Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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White Ash.




Red Ash



426 TREES IN" WINTER



BLACK ASH
Hoop, Swamp, Basket or Brown Ash.

Fraxinus nigra Marsh.
F. sambucifolia Lam.



HABIT — A tall tree 60-80 ft. in height with trunk diameter of 1-2 ft.,
larg-er further south; in swamps in company with other trees with tall
slender trunk of nearly uniform diameter to point of branching sup-
porting a narrow head; in the open, where it is seldom found, said to
have a habit similar to that of the White Ash.

BARK — Ash-gray, slightly tinged with buff, somewhat furrowed but
generally without deep ridges, forming thin scales smoothish on the
outside and edges, easily rubbed off and exposing a surface rather soft
to the touch suggesting somewhat the feel of asbestos or talcum powder;
trunk frequently with knobby excrescences.

TW^IGS — Very stout, similar to those of White Ash but lighter gray
and not shiny.

LiEAF-SCARS — Opposite, large, conspicuous, circular to semi-circular;
the upper margin not concave, often extending upward as a thin flap
partially hiding the bud; otherwise resembling the White Ash.

BUDS — Resembling those of White Ash but generally decidedly black
though occasionally rusty, terminal bud ovate, pointed, as long as or
longer than broad, more or less flattened at right angles to outer pair of
scales, last pair of lateral buds generally at some distance from the
end giving terminal bud a stalked appearance. BUD-SCALES — of
terminal bud broadly keeled and narrower than in White Ash, generally
only 1-2 pairs visible.

FRUIT — With broad wing, distinctly notched at apex, surrounding
the flattened seed-bearing portion.

COMPARISONS — The Black Ash is easily distinguished from the
White by its soft, scaly bark, the even or raised upper margin of its
leaf-scars, its narrower and generally black buds, and the stalked ap-
pearance of its terminal bud. When growing in the swamps beside the
White Ash its twigs can be seen to be much stouter and fewer than
those of ttie latter species.

DISTRIBUTION — Wet woods, river bottoms, and swamps. Anticosti
through Ontario; south to Delaware and Virginia; west to Arkansas and
Missouri.

IN NEW ENGLAND — Maine — common; New Hampshire — south of the
White Mountains; Vermont — common; Massachusetts — more common in
central and western sections; Connecticut — occasional; Rhode Island —
infrequent.

W^OOD — Heavy, rather soft, not strong, tough, coarse-grained, durable,
easily separable into thin layers, dark brown with thin light brown
often nearly white sapwood; largely used for the interior finish of
houses and cabinet-making, and for fences, barrel hoops and in the
manufacture of baskets.




c.



- ""lij



Black Asti



428 TREES IN WINTER.



HARDY CATALPA
Cigar Tree, Indian Bean, Western Catalpa.

Catalpa speciosa Warder.



HABIT — A tall tree reaching 100 ft. in height and 4 ft. in trunk

diameter in the Ohio basin, of smaller dimensions in New England,

with slender branches, forming a comparatively narrow round-topped
head.

BARK — Reddish to grayish brown, with longitudinal scaly ridges.

TWIGS — Stout, smooth or slightly short-downy, reddish to yellowish-
brown, the tips of twigs generally winter-killed. LENTICELS — con-
spicuous, rather large and numerous. PITH — white, wide, occasionally
chambered at the nodes.

L.EAF-SCARS — Opposite or more frequently 3 at a node, large and
conspicuous, round to elliptical, with depressed center. STIPULE-SCARS
— absent. BUNDLE-SCARS — conspicuous, often raised, forming a closed
ring.

BUDS — Terminal bud absent, lateral buds small, semi-spherical, gener-
ally under 2 mm. high. BUD-SCALES — brown, loosely overlapping,
about 5 or 6 visible.

FRUIT — A long cylindrical capsule, 8-20 inches in length, with nu-
merous flattened, winged, white-hairy, fringed seeds, persistent on
the tree through winter. The photograph of the capsule is reduced to
about % natural size.

COMPARISONS — The 3 large circular leaf-scars at a node with com-
plete ring of bundle-scars render the Catalpa twig easily recognizable.
The long cigar-like fruits that hang on the tree supply a distinctive
habit character. A very closely related southern and less hardy species,
the Common Catalpa iCatalpa hignonioides Walt], was formerly more
planted than the Hardy Catalpa. It is a smaller tree with a rather
more spreading habit but is most readily distinguished from the western
species at the time of flowering.

DISTRIBUTION — Not native in New England but planted as an orna-
mental shade tree and for timber. It grows native along borders of
streams and ponds and rich often inundated bottom-land; southern
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri south into Kentucky, Tennessee and
Arkansas.

WOOD — Light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, very durable in contact
with the soil, light brown with thin nearly white sapwood of 1 or 2
layers of annual growth; largely used for railroad ties, fence posts
and rails and occasionally for furniture and the interior finish of
houses.




Hardy Catalpa



430 TREES IN" WINTER.



GLOSSARY

Accessory buds. Buds at or near the nodes but not in the axil. Of two
kinds, collateral and superposed.

Acorn. The complete fruit of an Oak consisting of a nut partially enclosed
by an involucrate cup.

Adjacent. Situated in close proximity.

Alternate. Scattered along the stem ; said of leaves and scales in distinction
from opposite.

Apex. The top, as the tip of the bud.

Appressed. Lying close against the twig, as the buds of the Shad Bush
.(p. 359).

Awn. A long hair-like point.

Awl-shaped. Small and Capering to a slender point.

Axil. The angle formed at the upper side of the attachment of the leaf
to the stem.

Axillary. In an axil. An axillary bud is the first bud above the leaf or
leaf-scar.

Bark. The outer covering of the trunk or branch. Unless otherwise speci-
fied, the heading "Bark" in the descriptions refers to the bark of the
trunk.

Berry. A fruit fleshy throughout.

Bloom. The powdery waxy substance easily rubbed off, as the bloom on
the twigs of the Box Elder and cabbage.

Bract. A more or less modified leaf.

Branch. A secondary division of a trunk.

Branchlet. A small branch.

Bud. An undeveloped branch or fruit cluster with or without a protective
covering of scales.

Bud-scales. Reduced leaves covering a bud.

Bundle-scars. Scars of the fibro-vascular bundles which ran up through the
leaf-stalk and connected with the veins of the leaf, seen as dots in the
leaf-scar (fig. 20).

Bur. A spiny fruit, as the bur of the Chestnut (p. 297).

Buttressed. Said of the trunk when enlarged at the base as frequently is
the case in the White Elm (p. 327).

Calyx. The outer portion of a flower consisting of a circle of modified
leaves usually green in color.

Capsule. A dry fruit which splits at maturity to let out the seeds.

Catkin. A unisexual, elongated, compact cluster of flowers with scaly
bracts usually falling away in one piece, as in the Alders (p. 293),
Birches (p. 281-291), etc.

Cell. One of the chambers of the ovary. One of the microscopic structural
elements out of which plant tissues are built up.

Chambered. Said of the pith when interrupted by hollow spaces, as in the
Butternut (fig. 101).

Clustered. Said of buds when several are produced near together as in the
Oaks (p. 317).



IDENTIFICATION OP TREES. 481



Collateral buds. Accessory buds at the side of the axillary bud as in the
Red Maple (fig. 102).

Concave. Curved with the upper margin depressed.

Cone. A fruit such as of the Pines with woody closely overlapping scales.

Confluent. Said of bundle-scars, when the separate scars are so close to-
gether that they appear to form a single scar.

Conical. Cone-shaped, largest at the base and tapering to the apex.

Crown. The i;pper mass of branches.

Cup-shaped. Shaped like a cup ; deeper than saucer-shaped.

Deciduous. Falling away ; said of trees that drop their leaves before winter.

Decurrent. Said of ridges that run down from the leaf-scar.

Deliquescent. Said of a tree with broad spreading habit as the Apple
(p. 353).

Dioecious. Said of plants such as the Willows and Poplars that have separ-
ate male and female individuals.

Divergent. Said of buds that point away from the twig as in the Carolina
Poplar (fig. 100).

Downy. Covered with fine hairs.

Drupe. A stone-fruit as in the Cherries with the seed enclosed in a stone
or pit which is surrounded by a fleshy portion.

Egg-shaped. Shaped like an eEE with the broadest part below the middle.

Elliptical. Oblong with regularly rounded ends.

Entire. Margin without indentations.

Epidermis. The outermost layer of cells.

Escape. A plant originally cultivated but now growing like a wild plant.

Evergreen. With green leaves in winter, as the Pines and Holly.

Excurrent. Said of a tree of erect habit of growth, such as the Spruce
(p. 225) or Poplar (p. 261).

Fan-shajjed. Shaped like an expanded fan.

Fibro-vasctilar bundles. The strands containing the elements for the trans-
portation of fluids through the plant. They ultimately connect with the
veins of the leaves.

Flaky (bark). With loose scales easily rubbed off.

Flower bud. A bud containing an undeveloped flower or flower cluster.

Fluted. With rounded ridges.

Follicle. A pod which opens along one side only.

Fruit. The part of a plant containing the seeds.

Gland. A small protuberance, as on the leaves of the Arbor Vitae (p. 243).

Glandular. Provided with glands.

Habit. The general appearance of the tree as seen at a distance.

Habitat. The place where the tree naturally grows, such as swamps, sandy
plains, etc.

Hairy. With long hairs.

Head. The upper portion of a tree.



432 TREES IN" WINTER.

Heartwood. The dead central portion of the trunk.

Hoary. Grayish-white with a fine close down.

Hybrid. A cross between two species or varieties.

Internode. The portion of the stem between two nodes.

Inversely triangular. Inverted triangular with the apex below.

Involucre. The bracts surrounding- the flower cluster.

Juvenile. Youthful, said of the leaves formed in the early stages of devel-
opment.

Keeled. With a central ridge like the keel of a boat.

Key. A winged fruit.

Lanceolate. Lance-shaped ; similar to ovate but narrower with outline
tapering gradually to the apex.

Lateral hud. A bud produced on the side of a twig.

Leaf bud. A bud containing undeveloped leaves but not flowers.

Leaf-scar. The scar left by the fall of the leaf (fig. 20).

Leaf-stalk. The stem of a leaf.

Lenticels. Corky spots on the surface which admit air to the interior of the
twig.

Limbs. The larger branches.

Linear. Long and narrow, several times as long as broad with parallel
edges, as the leaves of the Pines.

Lobed. With rounded indentations running % to % the way from the margin
inward.

Longitudinal. Lengthwise.

Medullary rays. Rays of tissue extending from the pith toward the bark,
best seen in cross section.

Midrib. The central vein of a leaf.

Mucilaginous. Slimy when chewed.

Naked bud. A bud without bud-scales.

Needle. A narrow leaf as in the Pines.

Node. The place on the twig at which one or more leaves were produced
(fig. 20).

Niit. A large hard fruit as in Hickory, Oak and Chestnut.

Nutlet. A small nut.

Oblanceolate. Inverted lanceolate.

Oblong. Two or three times longer than broad with about uniform diameter.

Obovate. Inverted ovate.

Opposite (leaves and leaf-scars). With two leaves or leaf-scars opposed
at a node.

Oval. Broadly elliptical.

Ovary. The part of the pistil producing the seeds.

Ovate. Egg-shaped, with the broadest part below the middle.

Persistent. Remaining on the tree.



IDENTIFICATION OF TREES. 433

Peripheral. Situated near the margin.

Pistil. The seed-bearing portion of the flower.

Pith. The softer central portion of a twig.

Pod. A dry fruit which spUts open at maturity.

Pome. A fruit like the Apple or Pear.

Pungent. Sharp to the taste.

Pyramidal. Shaped like a pyramid with broadest portion at the base.

Raceme. A simple cluster of stalked flowers arranged along an elongated
axis.

Resin-duct. A tube for the conduction of resin seen in the leaves of the
Pines.

Sapwood. The young living wood outside the heartwood.

Saucer-shaped. Shaped like a saucer, shallower than cup-shaped.

Scale. A small modified leaf seen in buds and cones. One of the flakes
into which the outer bark often divides.

Scarious. Thin, dry and membranaceous, not green.

Scurfy. Covered with small bran-like scales.

Sepal. One of the divisions of the calyx.

Sessile. Without a stalk.

Shrub. A low woody growth, smaller than a tree and generally branching
near the base.

S^nooth. Not rough nor hairy.

Spray. The aggregate of smaller branches and branchlets.

Spine. A sharp rigid outgrowth from the stem.

Spur. A short, slowly-grown branchlet.

Stamens. The pollen-bearing portions of a flower.

Staw,inate. Having stamens ; said of trees bearing only male flowers.

Sterile. Not producing seed.

Stipular. Similar in form or position to stipules.

Stipules. Two small leaf-like bodies located at the base of the leaf-stalk
in some species.

Stipule-scar. The scar left by the fall of a stipule (fig. 100).

Stomata. Breathing pores in leaves.

Stone-fruit. A fruit like that of the Cherry. The same as drupe.

Strengthening cells. Thick walled cells present in the leaves of some of che
Pines.

Striate. Longitudinally streaked.

Submerged. Covered, as by the bark.

Sucker. A shoot arising from below ground.

Superposed buds. Accessory buds above the axillary bud, as in the Butter-
nut (fig. 101).

Surface-sectioned. Cut parallel to and near the surface.



434 TREES IN WINTER.

Teeth. Small projections along the margin.

Terminal bud. The bud formed at the tip of a twig.

Thorn. A stiff woody sharp-pointed projection.

Top-shaped. Shaped like a top with the broadest part above.

Tree. A woody plant, lai^ger than a shrub, from which it cannot always be
distinguished. Usually defined as a woody growth, unbranched near the
base and reaching a height of at least fifteen feet.

Triangular. Shaped like a triangle with the base below.

Trunk. The main stem of a tree.

Twig. A young shoot. Unless otherwise specified, used in the descriptions
to denote the growth of the past season only.

Type. A term used to designate the characteristic form of a species in
distinction from its varieties.

Valvate. Said of buds in which the scales meet without overlapping.

Whorl. A cluster of three or more leaves or leaf-scars at a single node.

Wing. A thin flat appendage.

Woolly. Covered with tangled or matted hairs resembling wool.



Library
N. 0, State Collea:e



TREES IN WINTER



435



INDEX

Where the species receives its most extended description, the
page number appears in boldface type. Where the species is other-
wise mentioned, the page number is printed in ordinary type.
Synonyms of both common and scientific names are printed in
italics and their page numbers in ordinary type.



Abele 252

Abies balsamea 236

Acacia 388

Three-thorned 382

Acer 208

yarhatiitn 402

dasycarpum 404

Key to Species 208

Negundo 412

pennsylvanicum 398

platanoicles 408 -

Pseudo-Platanus 410

rubrum 406

saccharinum 402'

saccharinum 404

saccharum 402

var. nigrum 402

spicatum 400

Aesculus :

glabra 414

Hippocastanum 414

octandra 414

Ailanthus

46, 53, 79, 80, 81, 96, 153, 380, 390
glandulosa 390

Alder ;292, 344

European Black 292

Hoary 292

Smooth 292

Speckled 292

Alligator-wood 346

Alnus :

incana 292

rugosa 292

vulgaris 292

Alternate-leaved Dogwood . . . .418

Amelanchier canadensis 3.58

American :

Aspen 254

Beech 294

Elm 89, 96, 172, 326

Holly 39C

Hornbeam 100, 186, 191, 276, 27H

Larch 223

Mountain Ash 3.'t4

Plum 3 72, .^74

var. Gold 374

Amygdalus Persica 378

Aphis 166



Apple 20, 53, 55, 58,

93, 135, 136, 157, 163, 170, 184,
187, 332, 334, 350, 352, 356, 414

Apple, Thorn 360

Arbor Vitae 54, 242

Art:

Tree study in relation to .... 13

Ash 13, 33, 43, 45, 47, 48,

49, 51; 132, 190, 192, 193, 209, 422

American Mountain 354

Basket 426

Black 188, 422, 424, 426

Brown 424, 426

European 13, 424

European Mountain 354

Green 424

Hoop 330, 426

Key to Species 209

Mountain 46, 53, 170, 354

Prickly 388

Red 424

River 424

SwamjJ 426

Western Mountain 354 '

White 66, 79, 81. 110, 186, 188, 192
193, 272, 340, 408, 422, 424, 426

Ash-leaved Maple 412

Aspen 254

American 254

Large-toothed 252, 254, 256

Quaking 254

Small-toothed

190, 252, 254, 256, 258

Austrian Pine 218

Back-yard planting 93

Bag Worm 155

Bald Cypress 133

Balm of Gilead 258

Fir 236

Balsam 236, 258

Fir 101. 234, 236, 238

Poplar 100, 254, 256, 258

Banding 151

Bark 185

Bark-beetles 154

Basket Ash 426

Bassivood 47, 110, 153, 416

Bay:

Swamp 207

Sweet 207, 336, 338



436



TREES IN WINTER



Bean, Indian 428

Bear Oak 308, 320

Beaver Tree 207

Beech 36, 41

48, 186, 278, 294, 358, 386, 406

American 294

Blue 278

European 294

Water 278

Beetree 416

Betula 203

alba ; 290

var. papyrifera 288

Key to Species 203

lenta 280

lutea 283

nig-ra 284

papyrifera 288

populifolia 286

Big Bud Hickory 270

Big Tree 133

Bilsted 346

Birch 33, 36, 46, 47

48, 50, 72, 134, 186, 187, 203
Black 184, 186, 187, 280, 282, 284

Canoe 288

Cherry 280

European Paper 290

European White 290

Gray 282

Gray 72, 92, 286, 288

Key to Species 203

Old Field 286

Paper ....186, 282, 286, 288, 290

Poplar 286

Poverty 286

Red 282, 284

River 50, 284

Silver 282

Small White 286

Sweet 280

White 72, 92, 286, 288

Yellow 186, 280, 282, 284, 288

Bird Cherry 366

Bird's Eye Maple 402

Bitternut 264, 266, 274

Black :

Ash 188, 422, 424, 426

Birch 184, 186, 187, 280, 282, 284

Cherry 362

Gum 183, 420

Knot 364

Larch 222

Locust 388

Maple 402

Oak 186, 312, 316, 318

Oak Group 186, 191, 204, 318

Pine 218

Scrub Oak 320

Spruce 101, 166

216, 222, 224, 226, 228, 236, 242



Black (Continued)

Walnut 49, 51, 264, 266, 390

Willow 250

Black-spot disease 147

Block of Oak wood 42, 43

Blue:

Beech 278

Oak 304

Spruce 166, 224, 226, 230

Bog Spruce 228

Bolting- 143

Borer 80, 150, 151, 170, 176

Maple 150, 170

Maple Leaf-stem 162

Box Elder ..48, 80, 157, 406, 412

Box White Oak 300

Boxwood 418

Bridg-e grafting 138

Bristly Locust 388

Broom Hickory 272

Brown Ash 424, 426

Brown-tail Moth 151, 154, 155, 156
Buckeye :

Fetid 414

Ohio 414

Sweet 414

Budding 58

Buds 189

Bud-scales 41

Bur Oak .' . . . 33, 302, 346

Bush Maple 398, 418

Butternut 7, 48, 49, 51

187, 189, 190, 264, 266, 274, 390

Buttonball 348

Buttonwood 348

Cabinet Cherry 362

Caliper 21

Canada Plum 372, 374

Canker Worm 152, 157

Fall 157

Spring 157

Canoe Birch 288

Care of

Seedlings 51

Trees 31, 114

Carolina Poplar

9, 41, 46. 79, 80, 96, 153, 188

189, 190, 193, 254, 256, 260, 262

Carpinus caroliniana 278

Carya 203

alba 268

alba 270

amara 274

cordiformis 274

glabra 273

Key to Species 203

microcarpa 272

ovata 268

porcina 272

tomentosa 270



TREES IN" WINTER



437



Castanea :
dentata 296

sativa, var. americana 296

Vesca 133

var. americana 296

Cat Spruce 224

Catalpa 7, 9

45, 46, 47, 48, 51, 81, 110, 428

bignoni.oides 428

Common 428

Hardy 79, 80, 428

speciosa 428

Western 428

Cavities :

Filling of 139

Cedar .46, 52, 240, 242, 246

Coast White ..191, 240, 242, 246

Red 240, 244, 246

White 240, 242

Celtis occiden talis 330

Cercis canadensis 384

Chaining 143

Chamaecyparis :

sphaeroidea 240

thyoides 240

Cherry 46

49, 53, 55, 93, 186, 187, 207, 280

Amarelles 370

Birch 280

Bird 366

Black 362

Black Tartarian 368

Cabinet 362

Choke 362, 364, 370

Early Richmond 370

European Bird 368

Fire 366

Key to Species 207

Liouis Philippe 370

May Duke 368

Mazzard 368

Montmorency 370

Morello 370

Napoleon 368

Pie 370

Pin 366

Pigeon 366

Rum 362

Sour 184, 362. 364, 368, 370

Sweet 69, 184, 362, 364, 368, 370
Wild Black . , .362, 364, 366, 370

Wild Red 364, 366, 370

Windsor : . 368

Chestnut 9, 37

41, 48, 66, 69, 81, 133, 147, 148
149, 157, 186, 188, 193, 296, 306
Bark disease ...69, 147, 148, 149

Oak 306

Oak 79, 93, 306, 308, 310, 312



Chinese :

Magnolia 336, 338

Sumach 390

Chinquapin Oak ..9, 298, 306, 308

Chinqiuipin Oak 30'8

Choke Cherry 362, 364, 370

Cigar Tree 428

City Homes :

Suggestions for 89

Types of 89

Cladrastis lutea 386

Clammy Locust .388

Coast White Cedar

191, 340, 242, 246

Cockspur Thorn 360

Coffee :

Bean 380

Nxit 380

Coffee Tree, Kentucky

48, 79, 99, 187, 380, 390

Collecting seeds 47

Collections :

Of trees 24

Students' 28

Colleges, tree study in 25

Colorado Blue Spruce 230

Combatting insects, method of 150
Common :

Catalpa 428

Juniper 244, 246

Locust 48, 79, 81, 190, 382, 388

Comparisons 191

Conservation of scenery 61

Control of Parasites 146

Cork Elm ...99, 322, 326, 328, 346

Cornel, Floxoering 418

Cornus :

alternifolia ' 418

florida 418

Cottonwo'od 260

Cottony Maple-scale 167, 168, 169
Country Roads :

Location of 64

Problem of 64

Crataegus 360

Crus-galli 360

pruinosa 360

Cucumber Tree 81, 336, 338

Large-leaved 207

Cultivated Plums 374

Cultivation 115

Cupressus thyoides 240

Curly Maple 402

Cuttings, propagation by 53

Cydonia vulgaris 3.16

Deerioood 276

Dehorning trees 134

Dime.rosi)orium Collinsii 358

Distribution 191



438



TREES IN WINTER



Dogwood 46, 418

Alternate-leaved 418

Flowering: 418

Poison 394

Double Spruce 228

Doug-las :

Fir 133, 234, 236

Spruce 234

Downy Poplar 202

Dracaena Draco 133

Drag-on Tree 133

Dwarf :

Chinquapin Oak 298, 306, 308, 320

Juniper 244

Pear 55

Sumach 392

Ecology of Tree 19

Elder :

Box 48, 80, 157, 412

Poison 394

Elkivood 338

Elm 17, 34, 35, 46, 48

50, 51, 53, 69, 110, 125, 134, 143
145, 153, 155, 157, 158, 162, 163,
171, 179, 188, 206, 304, 330, 416

American SO, 96, 172, 326

Cork 99, 322, 326, 328, 346

Eng-lish 184, 324, 326, 328

False 330

Hickory 328

Key to Species 206

Moose 322

Northern Cork 326

Red 322

Rock 328

Scale 168

Slippery 322, 326, 328

Water 326

White 66, 78, 80, 81

96, 172, 184, 322, 324, 326, 328
Winged 328

Elm-leaf Beetle

151, 154, 158, 159, 163

Eng-lish :

Elm 184. 324, 326, 328

Oak 133

Eucalyptus 133

European :

Ash 13, 424

Beech 294

Bird Cherry 368

Black Alder 292

Holly 396

Larch 222

Linden 80, 416

Mountain Ash 354

Paper Birch 290

Plum 374

var. Lombard 374



European (Continued)

Weeping- Willow 250

White Birch 290

White Willow 250

Evergreens 36, 41, 47, 48, 49, 72, 88
92, 103, 132, 155, 163, 184, 195
Fag-us :

americana 294

atropunicea •. . . 294

ferruginia 294

g-randifolia .294

sylvatica 294

Fall:

Canker Worm 157

Web Worm 151, 163

False Elm 330

Fertilizers for Trees 115

Fetid Buckeye 414

Field Work 26

Filling Cavities 139

Fir 54, 99, 236

Balm of Gilead 236

Balsam 101, 234, 236, 238

Douglas 133, 234, 236

Red 234

Scotch 220

White 98

Fire Cherry 366

Flowering :

Cornel 418

Dogwood 418

Forest :

Nursery 47

Tent-caterpillar 163

Fraxinus 209

americana 193, 422

Darlingtonii 424

excelsior 424

Key to Species 209

nigra 426

pennsylvanica 424

var. lanceolata 424

pubescens 424

sambucifolia 426

Fruit ' 190

Trees, varieties for home plant-
ing 101

Fungicides 174, 176

Fungus troubles 146

Ginkgo 79, 80, 103, 153, 248

biloba 248

' Gleditsia triacanthus 382

Golden Osier 250

Goriher Wood 386

Graded Schools, tree study in . . 29

Grafting 55, 56

Bridge 138

Cleft 56

Whip 58



TREES IN WINTER



439



Gray:

Birch 72, 92, 386, 288

Birch 282

Pine 214

Green Ash 424

Grills 112

Growth of Tree 31

Grubs 150

Guarding young trees 110

Guards 112

Gum :

Black 183, 420

Red 346

Sour 183, 420

Sweet 79, 80, 153, 346

Gymnocladus :

canadensis 380

dioica 380

Gypsy Moth

151, 154, 158, 160, 161, 166

Habit of Tree 183

Hackberry

46, 79, 80, 81, 153, 187, 330

Hackmatack 222

Hamamelis virginiana 344

Hard :

Maple 402

Pine 212

Hardy Catalpa 79, 80, 428

Haw 360

Hawthorn 46, 49, 53, 170, 360, 382

Hazel, Witch 344

Heeling in 102

Height measurer 22, 23, 24

Hemlock 36, 72, 236, 238

Spruce 238

Hickoria :

alha 270

glabra 272

minima 274

ovata 268

Hickory 33, 46

48, 49, 51, 66, 110, 157, 203, 328

Big Bud 270



Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 30 of 31)