Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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in general ovitline.

BARK — Reddish-brown, on young trunks and branches smoothish with
very fine flaky scales becoming with age roughened with larger thicker
flaky scales.

TAVIGS — Brown, smooth or hairy.

LEAF-SCARS — Alternate, more than 2-ranked, on strongly projecting
decurrent ridges of the bark.

LEAVES — Dark green and usually shining, 4-angled, 15-25 mm. long,
sharp-pointed, without proper leaf-stalks.

BUDS — Ovate, pointed, light brown.

FRXTIT — Cylindrical-oblong, pendant cones, 4-7 inches long, light
reddish-brown, falling after the first winter. SCALES — thin, stiff, gener-
ally broad'er than long, margin more or less irregular and finely toothed.

COMPARISOA^S— ^The large cones form the most distintive character
of the Norway Spruce, and when present easily separate this species
from all others with which it might be confused. The pendant lateral
branches generally strikingly noticeable on the older trees together
with the vigor of growth furnish good habit characters of distinction.

DISTRIBUTION — A large tree of Europe especially abundant in Nor-
way; largely cultivated in this country as ornamental individual trees,
in hedges and for windbreaks.

\%^OOD — Light, soft, close-grained, reddish to yellowish white; used
for spars, oars and masts to small vessels.




Norway Spruce



234 TEEES IN" WINTER

DOUGLAS FIR

Red Fir, Douglas Spruce.

Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lam.) Britton.

P. mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. ; P. Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr.



HABIT — A tree under favorable conditions in the west reaching a
height of 200 ft. or over and a trunk diameter up to 10 or 12 ft.;
branches horizontal with more or less pendulus branchlets forming a
pyramidal head. A number of varieties are in cultivation varying
somewhat in habit and color of foliage.

BARK — On young trunks dark gray, smooth, with few resin blisters,
soon becoming roughened, with reddish-brown scales and eventually
deeply ridged.

TAVIGS — Reddish to yellowish-brown, more or less downy, becoming
with age smooth and dark grayish-brown. Photograph of twig is about
% natural size.

LEAVES — Scattered, sometimes appearing somewhat 2-ranked but
less distinctly so than leaves of the Balsam Fir, dark green above, pale
below with grayish lines of minute dots, flattened, generally blunt,
% inch or more long, slightly narrowed at base but not distinctly
stalked, arising at about a right angle to the twig and leaving in falling
a round scar slightly raised at the base, slightly fragrant and aro-
matic when crushed. MICROSCOPIC SECTION — showing a single fibro-
vascular bundle, 2 resin-ducts next to the epidermis, strengthening cells
beneath the epidermis and generally around the resin-ducts, giant
thick-walled irregularly lobed cells frequently appearing in cross-
sections of the leaf on either side of the bundle, stomata on the
under side.

BUDS — Comparatively large, narrowly ovate to conical, sharp-pointed,
reddish-brown, 7-12 mm. long, loosely clustered at tips of twigs; bud-
scales not resinous-coated, often with reflexed tips.

FRUIT — A cone maturing in one season, pendant, stalked, 2-4% inches
long. SCALES — persistent, rounded on edges with conspicuous pro-
truding bracts which are long-pointed and laterally winged like the
feathering on an arrow.

COMPARISOXS — The Douglas Fir resembles the Balsam Fir but
may be readily distinguished by its large dark brown buds, free from
resin, by the slightly projecting leaf-scars and especially by the
cones with persistent scales and lobed bracts. Further, a thin knife
section held toward the light and looked at with a hand-lens shows the
two resin-ducts on the edge of the leaf while those of the Balsam Fir
are located between the edge and the bundle.

DISTRIBUTION — Throughout the Rocky mountain system south of
latitudes 55 degrees north to the Pacific coast, forming extensive for-
ests. Planted for ornament in the eastern states where, however, only
plants grown from seed obtained from the interior of the continent
are successful.

WOOD — Light red or yellow, with nearly white sapwood, very
variable in density, quality and in the thickness of the sapwood;
largely manufactured into lumber in British Columbia, western Wash-
ington and Oregon and used for all kinds of construction, fuel, railroad
ties and piles. The bark is sometimes used in tanning leather.




Douglas Fir



236 TREES IN WINTER.

BALSAM FIR
Balsam, Fir, Balm of Gilead Fir.

Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.



HABIT— A medium sized tree, 25-60 ft. in height with a trunk diameter
of l-Z ft., becoming- a shrub toward the tops of high mountains-
branches usually arising in distinct whorls and throughout horizontal'
ascending or declining, or declining toward the base horizontal in the
middle and ascending toward the top of the tree, forming a symmetrical
broad-based conical head. A rapidly growing comparatively short-lived
tree losing its lower branches at an early period.

BARK — Grayish-brown, smooth with raised blisters containing a
fragrant oily resin; in old trees becoming somewhat roughened with
small scales at base of trunk.

TW^IGS — Grayish and more or less downy, becoming with age grayish-
brown and smooth, branchlets mostly opposite arising at a wide angle.
Photograph of twig is about % natural size.

LEAVES — Scattered, on young trees and sterile twigs generally
twisting so as to appear 2-ranked as in the Hemlock, on upper fruiting
branches and leading shoots generally covering the upper side of the
twigs; dark green and shining on upper side, pale below with grayish
lines of minute dots, flattened, generally blunt, about % inch or more
long, slightly narrowed at base but not stalked, arising at about a
right angle to the twig, leaving after falling a flat, round scar,
fragrant, aromatic when crushed. MICROSCOPIC SECTION — showing 2
fibro-vascular bundles closely adjacent and appearing as one in a knife
section, 2 resin-ducts between the bundles and the epidermis with
stomata chiefly on the under side.

BUDS — Small, broadly ovate to spherical, generally less than 5 mm.
long, closely grouped at tips of main twigs; bud-scales varnished and
glued together by resinous coating.

FRUIT — Erect cones ripening in the autumn of the first season.
SCALES — falling and leaving persistent through winter only the erect
central axes to which they were attached.

COMPARISONS — The Balsam Fir is distinguished from our native
New England evergreens by its smooth blistery bark and by its leaves
which are attached directly to the twig and leave a round, flat scar on
falling. From the Hemlock it is further distinguished by the absence
of leaf stalks and from the Spruce by the flattened apparently 2-ranked
leaves. See under Douglas Fir for Comparisons with this species.

DISTRIBUTION — Rich, damp, cool woods, deep swamps, mountain
slopes. Occasionally cultivated as an ornamental tree. Labrador, New-
foundland, and Nova Scotia, northwest to the Great Bear Lake region;
south to Pennsylvania and along high mountains to Virginia; west to
Minnesota.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — very generally distributed, ordinarily
associated with White Pine, Black Spruce, Red Spruce, and a few
deciduous trees, growing at an altitude of 4,500 feet upon Katahdin;
New Hampshire — common in upper Coos county and in the White
Mountains, where it climbs up to the alpine area; in the southern part
of the state, in the extensive swamps around the sources of the Con-
toocook and Miller's rivers it is the prevailing timber; Vermont —
common; not rare on mountain slopes and even summits; Massachusetts
— not uncommon on mountain slopes in the northwestern and central
portions of the state, ranging above the Red Spruces upon Graylock;
a few trees here and there in damp woods or cold swamps in the
southern and eastern sections, where it has probably been accidentally
introduced; Connecticut — rare cold swamps and woods; Middlebury, Go-
shen, Cornwall, Salisbury; also occurs as an escape from cultivation at
Woodstock, Andover and Farmington; Rhode Island — not reported.

WOOD — Light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, perishable, pale brown,
streaked with yellow, with thick lighter colored sapwood, occasionally
made into lumber, principally used for packing cases, used largely in
manufacture of wood pulp. From the blisters in the bark Canada
balsam is obtained which is used in medicine and as a medium for
mounting microscopic preparations. The fragrant leaves and small
twigs are used to stuff balsam or so-called "pine" pillows.





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Balsam Fiu



238 TREES IN WINTER



HEMLOCK
Hemlock Spruce.

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.



HABIT — A large tree 50-80 ft. in height, with a trunk diameter of
2-4 ft.; branches long, slender, horizontal or drooping at base, ascend-
ing above, forming a broad-based pyramidal head with fine feathery
spray giving a delicate airy appearance to the tree. The apex is plume-
like and generally bent to one side indicating, so woodsmen claim, the
direction of prevailing winds.

BARK — Reddish to grayish-brown, with shallow broad connecting
ridges somewhat scaly on the surface,

TWIGS — Slender, yellowish-brown, more or less downy, branchlets
generally not opposite and arising at less than a right angle. Photo-
graph of twig is about % natural size.

LEAVES — Scattered but generally twisting so as to appear 2-ranked,
dark, slightly yellowish-green above, pale green below with grayish
lines of minute dots on either side of midrib, flattened generally blunt
at the apex, about i/^ inch long with a distinct short stalk, borne upon
a reddish-brown decurrent projection of the bark which is left as a
raised scar at the fall of the leaf. MICROSCOPIC SECTION — showing
a single fibro-vascular bundle and a large resin-duct filling the space
between the bundle and the epidermis.

BUDS — Small, about 2mm. long, ovate, reddish-brown, not resinous-
coated.

FRUIT — Small, stalked pendant cones, ripening the first season, and
generally persistent through winter, about % inch long.

COMPARISONS — In its flattened, apparently 2-ranked leaves the
Hemlock resembles the Balsam Fir, but aside from the difference in
habit and bark, the leaves of the Hemlock are shorter, distinctly
stalked and leave projecting scars when they fall off. Prom the
Spruces it is distinguished by its distinctly flattened and stalked leaves
and flattened spray.

DISTRIBUTION — Cold soils, borders of swamps, deep woods, ravines,
mountain slopes, and also cultivated as an ornamental tree. Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, through Quebec and Ontario; south to Delaware
and along the mountains to Georgia and Alabama, ascending to an
altitude of 2,000 feet in the Adirondacks.; west to Michigan and Minne-
sota.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — abundant, generally distributed in the
southern and central portions, becoming rare northward, disappearing
entirely in most of Aroostook county and the northern Penobscot region;
New Hampshire — abundant, from the sea to a height of 2,000 feet in the
White Mountains, disappearing in upper Coos county; Vermont — common
especially in mountain forests; Connecticut — usually frequent but rather
local in its distribution; Massachusetts and Rhode Island — common.

WOOD — Light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, difficult to
work, liable to wind-shake and splinter, not durable when exposed to
the air, light brown tinged with red, with thin somewhat darker
sapwood; largely manufactured into coarse lumber, employed for the
outside finish of buildings. The astringent inner bark furnishes the
largest part of the material used in the northeastern states and Canada
in tanning leather. Oil of Hemlock is distilled from the young
branches.




Hemlock



240 TREES IN" WINTER



COAST WHITE CEDAR
White Cedar, Cedar.

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP.
C. sphoeroidea Spach ; Cupressiis thyoides L.



HABIT — A small tree. 20-50 ft. in height with a trunk diameter of
1-2 ft., further south reaching 90 ft. in height and a trunk diameter of
4 ft.; trunk tall, erect, tapering gradually, branches short, slender, more
or less horizontal, with delicate feathery secondary branches and
branchlets loosely enveloping the narrow conical head and surmounted
by an airy, pliant, plume-like terminal shoot.

BARK — Grayish-brown, separating off in narrow, shreddy strips, more
or less spirally twisted; on younger and sometimes also on older
trunks the bark separates off in broader reddish-brown strips, (see
photograph of young trunk).

T^VIGS — Generally less than 1.5 mm. thick, slightly but not
prominently flattened, arranged in more or less fan-shaped clusters in
planes at various angles, the last season's growth bluish-green from the
complete covering of minute leaves, with death of leaves the second
season becoming reddish-brown, older growth slowly losing its leaves
and marked by scars of deciduous branchlets. Photograph of twig is
about % natural size.

LiEAVES — Minute, scale-like, 1-2 mm. long, appressed and closely
overlapping, opposite in 4 ranks, but not giving a conspicuously 4-sided
appearance to the twigs, more or less keeled and with a raised glandular
dot at least on leaves of rapidly grown shoots, with spicy aromatic odor
when crushed.

FRUIT — Small, spherical cones, 5-8 mm. in diameter, inconspicuous in
winter, opening toward the center never toward the base, maturing
the first season and persistent through the winter. SCALES — thickened,
woody, shield-shaped, with a slight projection in middle, each perched
on a stalk connecting it with the center of the cone; seeds winged.

COMPARISONS — The Coast White Cedar resembles the Arbor Vitae
as indicated under this species but its twigs are only slightly flattened,
the clusters of twigs are less distinctly fan-shaped, the twigs and leaves
are smaller and the leaves are of a bluish rather than of a yellowish-
green. The cones are distinctive, being spherical and with thickened
shield-shaped scales perched on stalks connecting them with the center.
Aside from the fruit characters which separate them, the Coast White
Cedar is distinguished from the Red Cedar by the more or less distinct
fan-shaped arrangement of its twigs, the absence of two kinds of leaves,
the more distinct glandular dot generally present on the leaf and by
the fact that the twigs are round or slightly compressed in section
and not distinctly 4-sided as are those of the Red Cedar.

DISTRIBUTION — In deep swamps and marshes, which it often fills
to the exclusion of other trees, mostly near the seacoast. Cape Breton
island and near Halifax, Nova Scotia, perhaps introduced in both;
southward, coast region to Florida and west to Mississippi.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — reported from the southern part of York
county; New Hampshire — Manchester; Rockingham county near the
coast; Vermont — no station known; Massachusetts — occasional in central
and eastern parts, very common in the southeast; Connecticut — rare in
western and central districts — Danbury and New Fairfield, becoming oc-
casional or frequent eastward; Rhode Island — common.

WOOD — Light, soft, not strong, close-grained, slightly fragrant, light
brown, tinged with red. largely used in boat building, and cooperage
and for woodenware, shingles, the interior finish of houses, fence posts
and railroad ties.




Coast White Cedar



242 TREES IN WINTER

ARBOR VITAE
White Cedar, Cedar.

Thuja occidentalis L.



HABIT — Commonly 25-50 ft. in height with trunk diameter of 1-.'
ft., in northern Maine occasionally reaching, a height of 70 ft. anc:
a trunk diameter of 3-5 ft.; trunk more or less lobed and buttressed
at base, often inclined and twisted, frequently dividing into two or
more stout, erect stems; branches short, horizontal, lower branches often
strongly declined, branchlets numerous, forming a dense, conical head
clothed with foliage to near the base.

BARK — Ashy gray to light reddish-brown, separating off in long,
narrow, flat, shreddy strips, often more or less spirally twisted.

TVv'IGS — Generally more than 2 mm. wide, decidedly flattened,
arranged in fan-shaped clusters, placed vertically or in planes at
various angles, often mistaken for the true leaves which are minute
and completely cover the last season's growth, dark A^ellowish-green,
paler on the underside, with the death of the leaves in the second season
becoming pale cinnamon brown and later shining reddish-brown, round
in section, swollen at place of attachment to main branch, and marked
by scars of deciduous branchlets. Photograph of twig is about % nat-
ural size.

LEAVES — Minute, 3-6 mm. long, scale-like, appressed and closely
overlapping, opposite in 4. ranks; on the flattened spray those in the
side pairs keeled, those in the other pair flat, ovate, each with a single
raised glandular spot especially conspicuous on leaves of leading
shoots; with a characteristic camphor-like aromatic odor when crushed,

FRl'IT — Small, oblong cones, about i^ inch long, pale reddish-brown,
opening to the base when mature, maturing the first season and persis-
tent through the winter. SCALES — 6-12, thin, oblong, dry with margins
mostly entire.

COMPARISONS — The Arbor Vitae is often called White Cedar and
resembles the Coast White Cedar, which likewise is often known as
White Cedar, in its bark, its habit of growth and its flattened fan-
shaped spray. The twigs of the Arbor Vitae are much more flattened
and larger and the clusters of twigs more decidedly fan-shaped; the
leaves are also larger and of a yellowish-green color. The cones of
the two species are decidedly different, those of the Arbor Vitae being
oblong with thin scales opening to the base of the cone, those of the
Coast White Cedar being spherical with thickened shield-shaped scales,
perched on stalks attatched to the center of the cone.

DISTRIBITTIOjV— Low, swampy lands, rocky borders of rivers and
ponds. Often cultivated as single ornamental trees and in hedges.
Southern Labrador to Nova Scotia; west to Manitoba; south along the
mountains to North Carolina and East Tennessee; west to Minnesota,

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — throughout the state; most abundant
in the central and northern portions, forming extensive areas known
as "Cedar Swamps"; sometimes bordering a growth of Black Spruce
at a lower level; New Hampshire — mostly confined to the upper part
of Coos county, disappearing at the White river narrows near Han-
over; seen only in isolated localities south of the White Mountains;
Vermont — common in swamps at levels below 1.000 ft.; Massachusetts —
Berkshire county; occasional in the northern sections of the Connecti-
cut river valley; Connecticut — rare, Canaan, on a limestone ridge and in
a nearby swamp, Salisbury, rocky hillsides and at another locality in a
deep swamp; apparently native at these three localities; escaped from
cultivation to fields and roadsides at Norwich, East Hartford, Killingly
and Windsor; Rhode Island — not reported.

AVOOn — Light, soft, brittle, very coarse-grained, durable, fragrant,
pale yellowish-brown, largely used in Canada and the northern states,
for fence posts, rails, railroad ties, spools and shingles.





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AUBOli X'^ITAE



244 TREES IN WINTER



COMMON JUNIPER

Dwarf Juniper.

Juniperus communis L.



HABIT — A shrub or small tree 5-15 ft. high; in the type form with
generallj' several erect stems, bearing erect branches densely clothed
with foliage, forming a narrow or rather broad compact plume-like
erect growth (habit picture at the right); in the more common dwarf
variety \_Juniperv,s communis, var. depressa Pursh; J. nana of Britton's
Manual in part; J. communis, var. canadensis Loud.; J. communis, var.
alpina Gray's Manual ed. 6 in part], with low-lying branches, frequently
rooting below, radiating from the center and curving upwards to form
low, broad, round mats resembling gigantic birds' nests 1 to 3
ft. high and often 10 to 20 ft. in diameter (habit picture at the left),

BARK — Grayish-brown, breaking on the surface into thin papery
shreddy longitudinal layers, which lift at the ends and edges exposing
the reddish bark below.

TWIGS — Smooth, light yellow, turning to red, prominently 3-angled
the first two years by decurrent ridges from below the leaves. Photo-
graph of twig is about % natural size.

LEAVES — All alike in whorls of 3, separated by short internodes,
spreading from the twigs at a broad angle, 7-20 mm. long, awl-shaped,
stiff and sharp-pointed, free from glandular dots, compressed, the
upper side concave and conspicuously streaked with a broad white line,
the dark green under side appearing uppermost by the bending over
of the twigs and leaves; persistent for several seasons.

BUDS — Distinct, scaly.

FRUIT — About the size of a pea, fleshy, berry-like, dark blue, covered
with a bloom, sweetish with a resinous flavor, remaining on the plant
during winter, but as the species is dioecious, to be found only on a
part of the plants.

COMPARISONS — The .Common Juniper is distinguished from its n-ear
relative the Red Cedar, by its lower habit of growth, by the fact that
its leaves are all alike and without glandular dots; in distinction
from the typically appressed leaves of the Red Cedar, the leaves of
the Common Juniper are spreading at a wide angle. They thus resemble
the juvenile type of leaves found on young specimens of the Red
Cedar and on rapid-growing twigs of older trees of the same species
but may be distinguished by being almost always in 3's, wider and
longer, more distinctly whitened above, with a greater separation
between the nodes and by the presence of distinct scaly buds. A number
of forms are described but not always recognized. The dwarf variety
(var. depressa) is described as having leaves 8-13 mm. long, and the
type as having leaves 12-21 mm. long but they are best distinguished
by their different habits of growth as shown in the photographs.

piSTRlRlTTIOX — Tn poor, rocky soil, pastures and waste open places.
Widely distributed through the colder regions and mountains of the
northern part of the U. S., in a broad band extending westward from
Newfoundland on the north and New Jersey and Pennsylvania on the
south. The dwarf form (var. depressa) occurs throughout New Eng-
land. The tvpp is reported as less common and as occurring in
Massachusetts and southward; Connecticut — the type is listed as rare
and is reported only from Norwich. It is not uncommon, however,
about Storrs. The variety depressa is frequent throughout the state.

W'OOU — Hard, close-grained, very durable in contact with soil, light
brown, with pale sapwood. • In northern Europe the fruit is extensively
used in giving its peculiar flavor to Holland gin.






Common Juniper



246



TEEES IN WINTER

RED CEDAR
Savin, Cedar, Red Juniper.

Juniperus virginiana L.



HABIT — A, medium sized tree, 25-40 ft. in height with trunk diameter
of 8-20 inches, much larger in the southern states; trunk more or less
ridg-ed and buttressed at base, with slender branches horizontal below
erect above, forming- in young trees a narrow, conical head, becoming
in old age wider, spreading, ovate, round-topped, or on bleak situations
especially nearthe sea shore more or less irregularly distorted.

BARK — Light reddish-brown separating off in long narrow shreddy
strips more or less fringed at the edges, frequently somewhat spirally
twisted.

TWIGS — Generally 4-sided' in mature trees, green from covering of
minute leaves, not flattened nor arranged in fan-shaped clusters,
becoming reddish-brown after the fall of the leaves. Photograph of
twigs is about % natural size.

LEAVES — Dark green or reddish-brown, with aromatic odor when
crushed, persistent for several years, of two kinds: — •

1. The form typical of the species; about 2 mm. or less long, scale-
like, opposite in pairs, forming 4 ranks, closely overlapping and
appressed, rounded, with or without an inconspicuous glandular dot on
the back, ovate, sharp or blunt-pointed. (See left hand twig.)

2. The juvenile form; occurring often exclusively on very young
trees and also frequently together with the typical form on older
trees; narrow, awl-shaped to needle-shaped, sharp-pointed without
glands, spreading, scattered and not overlapping, opposite or in 3's,
5-20 mm. long. (See right hand twig.)

BUDS — Inconspicuous.



Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 18 of 31)