Albert Francis Blakeslee.

Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification online

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commodate two rows of trees and thus give a better distribution.

Distance Between Trees — It is well to adopt a uniform system
of spacing the various varieties of street trees. The individuals
should be so spaced that they may develop into perfect specimens.
The distance between the trees should be slightly in excess of the
natural spread of the species when mature. Of course, such factors
as environmental conditions, the character of the soil, the severity
of the climate, and the amount of protection the trees receive, will
exert considerable influence upon the ultimate development. The
distance at which the commonly planted street trees should be
spaced is about as follows : —

White Ehn 50 feet

Sycamore 45 *^

Sugar Maple 45 '^

Silver Maple 45 "

Sycamore Maple 45 ^^

Red Maple „ 40 "

Norway Maple 40 ^'

White Oak 50 "

Scarlet Oak 45 "



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES 79

Eed Oak 45 "

Chestnut Oak .45 ''

Pin Oak 40 "

Tulip 50 "

Common Locust 45 '^

Honey Locust 40 '^

White Ash 45 "

Linden 40 "

Horse Chestnut 35 "

Sweet Gum 35 "

Ginkgo 35 ''

Hackberry 35 ^'

Ailanthus 30 ''

Carolina Poplar 30 "

Lombardy Poplar 25 "

Hardy Catalpa 30 "

Kentucky Coffee 30 "

It is not always practicable to place trees at regular distances,
for they must be made to fit in a given stretch between cross streets.
In some places the trees are arranged along the street. in relation to
the abutting property. This is not right, for such an arrange-
ment is likely to lack uniformity. It is usually best to have the
trees regularly spaced and where the street is wide enough for
their full development they should be planted opposite one an-
other. On narrow streets, for the sake of giving them more room,
the trees on one side of the street may be planted opposite the
spaces on the other side. The chief objection to this method of
arrangement is the uneven appearance that it presents at the street
intersections. Whether planted opposite or alternately the rows
should not extend exactly to the corner, for in such positions they
are more likely to be injured and are also likely to interfere Avith
the illumination of the streets.

Permanent and Temporary Planting — It is always advisable to
plant long-lived trees on city streets. There is always a tempta-
tion, for the sake of getting early results, to plant rapid-growing
species. The rapid-growing species are usually short-lived, and
for this reason are objectionable. While it is usually best to plant
only one species on a given street it is sometimes permissible to
alternate the permanent trees with trees of a quick-growing spe-



80 TREES IN WINTER

cies. The prevailing objections to such a practice are that it breaks
up the uniformity and that the temporary trees are likely to be
left too long, in this way injuring the permanent planting. Trees
radically different in form and coloring, like the Red Oak and
Carolina Poplar, should present a pleasing effect when regularly
and alternately spaced. AVhen the temporary trees begin to re-
strict the supply of sunlight and the supply of plant food and
moisture, they should be promptly cut down.

The Best Species for City Streets — In the selection of spe-
cies it is well to keep in mind the width of the street, the height
and proximity of buildings, the character of soil, and the relative
susceptibility to injury from the effects of insects, diseases, smoke,
impure air, escaping gas, 'high and low temperatures, ice storms,
and general neglect. The ornamental value of the various species
should also be considered. Some trees are peculiar for their flowers,
others for their summer or autumn foliage, and still others for their
symmetry. Furthermore, a street tree should furnish the required
shade, and species differ greatly in this respect. Again, some trees
like the staminate Ailanthus are offensive on account of their odor,
and others like the Horse-chestnut and the Locusts are objectionable
on account of unclean habits.

The ^Yhite or American Elm is probably the most commonly
planted street tree. It makes a tall, graceful growth and has
many commendable points. Unfortunately it is subject while young
to the attacks of borers and to the ravages of the leaf-beetle and
other insects throughout its whole existence. It is still largely
planted, especially in suburban sections where there is a desire to
produce a natural effect.

The tendency at the present time is to use for city street plant-
ing the species that present a more formal appearance. The fol-
lowing are likely to give good results under varying conditions:
Red Oak, Pin Oak, Scarlet Oak, Eed Maple, Xorway Maple, Syca-
more Maple, American and European Linden, Sycamore, Ginkgo,
Ailanthus, Hackberry, Sweetgum.

Trees of Rapid Growth — Where early results are necessar}^, such
varieties as the Carolina Poplar, Box Elder, Hardy Catalpa, Silver
Maple, Linden, and Sycamore may be employed. The following
table prepared by the late William F. Fox, superintendent of for-
ests for the state of New York, gives the relative growth-rate of



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES 81

a number of native species. The table is based upon the behavior

of saplings which in tlie beginning were three inches in diameter.

It is estimated that in 20 years they should attain the diameter

indicated in the table : —

Silver Maple 21 inches

White Elm 19

Sycamore 18 "

Tulip Tree 18

Linden 17

Catalpa 16

Eed Maple 16

Ailanthus 16 "

Cucumber Tree 15 "

Chestnut 14

Common Locust 14 "

Sugar Maple .13 "

Horse-chestnut 13 "

Honey Locust 13 "

Eed Oak 13 "

Pin Oak 13 "

Scarlet Oak 13

White Ash 12

White Oak 12

Hackberry 10 "

MUNICIPAL CONTROL OF SHADE TREES

There are many reasons why the planting and care of shade trees
should be placed in the hands of municipal authorities. If the
work is left to the property holders the streets will lack uniformity
and the result is usually a jumble of trees of various species, of va-
rious ages, and planted at various distances and in various ways, in
line and out of line, continuous and interrupted. Examples of
the result of such methods may be seen in almost any city.

Municipal control is not a new idea as applied to shade trees,
but only during the past ten or fifteen years has its adoption been
at all general. The laws of IMassachusetts require each town and
city to appoint some one or more officials whose duty shall be the
planting and care of shade trees. Such officials are designated by
various titles, the more common being: Tree Warden, ^it" For-



82 TREES IN WINTER

ester and Street Commissioner . Many states have in their statute
books laws relating to shade trees in towns and cities. The most
progressive legislation along this line is found in the laws of ^ew
Jersey, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Each of these states
leaves the towns and cities free to supplement the statutes by local
ordinances. For the guidance of municipalities that are contem-
plating the problem of municipal control, the shade tree ordinance
of the city of Newark, N. J., is here given in full : —

BE IT ORDAINED by the Shade Tree Commission of the City of
Newark, New Jersey, as follows :

1. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation, without
the written permit of the Shade Tree Commission, to cut, break, climb
or injure any tree or portion of tree planted or growing in any public
highway within the City of Newark, or cause, authorize or procure
any person to cut, break, climb or injure any such tree or any portion
thereof ; or to cut, break, climb or injure any tree or plant, or any
portion of any tree or plant, planted or growing in any city park or
parking strip within the City of Newark, or cause or authorize or
procure any person to cut, break, climb or injure any such tree or
plant or any portion of such tree or plant ; or to injure, misuse or
remove, or cause, authorize or procure any person to injure, misuse
or remove any device set for the protection of any tree or plant in
any public highway or city park of said City. Any person, firm or
corporation desiring for any lawful purpose to cut, prune or trim any
tree in any public highway of said City of Newark may apply to the
Shade Tree Commission ; and if in the judgment of said Commission
the desired cutting, pruning or trimming shall appear necessary, and
the proposed method and workmanship thereof such as said Commis-
sion approves, the Shade Tree Commission may thereupon issue a
written permit for such work. Any work done under such written
permit must be performed in strict accordance with the terms thereof.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize
or procure a violation of any provision of this section or of any
permission given as aforesaid shall, upon conviction thereof, forfeit
and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for each and every such
offense.

2. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to kill
or remove, or cause, authorize or procure the death or removal of,
any tree planted or growing in any public highway, or any tree or
plant planted or growing in any city park, within the said City of
Newark. Any person, firm or corporation desiring for any lawful
purpose to take down or remove any tree in any public highway of
said City of Newark may apply to the Shade Tree Commission ; and
if in the judgment of the said Commission the desired taking down
or removal shall appear necessary, the Shade Tree Commission may
thereupon issue a written permit therefor. Any work done under such
written permit must be performed in strict accordance with the terms
thereof.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES 83



viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Fifty Dollars ($50) for
each and every such offense. '

3. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation owning,
or using, or having control or charge of gas or other substance
deleterious to tree life to allow such gas or other substance to come
into contact with the soil surrounding the roots of any tree in any
public highway or of any tree or plant in any city park in the City
of Newark in such manner as may injure such tree or plant.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize
or procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10)
for each and every such offense.

4. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation owning,
or using, or having control or charge of gas or other substance
deleterious to tree life, to allow such gas or other substance to come
in contact with the soil surrounding the roots of any tree in any
public highway or any tree or plant in any city park in the City of
Ne^'ark in such manner as shall kill or destroy such tree or plant.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Fifty Dollars ($50) for
each and every such offense.

5. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
cause, authorize or procure any brine water, oil, liquid dye or other
substance deleterious to tree life to lie, leak, pour, flow or drip on or
into the soil about the base of a tree in any public highway or city
park in the City of Newark, or onto a sidewalk, road or pavement
therein at a point whence such substance may by lying on, or by
flowing, dripping or seeping into such soil, or in any other manner
whatever, injure such tree ; or to cause or procure such lying, leaking,
flowing, dripping, seeping or injuring.

Any person, flrm or corporation which shall violate or authorize
or procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5)
for each and every such offense.

6. It shall be imlawful for any person, firm or corporation, except
with the written permit of the Shade Tree Commission, to place or
maintain upon the ground in any public highway or city park within
the City of Newark any stone, cement or other material or substance
in such manner as may obstruct the free access of air and water to
the roots of any tree in any such highway or park. Unless otherwise
provided for in feuch written permit as above provided for there must
be maintained about the base of the trunk of each shade tree in the
public highways and city parks of the city at least six square feet of
open ground for a tree of three inches in. diameter, and for every two
inches of increase of such diameter there must be an increase of at
least one square foot of open ground.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10) for
each and every such offense.



84 TREES IN WINTER



7. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to inter-
fere or cause or authorize or procure any interference with the Shade
Tree Commission or any of its employees, ag-ents or servants while
they are engaged in and about the planting, cultivating, mulching,
pruning, spraying or removing of any tree in any public highway or
city park within the said City, or in the removing of any device
attached to said tree or in such removing of stone, cement, sidewalk
or other material or substance as may be necessary for the protection
and care of any such tree in accordance with the requirements set
forth in Section 6 hereof as to the area of open ground to be main-
tained about the base of the trunk of each shade tree in the public
highwaj'^s and city parks of the City.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10)
for each and every such offense.

8. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to cause,
authorize or procure a wire or other conductor, charged with electricity,
to come into contact with any tree in a public highway or with any
tree or plant in a city park in the City of Newark in such manner
as may injure or abrade such tree or plant.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

9. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to cause
or authorize or procure a wire or other conductor, charged with
electricity, to come into contact with any tree in a public highway
or any tree or plant in a city park in the City of New^ark in such
manner as shall destroy or kill such tree or plant.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Fifty Dollars ($50) for
each and every such offense,

10. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
attach or keep attached to any tree in any public highway or city
park in the City of Newark, or to the guard or stake intended for
the protection of such tree, any rope, wire, sign or any other device
whatsoever.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

11. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to tie
any horse or other animal to any tree in any public highway or city
park within said City of Newark ; or, having charge of such horse or
other animal, to allow or cause or procure it to injure any such tree ;
or for any person in charge of such horse or other anim.al to cause or
allow it to stand so that it can injure such tree.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES



85



Viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10) for
each and every such offense.

12. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to plant
or set out any shade tree, or cause or authorize or procure any
person to plant or set out any shade tree, in or on any part of any
public highway or city park within the said City of Newark without
first obtaining from the Shade Tree Commission a written permit so
to do or without complying in all respects with the conditions set
forth in such written permit.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

13. During the erection, repair, alteration or removal of any build-
ing or structure within the City of Newark it shall be unlawful for
the person or persons in charge of such erection, repair, alteration or
removal, to leave any street tree in the vicinity of such building or
structure without such good and sufficient guards or protectors as
shall prevent injury to said tree, arising out of or by reason of said
erection, repair, alteration or removal.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10) for
each and every such offense.

14. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
enter upon any portion of lawn or other cultivated ground in any
city park within the said City of Newark when forbidden so to do
by an official sign or other official notification.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

15. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
throw, deposit or leave any paper or waste material whatsoever in
or upon any part of the surface of any city park within said City
of Newark or in or upon any park property or appurtenance therein
except in the receptacles provided in such park for that purpose.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction tkereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for each
and every such offense.

16. It shall be unlawful for any person above the age of fourteen
years to play at any game in a city park in the City of Newark,
except at such times and in such places and under such regulations
as may be designated in writing by the Shade Tree Commission.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize
or procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10) for
each and every such offence.



86 TREES IN WINTER



17. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
place or erect any booth, stand or other structure, or to place any
wag-on or other vehicle, except such as may be propelled by hand
and adapted for the carrying of children, invalids or dolls, on or in
anj^ city park of the City of Newark, without the written permission
of the Shade Tree Commission.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollar§ ($10) for
each and every such offense.

18. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to sell
or offer for sale within any city park of the City of Newark any
goods, wares or merchandise whatsoever, or to display or distribute
any advertising device, circular or card in any such park.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

19. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
deface, damage, or in any wise injure any statuary or pedestal, or
other structure or park appurtenance whatsoever, in a city park in
the City of Newark.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize
or procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon
conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for
each and every such offense.

20. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to
hunt, molest, injure, capture or in any way interfere with the freedom
of any bird, being free and undomesticated, in any city park in the
City of "Newark ; or to hunt, molest, injure, capture, or in any way
interfere with the freedom of any squirrel, fish or other animal, being
the property of the City, in any such park.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Five Dollars ($5) for each
and every such offense.

21. It shall be unlawful for any person to utter any profane,
threatening or abusive language or loud outcry, or perform any obscene
or indecent act, commit any nuisance, solicit any contribution or
subscription, or to play any game of chance, in any city park within
the City of Newark, or to bring into such park any instrument of
chance or gambling whatsoever.

Any person, firm or corporation which shall violate or authorize or
procure a violation of any provision of this section shall, upon con-
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a penalty of Ten Dollars ($10) for
each and every such offense.

22. Every violation by the same person, firm or corporation, of
any provision of any section of this Ordinance, which continues on
any day or days succeeding the first violation thereof, shall constitute
an additional violation for each of such succeeding days.



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES bl

23. All Ordinances and parts of Ordinances heretofore ordained
which are inconsistent with this Ordinance are hereby repealed.

24. This Ordinance shall take effect immediately.

The Newark Shade Tree Commission is invested by statute with
"exclusive and absolute control and power to plant, set out, main-
tain, protect and care for shade trees in any of the public highways
of the city of Xewark; and with exclusive control of the public
parks belonging to or under control of the city of Newark, or any
department in the government thereof, with full power and author-
ity to improve, repair, manage and control the same."

PARKS AND PUBLIC SQUARES

In the early stages of the development of most of the older cities
there was little expectation that such settlements would ever de-
velop into such enormous centers of population. Little attention,
therefore, was given to the matter of making provision for future
needs, and as a result some of the cities have suddenly realized the
need of parks and have expended vast sums of money in acquiring
land for this purpose. Some cities early realized the necessity for
setting aside large tracts of land for public use and others have
had lands donated or bequeathed to them with the stipulation that
they be used for parks or play-grounds. The smaller towns have
profited by the experience of the older cities and many of them
are making reservations for park purposes. There is, therefore, a
demand on the part of the smaller municipalities for information
relating to the selection and planting of trees for parks and pul)lic
squares.

The Natural Type — In the making of parks the tendency at
the present time is to maintain or develop some natural landscape.
Most of the largest and best known parks of this country are of
the natural type. The designers of the large city parks have real-
ized the need of a large and secluded strolling ground. Only
the larger tracts of land are suited to the natural type of park. In
some instances, like Keney Park, Hartford; Mount Royal
Park, Montreal ; and many others, the native forest has been pre-
served. The making of a natural park from an existing forest
is a simple matter, consisting chiefly in the planning and construct-



Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 7 of 31)