Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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FRUIT — About the size of a small pea, fleshy, berry-like, dark-blue,
covered with a bloom, sweetish with a resinous flavor, containing gen-
erally 1-2 bony seeds. The fruit remains on the tree during winter but
the species is dioecious and consequently not all the trees bear fruit.

COMPARISONS — The Red Cedar resembles the Coast White Cedar but
it fails to show a flattened fan-shaped arrangement of its twigs, its
twigs further are generally 4-sided when bearing lypical leaves and
on young trees and generally on some twigs of older trees leaves of
the juvenile type may be found. The berry-like fruit of the Red Cedar
w^hen present is the most distinctive character separating this species
from the Coast White Cedar. The Common Juniper is not to be con-
fused with Red Cedar trees that have typical leaves-. It resembles
somewhat the juvenile leaved form of the Red Cedar, however, but the
growth of the former is generally less upright, the leaves always in
3's and generally more whitened above and the buds are more
conspicuous.

DISTRIBUTIOIV — Dry, rocky hills but not at great altitudes, borders
of lakes and streams, sterile plains, peaty swamps. Nova Scotia and
New Brunswick to Ontario; south to Florida; west to Dakota, Nebraska,
Kansas and Oklahoma.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — rare, though it extends northward to
tne middle Kennebec valley; reduced almost to a shrub; New Hampshire
— most frequent in the southeast part of the state; sparingly in the
Connecticut valley, as far north as Haverhill; found also in Hart's
location in the White Mountain region; Vermont — not abundant; occurs
here and there on hills at levels less than 1,000 feet; frequent in the
Champlain and lower Connecticut valleys; Massachusetts — west and
center occassional, eastward common; Connecticut and Rhode Island — •
common.

AVOOD — Light, close-grained, brittle, not strong, dull red with thin
nearly white sapwood, very fragrant, easily worked; largely used for
posts, the sills of buildings, the interior finish of houses, the lining of
chests and closets as a protection of woolen garments against attacks
of moths, for pails and other small articles of wooden-ware, and es-
pecially for lead pencils. A decoction of the fruit and leaves is used
medicinally, and oil of Red Cedar is distilled from ^he leaves and wood
as a perfume.




Red Cedar



248 TREES IN" WINTER



GINKGO
Maidenhair Tree.

Ginkgo biloba L.
Salishuria adiantifolia Smith.



HABIT — A tree reaching a height of 60-80 ft., with generally a single
erect trunk (a double trunk in tree photographed) continuous into the
crown with straight, slender branches, making an angle of "about 45
degrees with the trunk and regularly parallel except those below, which
are more or less declined, forming in mature specimens a very regular
symmetrical broadly ovate to pyramidal head. The secondary branches
are slender and are but indistinctly shown in the photograph. There are
several horticultural varieties including one weeping form.

BARK — Ashy gray, on younger trunks and branches smooth, becoming
with age seamy and longitudinally roughened.

TWIGS — Rather stout, smooth, yellowish-brown, shining, a thin
grayish skin separating off in narrow shreds on older twigs; rapidly
grown twigs of one year's growth, comparatively rare, with scattered
leaf-scars; stout lateral or terminal spurs with thickly crowded leaf-
scars common, PITH — pale yellowish, with ragged outline.

liEAF-SCARS — Alternate, 2-ranked or more than 2-ranked, semi-oval,
raised, upper margin generally fringed. STIPULE-SCARS — absent.
BUNDLE-SCARS — 2, often most distinct in recent leaf-scars on short
spurs.

BUDS — Light chestnut brown, short, conical, generally under 4 mm.
long, isolated lateral buds on rapidly grown shoots, divergent, on short
spurs generally only terminal buds developed. BUD-SCALES — about 5
visible, broader than long, thickened and dotted toward the middle with
small reddish transparent lumps.

FRUIT — A stone-fruit with a sweet ill-smelling flesh. The tree is
dioecious, there being separate male and female individual trees. On
account of the disagreeable odor of the fruit the male trees are more
frequently planted. The two sexes are said to differ in their growth
forms, a male tree being more narrowly pyramidal while the female
forms a broad head.

COMPARISONS — The Ginkgo belongs to the Gymnosperms, an order
of plants which are mostly cone-bearing like the Pines and Spruces. It
has a peculiarity with the Larch in that it is not evergreen as are
most of its relatives but sheds its leaves in the fall. Like the Larch,
too, it has numerous stubby spurs with crowded leaf-scars. It differs
from the Larch in that its large leaf-scars are not strongly decurrent
and are relatively far apart on the rapidly grown shoots and further
have 2 bundle-scars.

DISTRIBUTIOIV — A native of northern China, introduced into America
early in the century and generally successful in the eastern states as
far north as eastern Massachusetts and central Michigan and along
the St. Lawrence River in parts of Canada.




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Ginkgo



250 TREES IN WINTER



YELLOW WILLOW

Golden Osier.

Salix alba, var. vitellina (L.) Kocli.

S. vitellina Koch.



HABIT — A large tree reaching- 50-80 ft. in height with a trung diam-
eter of 3-5 ft.; trunk short, rarely erect, generally inclining to one side,
dividing low down into a number of stout spreading limbs, forming an
irregular broad rounded head.

BARK — On young stems smooth, becoming with age dark gray an,:
deeply furrowed.

TWIGS — Rather slender, bright yellow, smooth and shining or dull
with more or less dense covering of fine silky hairs, bitter to taste.
LENTICELS — scattered, inconspicuous. PITH — more or less 5-pointed.

LiEAF-SCARS — Alternate, more than 2-ranked, narrow, raised, broadly
V-shaped, more or less swollen at the bundle-scars. STIPULE-SCARS — ■
oblique, close to leaf-scars and often appearing connected with them.
BUNDLE-SCARS— 3.

BUDS — Terminal bud absent, lateral buds about 5 mm. long, oblong,
rounded at apex, smooth or more or less silky-downy, flattened and
appressed against twig. BUD-SCALES — a single bud-scale visible,
rounded on back, flattened toward the twig, forming a cap to silky-
hairy green leaves within.

FRUIT — A catkin of small capsules containing numerous hairy seeds
ripening in spring. The Willows are dioecious and the male trees of
the Yellow Willow are seldom planted in this country.

COMPARISONS — The species of Willows are closely related and have
hybridized abundantly. Their classification is based largely upon
differences in the pistils and stamens but since the Willows are
dioecious and therefore bear the male and female flowers upon separate
trees, their determination even when in flower is often a matter of
considerable difficulty. The Yellow Willow here described, a yellow-
twigged variety of the less common European White Willow ISalix
alba L.], is one of the most common tree Willows - in New
England. The European Weeping Willow [Salix babylonica L.] was
formerly much planted for ornament especially in cemeteries and may be
fljstinguished by the drooping habit of its branches. The Black Willow
iSalix nigra Marsh.], a small-budded species, is the one sizable native
Willow in New England. The Willows may be most readily separated
from the other trees by the single cap-like scale to the bud in con-
nection with the 3-bundle-scars in the narrow leaf-scar.

DISTRIBUTION— A European tree much planted in this country for
ornament. It has become naturalized throughout the populated regions
Of New England, in moist places, near streams and ponds.

WOOD — Very light, soft, tough, light brown in color with thick nearly
white sapwood, easily worked and taking a beautiful polish; used in
this country for charcoal and for food.










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Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 19 of 31)