Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

. (page 29 of 31)
Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 29 of 31)
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Norway Maple



410 TKEES IX WINTER



SYCAMORE MAPLE

Acer Pseudo-Platanus L.



HABIT — A rather large tree of vig-orous growth, reaching in Europe
120 ft. in height, with large spreading head.

BARK — Dark reddish-brown, flaking off in squarish or short oblong
scales.

TW^IGS — Stout, smooth, shining, yellowish-greenish to brown.

LiEAF-SCARS — Opposite, shallow V-shaped; adjacent edges of opposite
leaf-scars not meeting. BUNDLE-SCARS — 3, elongated lengthwise with
the leaf-scar or compound.

BUDS — Green, sometimes slightly reddish, terminal bud larger than
lateral buds, 7-12 mm. long, broadly oval to ovate to nearly spherical,
much more than % as wide as long; lateral buds divergent. BUD-
SCALES — more or less keeled, with dark brown edging, dark pointed
apex and finely hairj^ margin; scales to terminal bud, 6-7 pairs, 3 pairs
at least generally visible, the outer scales smooth, the 2 inner scales
thickly covered with silvery white hairs.

FRUIT — Generally less than 5 cm. long, seed-like portion nearly
spherical, wings making about a right angle resembling fruit of the
Sugar Maple.

COMPARISONS — Distinguished from the Norway Maple by the green
buds, having outer scales with dark margins and white-hairy inner
scales, and by the flaky bark; from the native Maples by the larger
buds and the peculiar bark.

DISTRIBUTION — A European form, cultivated in the United States
as a shade tree but less extensively than the Norway Maple.

WOOD — Similar in character to that of the Norway Maple and used
for the same purposes.




Sycamore Maple



412 ; TREES IN WINTER

BOX ELDER
Ash-leaved Maple, Manitoba Maple.

Acer Negundo L.
Negundo aceroides Moench ; Negundo Negundo Karst.



HABIT — A medium sized tree 40-50 ft. high with a trunk diameter
of 1-2 ft.; dividing- low down, sometimes only a few feet from the
ground, into a number of stout spreading branches, forming a wide
head.

BARK — Pale gray or light brown, broken by rather shallow furrows
nto narrow, firm, close, irregular fiat-topped ridges which are further
cracked horizontally; bark of young trunks and branches smooth, with
raised buff lenticels, which are horizontally more or less elongated.

TWIGS — Stout, reddish-purple or green, smooth, polished or often with
a whitish bloom which readily rubs off. LENTICELS — conspicuous,
forming somewhat longitudinally elongated, scattered, raised buff dots.

• LEAF-SCARS — Opposite, narrow V-shaped, margined by a lighter
colored outer rim, half encircling the twig, the adjacent edges of
opposite leaf-scars meeting and prolonged upward into a conspicuous
narrow tooth, the inner margin often hairy. BUNDLE-SCARS — large,
3 in number, generally undivided.

BUDS — Short-stalked, red. more or less white-woolly, the terminal
buds 6 mm. or less long, rather longer than the appressed lateral buds.
BUD-SCALES — outer pair less densely woolly than inner pairs, grown
together at base, entirely enclosing the bud or slightly gaping and
exposing next inner pair; outer scales of lateral buds often distended
by formation in their axils of stout collateral buds.

FRUIT — 3.5-5 cm. long in drooping racemes, wings spreading at a
sharp angle, seed-like portion long, flattish; fruit stalks remaining on
tree throughout winter. The Box Elder is strictly dioecious, therefore
fruit is not borne by all individuals.

COMPARISONS — The stout brightly colored red or green twigs and
branchlets often covered with a bloom the first year and the downy
buds with generally collateral buds present on some of the twigs, as
well as the narrow tooth formed at the junction of adjacent deeply
V-shaped leaf-scars render the Box Elder easily distinguishable in
the winter condition.

DISTRIBUTION — Banks of streams, lakes and borders of swamps; a
rapid grower and often planted as a shade tree, thrives best in moist
soil but is tolerant of dry situations. Infrequent from eastern Ontario
to Lake of the Woods; abundant from Manitoba westward to the Rocky
mountains south of 55 degrees north latitude; south to Florida; west
to the Rocky and Wahsatch mountains, reaching its greatest size in the
river bottoms of the Ohio and its tributaries.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — along the St. John and its tributaries,
especially in the French villages, the commonest roadside tree, brought
in from the wild state according to the people there; thoroughly estab-
lished young trees, originating from planted specimens, m various parts
of the state; New Hampshire — occasional along the Connecticut, abun-
dant at ^iValpole; extending northward as far as South Charlestown;
Vermont — shores of the Winooski river and of Lake Champlain; Con-
necticut — rare or local; apparently native along the Housatonic river
from Oxford to Salisbury; escaped from cultivation at Putnam, Groton,
Southington, Wethersfield and Norwalk.

T\-OOD — Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, creamy white with
thick hardly distinguishable sapwood; occasionally manufactured into
cheap furniture and sometimes used for the interior finish of houses
for woodenware, cooperage and paper pulp. Small quantities or
maple sugar are occasionally made from this tree.





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Box Elder



414 TREES IN WINTER.



HORSE-CHESTNUT

Aesculus Hippocastanum L.



HABIT — A good sized tree reaching 70 ft. in height with a trunk
diameter of 2-3 ft.; sometimes with trunk continuous into top of tree
but more frequently dividing soon into a number of large slightly
spreading limbs forming an oblong or broadly conical head, in old
age with drooping lower branches with upturned tips; spray stiff and
coarse with conspicuous terminal buds.

BARK — Dull brown becoming shallowly fissured into irregular plate-
like scales somewhat resembling bark of Apple Tree.

TAVIGS — Stout, reddish-yellowish to grayish-brown, smooth or slightly
fine-downy. SCALE-SCARS — marking annual growth, distinct. LEN-
TICELS — large, conspicuous, scattered. PITH — wide.

L.EAF-SCARS — Opposite, large, inversely triangular. STIPULE-
SCARS — absent. BUNDLE-SCARS — 3-9, generally 7, large conspicuous,
in a single curved line.

BUDS — Large, dark reddish-brown, varnished with sticky gum;
terminal buds often fiower buds, larger than laterals, 1.5 to 3 cm.
long; when a flower bud, a terminal scar is left and the twig forks from
growth of bud pair below. BUD-SCALES — opposite in 4 rows, about
5 pairs visible in terminal bud, thick with thin margins, the lower
pairs more or less keeled and often with abrupt sharp points.

FRUIT — A weak-spined bur, containing the large seeds marked with
a large conspicuous scar; not remaining on the tree during winter.

COMPARISONS — Two western trees with buds free from resinous
coating, i.e. the Fetid or Ohio Buckeye lAesculus glabra Willd.] and the
Sweet Buckeye lAesculus octandra Marsh.], are sometimes planted in
New England. They belong with the Horse-chestnut to the genus
Aesculus which is readily distinguished from other New England genera
by the large size of the twigs, buds, opposite leaf-scars and bundle-
scars.

DISTRIBUTION — A native of southern Asia much planted as an
ornamental shade tree in this country and in Europe and naturalized
in many places.

AVo'oD — Light, soft, very close-grained, whitish, slightly tinged with
yellow; in Europe used by carvers and turners.







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Horse-chestnut



416 TREES IN WINTER



LINDEN
Basswood, Lime, Whitewood, Beetree.

Tilia americana L.



HABIT — A large tree 50-75 ft., to 100 ft. in height in the upper
valley of the Connecticut river, with a trunk diameter of 2-4 ft.; with
a straight trunk generally continuous into the top, beset with numerous
slender branches, those at the base often strongly drooping, forming a
narrow pyramidal head as shown in habit picture or more commonly
becoming broadly ovate or round-topped and oblong. [Habit picture
Is taken from the European Linden, which resembles the American
species ik habit.]

BARK — Dark gray, firm but easily cut, in young stems smooth
(upper part of smaller trunk in photograph), becoming fissured into long
rather narrow flat-topped ridges, divided by characteristically trans-
verse cracks into short blocks (lower bark picture), becoming with age
deeply furrowed with broader more rounded ridges (older trunk).

TAVIGS — Rather slender, smooth, shining, bright red or greenish
or covered with a gray skin; generally zigzag, somewhat mucilaginous
when chewed; fibres in inner bark long, tough, appearing as blunt
conical masses in cross section of older twig, and in surface sections
of the bark as whitish wavy lines enclosing lens-shaped darker masses
which show externally as wrinkled depressions of the bark. LENTICELS
— scattered, dark, oblong.

LEAF-SCARS — Alternate, 2-ranked; large, elevated, semi-oval to ellip-
tical. STIPULE-SCARS — generally narrow, often showing bundle-scars.
BUNDLE-SCARS — few to many, scattered or in a ring or forming a
single curved line, showing as 3 in deep surface section.

BUDS — Terminal bud absent; lateral buds large to medium, ovate,
3-10 mm. long, somewhat flattened, often lopsided, divergent, dark red
or sometimes green, smooth or slightly downy at apex; mucilaginous
when chewed. BUD-SCALES — rarely more than 2-3 visible, thick,
rounded at the back, not 2-ranked nor in pairs.

FRUIT — About the size of a pea, woody, spherical, singly or in clus-
ters of several with a common stalk attached midway to a leafy
bract, sometimes remaining on the tree into the winter.

COMPARISONS — The American Linden, more commonly knov/n among
lumbermen as Basswood, differs but slightly in winter or summer
condition from the European species \_Tilia vulgaris Hayne] which is
much cultivated as a street tree. Another Basswood [Tilia Michauxii
Nutt.] has been reported in New England only from Connecticut, but
is rare in this state. The Lindens are sometimes confused with the
Elms, but aside from the different habit of growth the Linden has
larger, bright colored buds with 2-3 scales only showing, while the Elms
have manv scales visible and their bundle-scars are depressed. From
the Chestnut, the Linden is best distinguished by its twigs and buds
which are mucilaginous when chewed.

DISTRIBUTION — In rich woods and loamy soils and often cultivated.
Southern Canada from New Brunswick to Lake Winnipeg; south along
the mountains to Georgia; west to Kansas, Nebraska and Texas.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Throughout, frequent from the sea coast to
altitudes of 1,000 ft., rare from 1,000 to 2,000 ft.

WOOD — Soft, straight-grained, light brown faintly tinged with red,
with thick hardly distinguishable sapwood of 55-65 layers of annual
growth, employed in the manufacture of paper-pulp; under the name
of Whitewood largely used for woodenware, cheap furniture, the panels
of carriages, and for inner soles of shoes. The tough inner bark
furnishes fibres for mats, cordage, etc.




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Linden



418 TREES IN WINTER



FLOWERING DOGWOOD

Boxwood, Dogwood, Flowering Cornel.
Cornus florida L.



HABIT — A small tree 15-30 ft. in height, with a trunk diameter of
6-10 inches; developing- a low spreading bushy head with slender up-
right or spreading branches and divergent sinously curted branchlets
turning upward near the end and bearing on their upper sides clusters
of fruiting twigs terminated by large conspicuous erect flower buds.

BARK — Dark brown to blackish, ridged and broken into small 4-sided
or rounded plate-like scales, resembling alligator leather in appear-
ance.

TAVIGS — Slender, bright red or yellowish-green, smooth or generally
appearing more or less mealy from minute closely appressed gray
hairs; with bitter taste. LENTICELS — inconspicuous. PITH — gritty,
granular.

LEAF-SCARS — Opposite, on twigs of the season raised on bases of
leaf-stalks with deep ^''-shaped notch between, on older growth
practically encircling twig. STIPULE-SCARS — absent. BUNDLE-
SCARS — 3, in leaf-scars of the season often confluent and first seen in
section through persistent base of leaf-stalk.

BUDS — Lateral buds minute, covered by persistent bases of leaf-
stalks; terminal leaf-buds flattened-conical, red, generally downy at
least at apex, covered by a single pair of opposite pointed scales
rounded at back and joined below for % their length; flowering
buds very abundant, terminal, large, spherical to inverted flat turnip-
shaped, 4-8 mm. broad, covered by two opposite pairs of bud-scales,
the first 2-3 pairs of leaves below the flower buds generally reduced to
narrow-pointed persistent scales.

FRUIT — Scarlet, oblong, about 1.5 cm. long, f.eshy, with a grooved
stone, clustered, ripening in October and generally not remaining on
the tree during winter.

COMPARISONS — The Flowering Dogwood differs from its relative the
Alternate-leaved Dogwood [Cornus alternifolia L.] by its opposite leaf-
scars, from the Bush Maples, — the Striped and the Mountain — which it
somewhat resembles in twig characters, by its alligator bark, the
presence of but a single pair of scales to terminal leaf-bud, by the
persistent bases of leaf-stalks covering the lateral buds and by the
generally abundant large flower buds.

DISTRIBUTIOIV — Woodlands, rocky hillsides, moist, gravelly ridges,
frequently cultivated as an ornamental tree. Provinces of Quebec and
Ontario; south to Florida; west to Minnesota and Texas.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — Fayette Ridge, Kenebec county; New
Hampshire — along the Atlantic coast and very near the Connecticut
river, rarely farther north than its junction with the West river;
Vermont — southern and southwestern sections, rare; Massachusetts —
occasional throughout the state, common in the Connecticut river
valley, frequent eastward; Connecticut — occasional, local or frequent;
Rhode Island — common.

WOOD — Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, brown sometimes chang-
ing to shades of green and red, with lighter colored sapwood of 30-40
layers of annual growth; largely used in turnery, for the bearings of
machinery, the hubs of small wheels, barrel hoops, the handles of
tools and occasionally for engravers' blocks.




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FLOwERiiCG Dogwood



420 TREES IN WINTER



TUPELO
Pepperidge, Sour or Black Gum.

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.
N. multiflora Wang.



HABIT — A tree 20-50 ft. in height with trunk diameter of 1-2 ft,
or in the forest 60-80 ft. high, reaching greater dimensions further
south; generally easily recognized from the manner of branching alone,
though extremely variable in outline. The trunk is erect, generally
continuous well into the top, lower branches developed low down on
trunk, horizontal or declined often to the ground, upper branches
horizontal or slightly ascending, with numerous lateral branches and
stubby branchlets forming horizontal layers. The branches are slender
and exceedingly numerous, more so than in any other of our trees. The
head may be short, cylindrical and flat-topped, or low and broader than
tall (see plate lower habit picture), or more commonly as when crowded
In the forest, narrow, pvramidal or conical (see plate upper habit
picture) or inversely conical and broad and flat at top.

BARK — On young tree, grayish, flaky, on older trunks darker with
deeper furrows and ridges broken into somewhat regular hexagonal
blocks.

TAV^IGS — Slender, smooth or nearly so, grayish to light reddish-brown,
producing numerous short slow-growing spurs crowded with leaf-scars
on the sides of more rapidly grown shoots. LENTICELS — scattered,
inconspicuous. PITH — with thin transverse woody partitions through
the ground-mass, best seen with aid of a hand-lens.

L.EAF-SCARS — Alternate, generally more than 2-ranked, distinct,
broadly crescent-shaped. STIPULE-SCARS — absent. BUNDLE-SCARS —
conspicuous, 3, simple or slightly compound but in 3 distinct groups,
generally depressed, whitish in contrast to reddish-brown of leaf-scar.

BUDS — Ovate, dark reddish-brown, smooth or slightly downy at tip,
the lateral buds generally blunt-pointed, divergent, on vigorous shoots
slightly raised on a cushion of the bark, sometimes on vigorous shoots
developing a superposed accessory bud larger than the axillary one;
terminal bud slightly larger than laterals, about 5 mm. long, generally
sharper pointed, wvth slightly curved apex. BUD-SCALES — 3-4 visible,
broadly ovate, rounded, terminally somewhat keeled and pointed.

FRUIT — A small bluish drupe ripening in autumn.

COMPARISONS — Although the outline of the crown differs widely,
the numerous slender horizontally layered branches generally render
the Tupelo distinguishable at a distance. Its stubby branchlets remind
one somewhat of the Pear Tree. Its broad leaf-scars and 3 conspicuous
bundle-scars in connection with the woody partitions in the pith will
prevent its being confused with any other tree.

DISTRIBUTION — In rich, moist soil, in swamps and on the borders
of rivers and ponds. Ontario; south to Florida; west to Michigan,
Missouri, and Texas.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — Waterville on the Kennebec, the most
northern station yet reported; New Hampshire — most common in the
Merrimac valley, seldom seen north of the White Mountains; Vermont —
occasional; Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island — rather com-
mon.

WOOD — Heavy, soft, strong, fine-grained, very tough, difficult to split,
not durable, light yellow or nearly white, with thick lighter colored
sapwood of 80-100 layers of annual growth; used for the hubs of wheels,
rollers in glass factories, ox-yokes, wharf piles and sometimes for the
soles of shoes.








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Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 29 of 31)