Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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of axillary bud.

FRUIT — Maturing the first season, produced in great abundance, ses-
sile or short-stalked, singly or in pairs. NUT — oval, light chestnut
brown and shiny, apex blunt-pointed and covered with pale down, 15
to 25 mm. long. CUP — thin, deep cup-shaped, covering ^ or more
of nut; scales pale woolly, more or less knobby, thickened at base
of cup, thinner toward rim. Meat sweet.

C03IPARIS0NS — In habit the Dwarf Chinquapin Oak most nearly
resembles the Bear Oak but is smaller when of the same age; has flaky
bark after reaching a trunk diameter of l^^ inches or more, while the
bark of the Bear Oak is close, for the most part smooth, even on old
specimens not flaky though developing small close scales. It further
belongs to the White Oak group (see page 204) and since both these
two Scrub Oaks produce fruit in great abundance acorns are generally
accessible and easily distinguished. The Bear Oak generally has redder,
sharp-pointed buds, while those of the Dwarf Chinquapin Oak are
blunt with edges of scales ashy with fine wool or mealy scurfiness.
Moreover, except in variety rufescens, twigs of the Dwarf Chinquapin
Oak are smooth. The Chestnut Oak and the Chinquapin Oak are
distinguished by their larger and sharp-pointed buds. The buds of
the Swamp White Oak are somewhat similar to those of the Dwarf
Chinquapin Oak but the larger size of the tree and peeling of the bark
on branchlets of the Swamp White Oak are distinctive. Further west
apparently the species inter-grades into the Chinquapin Oak.

DISTRIBUTION — Dry woods, rocky slopes and hillside pastures, some>
times in open sandy soil. From Maine south to North Carolina, west
to Kansas, Nebraska and Texas.

IN NEW ENGLAND — more or less common throughout.

WOOD — From small size of plant, of no economic value except as fuel.

Dwarf Chinquapin Oak:


Rock Chestnut Oak, Rock Oak.

Quercus Prinus L.

HABIT — A medium sized or small tree, 25-50 ft. high with a trunk
diameter of l-2l^ ft.; further south much larger, reaching 100 ft. in
height; trunk tall, straight, continuous, or divided rather low down into
large spreading limbs, forming broad open head, sometimes broader
than high,

BARK — Brown to black, deeply fissured into long, more or less con-
tinuous, thick, rough ridges which are somewhat flattened on surface or
on older trees more characteristically rounded or sharp-edged, a section
through one of the ridges forming thus an inverted letter "V" with its
apex somewhat rounded or in younger specimens flattened; bark of
young trees and of smaller branches smooth.

TWIGS — Stout, light orange to reddish-brown, smooth with some-
what bitter taste. LENTICELS — pale, generally inconspicuous. LEAVES
— oblong, lanceolate to obovate, wavy-margined with 10-16 pairs of
primary veins. PITH — 5-pointed, star-shaped.

BL'DS — Narrowly ovate-conical, sharp-pointed, 4-10 mm, long. BUD-
SCALES — light chestnut brown, slightly hairy toward apex and on
margins, appearing longitudinally striate if viewed toward light with a
hand-lens. Margins of scales tend to lose their brown color and to
become light or dark gray.

FRUIT — Maturing the first season, short-stalked, singly or in pairs.
NUT — shiny, light chestnut brown, oval to ovate to nearly cylindrical,
variable in size and relative thickness; 20-35 mm. long; from three
times to less than twice as long as broad. CUP — thin, deep, top-
shaped to hemispherical, covering Vs or less of nut; scales reddish-
brown, woolly, more or less knobby especially toward base of cup. Meat

COMPARISONS — The Chestnut Oak is readily distinguished from
the other members of the "White Oak group by the fact that its bark
is not flaky. Its firm, round-ridged bark is definitely characteristic
when typically developed. The buds resemble somewhat those of the
Red Oak, but are somewhat lighter in color with edges of scales
bleached, are much narrower and for the most part conical, with the
widest part at or very near the base, whereas the buds of the Red Oak
when typically developed, are much fatter, with the widest part about
a third of the distance from the base. The bark of the Red Oak,
moreover, has flat ridges.

DISTRIBUTION — Woods, rocky ridges and hillsides. Along the Cana-
dian shore of Lake Erie; south to Delaware and along the mountains
to Georgia, extending nearly to the summit of Mt. Pisgah in North
Carolina; west to Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — Saco river and Mt. Agamenticus, near
the southern coast; New Hampshire — belts or patches in the
eastern part of the state and along the southern border. Hinsdale,
Winchester, Brookline, Manchester, Hudson; Vermont; western part of
the state throughout, not common; abundant at Smoke mountain at
an altitude of 1,300 feet, and along the western flank of the Green
mountains at least in Addison county; Massachusetts — eastern sections.
Sterling. Lancaster, Russell, Middleboro, rare in Medford and Sudbury,
frequent on the Blue Hills; Connecticut — occasional near the coast;
frequent or common elsewhere; Rhode Island — locally common.

WOOD — Heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close grained, durable in
contact with the soil, largely used for fencing, railroad ties, ranking
next to the White Oak for this purpose, and for fuel. The bark is
rich in tannin and is consumed in large quantities in tanning leather.


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Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 23 of 31)