds 4-10 mm. long; bark thick, furrowed,
not flaky CheMtuut Oak (Quercus PrinusJ p.SlO

117. Nut 15-20 mm. long; buds 3-6 mm. long-; bark thin, flaky

Chinquapiu Oak (Quercus MuJilenbergiiJ p.300

118. Twigs slender, generally not over 2 mm. thick; shrubs

Dwarf Chinquapin Oak (Quercus prinoides) p.308

118. Twigs relatively stout, generally over 2 mm. thick; trees 119

119. Twigs, at least in part, covered with very fine close olive-green
down; buds, generally nearly hemispherical, about as broad as
long; scales of cup only slightly knobby, apex of nut generally
downy Post Oak (Quercus stellata) p.SOO

119. Twigs smooth; buds distinctly longer than broad, broadly ovate;
scales of cup thick-knobby at base, apex of nut generally smooth.
AViiite Oak (Quercus albaj p.298

Key to Oaks without fruit.

NOTE. (W) after name indicates that the tree belongs to the White
Oak Group.
(B) after name indicates that the tree belongs to the Black
Oak Group.
Immature acorns therefore may often be found on winter twigs of
species marked with (B) but not on those marked with (W).

120. Buds large, those at tip of twig 4.5 mm. or more long 121

120. Buds smaller, less than 4.5 mm. long 128

121. Bark of trunk flaky 122

121. Bark of trunk not flaky 125

122. Lateral buds generally appressed, buds downy; older twigs often
with corky ridges Bur Oak (W) (Querciis macrocarpa) p.302

122. Lateral buds divergent, buds smooth; twigs without corky ridges

123. Buds narrow conical, pointed

Chinquapin Oak (W) (Qxiercus MuhlenbergiiJ p.30(>

123. Buds shorter, blunt 124

124. Twigs at least in part covered with very fine close orange-brown
down Post Oak (W) (Quercus stellata) p.300

124. Twigs smooth White Oak (W) (Quercus alba) p.29S

125. Surface of buds pale-woolly 126

125. Surface of buds not woolly 128

126. Inner bark of trunk orange-yellow; twigs bitter, coloring saliva
yellow when chewed; whole surface of bud woolly; buds large,
ovate-conical Black Oak (B) (Quercus velutina) p.31S

126. Inner bark of trunk not yellow; twigs neither bitter nor coloring
saliva when chewed; not more than upper half of bud woolly 127

127. Buds sharp-pointed; ovate, the widest part about i/4-% above base;

slightly or not at all woolly toward apex

Red Oak (B) (Quercus rubra) p.312

127. Buds blunt-pointed; oval-ovate, the widest part at or slightly below

middle; distinctly woolly above middle

Scarlet Oak (B) (Quercus coccinea) p.316

128. Fissures of bark separated by long fiat ridges; buds ovate, more

or less constricted at base; twigs not bitter

Red Oak (B) (Quercus rubra) p.312

128. Fissures of bark separated by long rounded ridges; buds narrower,
conical, seldom constricted at base; twigs more or less bitter when
chewed Chestnut Oak (W) (Quercus Prinus) p.310

129. Buds narrow, conical 1-^0

129. Buds short, blunt 133

130. Bark of trunk flaky 131

130. Bark of trunk not flaky 132


131, Buds downy, lateral buds generally appressed; older twigs often
with corky ridges Bur Oak (W> (Quercus macrocarpaj p.30:i

131. Buds smooth, lateral buds divergent, twigs without corky ridges
Chinquapin Oak (W) (Quercus MuhlenbergiiJ p.SOG

132. Twigs of past season dull, finely downy; shrubs

• • • : Bear Oak (B) (Quercus ilicifolia) p.326

132. Twigs smooth, shining; slender pin-like twigs numerous, arising

at nearly a right angle with the branchlets; trees

Pin Oak (B) (Quercus palustrisj p'.sii

133, Bark on branchlets peeling into long, dark, stiff-papery lavers.
Swamp AVIiite Oak (W) (Quercus bicolorj p.304

133, Bark on branchlets not peeling into long, dark, stiff-papery lay-
ers 134

134, Twigs slender, generally not over 2 mm, thick; shrubs 135

134, Twigs stout, generally over 2 mm. thick; trees 136

135, Bark of trunk smooth; young acorns generally found on winter

twigs; buds more generally conical

Bear Oak (B) (Quercus ilicifolia) p.326

135. Bark of trunk flaky; young acorns never found on winter twig-s.
Dwarf Chinquapin Oak (W) (Quercus prinoidesJp.SOS

136, Lateral buds generally appressed; buds densely downy; older twigs
often with corky rides. Bur Oak (W) (Quercus macrocarpa) p.302

136, Lateral buds divergent; buds not densely downy; twigs without
corky ridges 137

137. Twigs at least in part covered with very fine close orange-brown
down; buds generally nearly hemispherical and about as broad as
long Post Oak (W) (Quercus stellata) p.300

137. Twigs smooth; buds broadly ovate, distinctlv longer than broad.
AVhite Oak (W) (Quercus alba) p.298


Leaf-scars alternate, 2-ranked, semi-circular, small, but conspicuous,
covered with a light corky layer; bnndle-scars prominent, 3 to several,
sunken; terminal bud absent, lateral buds medium sized with 2 ranks
of over-lapping bud-scales; twigs slender; bark ridged; fruit small, flat,
winged, ripening in spring.

138. Twigs gray and rough and strongly mucilaginous if chewed; tips

of buds conspicuous with long rusty hairs

Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) p.322

138. Twigs neither gray and rough nor strongly mucilaginous; buds
without long rusty hairs 139

139. Buds chestnut brown; bud-scales with darker margins; bark
ridged; native species 140

139, Buds smoky brown to almost black; bud-scales nearly uniform in
color, bark firmer, roughened into dark oblong blocks; trunk
mostly continuous into crown with stout limbs arising at a broad

angle; head. "Oak-like;" European species

English Elm (Ulmus campestris) p.324

140. Twigs often with corky ridges; trunk generally continuous into
crown with stiff dependent lower branches; head narrow, "Hickory-
like." Cork Elm (Ulmus racemosa) p.328

140. Twigs without corRy ridges: trunk dividing into several limbs,
spreading gradually upward and gracefully recurving; head broad.
"Elm-like." AVhite Elm (Ulmus americana) p.326


Leaf-scars alternate, 2-ranked, nearly circular; stipule-scars narrow;
bundle-scars projecting in a closed ring or irregularly scattered; ter-
minal bud absent; bud-scales 2-ranked; twigs with milky juice.


141. Buds about as broad as long-, more or less flattened and appressed,
generally under 4 mm. long; bud-scales reddish brown without
darker margins AVhIte Mulberry (Morns alba) p.334

141. Buds longer than broad, not at all or but slightly flattened, diver-
gent, generally over 5 mm. long; bud-scales greenish brown with
darker margins Red 3Iulberry (Morus rubra) p.332


Terminal bud much larger than lateral buds; bud-scales valvate,
united in pairs to form a cap, corresponding to stipules, each pair
enclosing in succession an erect folded leaf connected with the next
inner pair of scales; the unmatured leaf which belongs to the outer pair
of stipular scales falling off in autumn and leaving a scar on side
of bud with a decurrent ridge below, representing its leaf stalk;
stipule-scar narrow, encircling the twig; leaf-scars alternate, more
than 2-ranked, broad, oval to narrow crescent-shaped, bundle-scais
numerous, irregularly scattered or in a double row; twigs aromatic;
fruit a cone made up of numerous follicles which split open in the
autumn and let out the large flattish seeds.

142. Buds large 25-50 mm. long; twigs stout; leaf-scars large .... 148

142. Buds small 10-20 mm. long; twigs slender; leaf-scars small . . . 144

143. Buds densely pale-downy; twigs light yellowish to bluish-green,
more or less downy, fruit nearly spherical. Larg-e-leaved Mag:nolia.

Large-leaved Cucumber Tree, Large-leaved Umbrella Tree .'

(Magnolia macrophylla Michx. ) under Comparisons i).336

143. Buds smooth; twigs brown; fruit elongated

Umbrella Tree (Magnolia tripetala) p.338

144. Twigs brown; leaf-scars narrow, crescent to U-shaped; buds blunt,
densely downy; bark flaky; a tree; in New England found only
in cultivation Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata) p.336

144. Twigs and buds bright green; leaf-scars oval to broadly crescent-
shaped; buds pointed, with long, silky hairs, often nearly smooth;
pith with more or less distinct transverse woody partitions in the
ground mass; bark smooth; in New England usually a shrub,
growing wild in deep swamps in Eastern Massachusetts, also
extensively cultivated. Sweet Bay, Swamp Bay, Laurel Magnolia,

Beaver Tree. (Magnolia virginiana L. ; M, glauca L. )

under Comparisons p.336


Leaf-scars alternate, more than 2-ranked; bundle-scars 3; stipule-scars
present, inconspicuous, or absent; buds with scales overlapping in sev-
eral rows; terminal bud present or absent; fruit a drupe.

145. Terminal bud present 146

145. Terminal bud absent. (Plums) 151

146. Twigs densely speckled with very minute pale dots, brightly
colored, generally green-yellow below and more or less reddish
above and highly polished; buds geneially densely downy at least

toward apex; collateral buds usually present.

Peach (Prtmus Persica) p.378

146. Twigs not densely speckled with very minute dots; buds not
densely downy; collateral buds absent (occasionallv present in
Wild Red Cherry) 147

147. Buds clustered at tips of all shoots; twigs under 2 mm. thick.
AVIlil Red Cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica) p.366

147. Buds not clustered, or clustered only on short fruit spurs; twigs
generally over 2.5 mm. thick 148

148. Short stout slow-growing fruit spurs present with buds clustered
at their tips; European species 149

148. Short fruit spurs absent; native species 150


149. Habit erect, generally with a central leader

^ ^^ Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) p.368

149. Habit spreading, without central leader; buds smaller; twigs more
slender Sour Cherry (Prunus Cerasus) p.370

150. Bud-scales gray-margined; buds generally over 5 mm. long; bark

smooth; generally only a shrub

Choke Cherry (Prunus virginianaj p.364

150. Bud-scales uniform in color; buds generally under 5 mm. long;

bark becoming rough-scaly; a small to large tree

Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotinaj p.362

151. Native species, growing wild 152

151. Cultivated species. Varieties chiefly of the American, European,
or Japanese type of Plum, p.374

152. Buds generally under 4 mm. long

American \^^ild Plum (Prunus americana) p.374

152. Buds generally over 4 mm. long. Canada Plum (Prunus nigra) p.372



Shrubs or small trees with pithy twigs and milky or watery juice;
leaf-scars alternate, more than 2-ranked; bundle-scars numerous scat-
tered or in a single curved line; stipule-scars absent; terminal bud
present or absent; fruit a small drupe borne on erect or drooping

153. Terminal bud present; fruit smooth white in loose drooping clus-
ters Poison Sumach (Rhus Vernix) p.394

153. Terminal bud absent; fruit more or less hairy, red, in dense erect
clusters 154

154. Leaf-scars narrow, V-shaped, nearly encircling the buds; cut twig
showing milky juice 155

154. Leaf-scars broader; inversely triangular to broadly crescent-
shaped; twig with watery juice and resinous taste

Dwarf Sumach (Rhus copallina) under Comparisons p.392

155. Twigs densely hairy Staghorn Sumach (Rhus typhina) p.392

155. Twigs smooth

Smooth Sumach (Rhus glabra) under Comparisons p.392


Leaf-scars opposite, narrow U or V-shaped; bundle-scars conspicuous,
equidistant, typically 3, though sometimes each of these becomes
compounded; fruit winged, in pairs.

156. Conspicuous, narrow tooth present between leaf-scars 157

156. Conspicuous tooth absent from between leaf-scars 159

157. Buds white-downy, collateral buds generally present, twigs gener-
ally with a bloom. Box Eliler (Acer Negundo) p.412

157. Buds smooth, collateral buds never present, twigs without bloom

158. Buds with only one pair of scales visible, older branchlets white-
streaked Striped Maple (Acer pennsylvanicum) p.398

158. Buds with several pairs of scales visible, branchlets not white-
streaked Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) p.408

159. Outer single pair of bud-scales equalling the bud in length, their
edges meeting and enclosing the bud, therefore generally only
one pair of scales visible; pith brown; shrubs or at the most
small trees 160

159. Outer pair of scales shorter than bud, their edges not meeting,
therefore several pairs of scales visible; trees 161

160. Buds and twigs stout, smooth; young bark with longitudinal white
lines Striped Maple (Acer pennsylvanicum) p.398


160. Buds and twigs more slender, both buds and twigs (at least toward

tip) white-downy, white lines absent from bark

Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum) p.400

161. Buds brown, narrow, sharp-pointed, generally 4-8 pairs of closely

over-lapping scales visible, collateral buds absent

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum p.402

161. Buds red or green, broader, blunt-pointed, fewer scales visible 162

162. Terminal buds small, red, generally under 5 mm. long and not
distinctly larger than lateral buds; collateral buds generally
present; pith often pink; native trees 163

162. Terminal buds large, stout, generally over 5 mm. long and gener-
ally distinctly larger than lateral buds; collateral buds never
present; European trees 164

163. Broken twigs with rank odor, bark falling away in large, thin
flakes on old trees, branchlets strongly tending to grow down-
ward and curve upward at their tips

Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) p.404

163. Broken twigs without rank odor, bark rough on old trees but gen-
erally not flaking in large thin scales, branchlets less markedly
curved Red Maple (Acer rubrum) p.406

164. Buds red, inner scales covered with rusty wool; adjacent edges of
leaf-scars meeting and forming a slight projection; bark close-
ridged, not flaky Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) p.40S

164. Buds green, inner scales white-woolly, edges of leaf-scars not

meeting; bark flaking off in squarish scales

Syeamore Maple (Acer Pseudo-PlatanusJ p.410


Leaf-scars opposite, large, conspicuous; bundle-scars numerous,
minute, forming a curved line often more or less confluent; buds stout,
scurfy, brown or black with ovate bud-scales opposite in pairs; twigs
stout and brittle; fruit winged.

165. Leaf-scars deeply concave on upper margin

White Ash (Fraxinus americana) p.422

165. Leaf-scars not deeply concave on upper margin, semicircular to
shield-shaped 166

166. Bark soft-scaly; buds generally black; last pair of leaf-scars
generally some distance below end of twig giving a stalked-like

appearance to the terminal bud

Blaek Ash (Fraxinus nigra) p.426

166. Bark ridged, not soft-scaly 167

167,' Buds black; trees found only in cultivation

European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) under Comparisons p.424

167. Buds dark brown; trees native 168

168. Twigs downy Red Ash (Fraxinun pennsylvanica) p.424

168. Twigs smoeth. Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, var. lanceolata)

under Comparisons p.424


Soft Pine, Weymouth Pine.

Pinus Strobus L.

HABIT — The tallest conifer of New England, 50-80 ft. high with a
trunk diameter of 2-4 ft., in virgin forests of northern New England
trees have been found over 150 ft. in height with a trunk diameter of 7
ft.; trunk straight, tapering gradually, normally continuous into the
crown, with wide-spreading, horizontal limbs, in young trees generally
arising in whorls of five, and with secondary branches in the same plane,
producing characteristic horizontal layers; head broadly conical, spray
delicate, bluish-green.

BARK — On young trunks and branches, smooth, greenish-brown,
becoming fissured into comparatively shallow, broad, flat-topped, longi-
tudinal ridges.

TW^IGS — Slender, light brown, smooth or slightly hairy, resinous.

LEAVES — In clusters of 5, without sheaths in winter, soft, bluish-
green, flexible, 3-5 inches long, slender, 3-sided. MICROSCOPIC
SECTION — sh,owing a single fibro-vascular bundle, 1 or 2 peri-
pheral resin-ducts, a single layer of strengthening cells only beneath the
epidermis, stomata only on the two inner sides.

BUDS — Ovate to oblong, about 1 cm. long, sharp-pointed, bud-scales
long, pointed, yellowish-brown.

FRUIT — Cones, 4-10 inches long, stalked, drooping, cylindrical and
more or less curved. SCALES — thin, not thickened at apex and without
spines. Seeds winged.

COMPARISONS — The White Pine is the only Pine of New England
that has 5 needles in a cluster. The layered arrangement of its
secondary branches enables it to be recognized as far as it can be seen.
Young trees can be further distinguished from the Pitch or Red Pines
by the greater delicacy and bluer color of the leafage. Frequently the
terminal bud of the central leader is killed by an insect, the Pine
Weevil, thus interrupting the growth and causing one or more of the
young lateral branches to grow erect to take its place. Gnarled old
specimens which have many times in their lifetime suffered these
insect injuries may present a rather picturesque appearance but are of
little value for lumber. The tree photographed perhaps had its leader
killed when young, but despite the three erect limbs which have taken
the place of the single leader it still shows the outline characteristic
of the species.

DISTRIBUTION — In fertile soils; moist woodlands or dry uplands;
often planted for ornament, wind-breaks and for reforestation. New-
foundland and Nova Scotia, through Quebec and Ontario to Lake
Winnipeg; south along the mountains to Georgia, ascending to 2,500
feet in the Adirondacks and to 4^300 feet in North Carolina; west to
Minnesota and Iowa.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Common, from the vicinity of the sea coast
to altitudes of 2,500 feet, forming extensive forests.

"U^OOD — Light, not strong, straight-grained, easily worked, light
brown often slightly tinged with red, largely manufactured into lumber,
shingles and laths, used in construction, for cabinet-making, the in-
terior finish of buildings, woodenware, matches and the masts of ves-

VI W^K^i^

W^^^M/ '


^^^^' 1 ^^^^H^^H


'cA ^^'^ ^HHBIH




^ «:-... ^*

AYhxte Pine



Hard Pine, Yellow Pine.

Pinus rigida Mill.

HABIT — Generally a low tree 30-50 ft. in height with a trunk
diameter of 1-2 ft. occasionally 70-80 ft, in height with trunk diameter
of 2-4 ft.; trunk more or less tapering, branches thick, gnarled, often
drooping, forming an open pyramidal or oblong head; foliage in coarse
rigid, yellowish-green tufts. Dead branches and old persistent cones
are frequent and the tree has generally a decidedly scraggly appearance.

BARK — On young trunks and branches rough, broken into reddish
brown scales, with age becoming deeply furrowed into broad flat-
topped ridges separating on the surface into rather loose dark reddish-
brown scales. Clusters of leaves and short branches are not infre-
quently formed directly from the old trunk (see in photograph above
the tape measure.)

TAVIGS — Stout, light brown, not downy, roughened especially after the
fall of the leaves by the decurrent bases of scales subtending the leaf-

LEAVES — In clusters of 3, with persistent sheaths, yellowish-
green, 2-5 inches long, stout, stiff, spreading with pointed tips.
MICROSCOPIC SECTION — 3-sided, showing 2 fibro-vascular bundles,
resin-ducts located intermediate between bundles and periphery,
c+T-engthening cells beneath the epidermis in patches several layers
thick, generally surrounding the resin-ducts and at one side of
the vascular bundles, stomata on all three sides.

BUDS — Cylindrical to ovate, pointed, resin-coated, scales reddish-

FRUIT — Cones li/^-4 inches long, without stalks, ovate becoming more
or less spherical when opened, borne laterally, singly or in clusters
at about a right angle to the twig, often remaining on the branches
for ten or a dozen years and frequently found on trees only a few
feet high. SCALES — thickened at tip and with a stiff recurved prickle.

COMPARISONS — The Pitch Pine is the only native Pine in New
England that has three needles in a cluster. Its ragged appearance with
frequent dead branches, persistent cones, and yellowish-green, stiff
foliage renders it easily distinguished from the White and Red Pines
without examination of the needles.

DISTRIBUTION — Most common in dry, sterile soils, occasional in
swamps. New Brunswick to Lake Ontario; south to Virginia and along
the mountains to northern Georgia; west to western New York, Ohio,
Kentucky and Tennessee.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — mostly in the southwestern section near
the seacost; as far north as Chesterville, Franklin county; scarcely
more than a shrub near its northern limits; New Hampshire — most
common along the Merrimac valley to the White Mountains and up
the Connecticut valley to the mouth of the Passumpsic, reaching an
altitude of 1,000 feet above the sea level; Vermont — common in the
northern Champlain valley, less frequent in the Connecticut valley; Con-
necticut — rare or local in Litchfield county, frequent elsewhere; com-
mon in the other New England states, often forming large tracts of
voodland, sometimes exclusively occupying extensive areas.

WOOD — Light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, very durable,
light brown or red, with thick yellow or often white sapwood; largely
used for fuel and in the manufacture of charcoal; occasionally sawed
into lumber.


..HJ .H^^











BHBHB^ "^v"






Pitch Pind


Northern Scrub Pine, Gray Pine, Spruce Pine.

Pinus Banksiana Lamb.

P. cUvaricata auth.

HABIT — Usually a low tree, 15-30 ft. in heig-ht with a trunk diameter
of 6-8 inches, under favorable conditions becoming- 50-60 ft. hig-h with
a trunk diameter of 10-15 inches; with large spreading branches forming
an open symmetrical head resembling somewhat the Spruce in regular-
ity of outline or on exposed windy situations and in poor soil becoming
stunted with gnarled stem and irregular scraggly distorted head.

BARK — Dark reddish-brown with irregular rounded edges roughened
with close scales.

TWIGS — Rather slender, reddish to purplish brown, not downy, rough-
ened by scales subtending leaf-clusters.

IiEAVES — In clusters of 2 with short persistent sheaths, dark
yellowish-green. %-li/^ inches long, stout, stiff, generally curved and

Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 16 of 31)