Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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at a sharp angle with numerous branchlets also sharply ascending to
form a very narrow spire-shaped tree of decidedly characteristic ap-
pearance; spreading by means of root suckers. It tends to retain its
leaves on the lower part of the tree. (See bark picture.)

BARK — On old trees gray to brown, deeply furrowed.

T'^VIGS — Resembling those of Carolina I'oplar but slender, round and
appressed.

LiEAF-SCARS — Resembling those of Carolina Poplar, but smaller.

BUDS — Resembling those of Carolina Poplar but for the most part
appressed, distinctly smaller, terminal buds seldom over 10 mm. long
and lateral buds generally under 8 mm. in length.

FRUIT — Absent, only staminate trees being known of this variety.

COMPARISONS — The Lombardy Poplar is readily distinguished from
all our other trees by its striking spire-shaped habit of growth. In
twig characters it resembles the Carolina Poplar but the twigs are
slender and the buds average smaller and are more characteristically
appressed.

DISTRIBUTION — A European tree much planted in this country for
ornament, escaping to a certain extent to roadsides and river banks.

WOOD — Light, soft, weak, close-grained, reddish-brown with thick
nearly white sapwood, used to a slight extent in the manufacture of
boxes and wooden ware.





LOMIJAUDV PorLAll



264 TREES IN WINTER



BUTTERNUT
Oilnut, White Walnut.

Juglans cinerea L.



HABIT — A small to medium-sized tree 20-45 ft. in height, with
trunk diameter of 1-4 ft.; comparatively large for the height; soon
dividing into a few stout spreading branches with lower branches
somewhat drooping forming a symmetrical, broad, low, round-topped
head of inversely pyramidal outline.

BARK — On young trunks and branches smooth, light gray, on older
trunks deeply divided into long, rather broad, flat-topped, whitish ridges
separated by smoothish, broader fissures, which are likewise gray or
frequently become black in striking contrast to the whitish ridges; inner
bark becoming yellow on exposure to air, bitter.

TAVIGS — Stout, reddish-buff to greenish-gray, downy or nearly smooth,
round or somewhat angled from lobes of leaf-scars, bitter to taste,
and coloring saliva yellow when chewed. LENTICELS — small, pale,
raised dots. PITH — somewhat 5-pointed, star-shaped, dark brown,
chambered, the narrow chambers a little wider than the intervening
diaphragms.

liEAF-SCAKS — Large, conspicuous, 3-lobed, inversely triangular; mar-
gins elevated, upper margin generally convex, seldom slightly notched,
surrnounted by a raised, downy pad. BUNDLE-SCARS — dark, conspicu-
ous in 3 U-shaped clusters,

BUDS — Densely pale-downy; terminal buds large, conical-oblong, 10-
20 mm. long, longer than broad, flattened oblong to conical, obliquely
blunt-pointed; lateral buds smaller, ovate, rounded at apex, 1-3 super-
posed buds generally present above axillary bud, the uppermost, the
largest, often far alDOve the leaf-scar and more or less stalked or
developing into a twig the first season, especially on rapidly grown
shoots; staminate flower buds lateral, rather spherical, protruding the
undeveloped catkins like miniature scaly cones from the envelope of
short scales. BUD-SCALES — thick, outer scales of terminal bud lobed
at apex,

FRUIT — Elongated, 4-10 cm. long, husk thickly covered with sticky
hairs, not regularly splitting. NUT — light brown, elongated-ovate, 4-
ribbed, pointed, rough, deeply sculptured; within, 2-celled at base, 1-
celled above; seed sweet, edible, very oily, soon becoming rancid.

COMPARISONS — In twig characters the Butternut most nearly re-
sembles the Black Walnut but is easily distinguished from this species
(see Comparisons under Black Walnut). Its points of dissimilarity to
the Bitternut are given under this latter species.

DISTRIBUTION — Roadsides, rich woods, river valleys, fertile, moist
hillsides, high up on mountain slopes. New Brunswick, throughout
Quebec and eastern Ontario; south to Delaware, along the mountains
to Georgia and Alabama; west to Minnesota, Kansas and Arkansas.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — common, often abundant; New Hamp-
shire — throughout the Connecticut valley, and along the Merrimac and
its tributaries, to the base of the White Mountains; Vermont — frequent;
Massachusetts — common in the eastern and central portions, frequent
westward; Connecticut and Rhode Island — common.

AVOOD — Light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, light brown, turning
darker with exposure, with thin, light-colored sapwood, composed of 5
or 6 layers of annual growth; largely employed in the interior finish
of houses and for furniture. The inner bark possesses mild cathartic
properties. Sugar is made from the sap and the green husks of the
fruit are used to dye cloth yellow or orange color.



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Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 20 of 31)