Albert Francis Blakeslee.

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ing of the walks and drives. Many of our large natural parks,
however, had in the beginning very little, if any, woodland, and



88 TREES IN" WINTER

most of the trees that are now found growing in them have been
23lanted. In the planting of these parks the landscape gardeners
have freely copied from nature. In some, like Central Park, New
York, certain sections have been set aside for formal or semi-arti-
ficial gardening.

In the department of a park of the natural type, it is advisable,
as far as possible, to arrange the trees in groups according to spe-
cies. In this connection it is always well to study the special adap-
tation of the various species. Some prefer a light soil, while others
thrive best on heavy or moist soil. Some must have an abundance
of light, while others require some protection from the direct rays
of the sun. It is hoped that the lists given in the following chapter
may be of some assistance in the way of locating the trees in their
most comfortable environment.

The planting in a natural city park should be so arranged that
nothing can be seen that suggests the city. With this in mind the
borders should be supplied with a fairly dense growth of trees
and shrubs. Some of the large growing evergreens will be found
useful for this purpose, using some brighter colored species, of
course, to enliven the effect.

The making of a natural park is not unlike the work of plan-
ning the home grounds. The principles are the same. While it is
true that most natural parks are larger than the ordinary home
ground, the element of size is not such an important factor after
all. The modest home ground is considered a unit while the large
natural park is usually a collection of units, each one of which may
be developed along much the same line as suggested for the country
home. It must not be understood, however, that a well-planned
natural park lacks unity, although this is the prevailing weakness
of many parks.

Many cities have made the great mistake in creating formal
parks when they might just as well have had natural ones. The
chief function of a park is to furnish rest and recreation to the
inhabitants of the city. Those who live in the smaller cities may
readily avail themselves of the refreshing rural scenery which is
the best antidote for the wearing influences of city life. To the
residents of the larger cities the rural scenery is inaccessible. The
city that best serves its inhabitants from the standpoint of parks



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES 89

is the one that furnishes a good supply of rural scenery Avithin
its limits.

The Artificial Style — With small areas it is difficult to follow
the natural style, except at a great loss of space. The artificial
style, therefore, is followed usually on the small city square or
"green/^ In these the walks follow straight lines and the trees
are usually disposed in such a way as to shade the walks and to
contribute beauty to the surroundings. The arrangement of trees
along the walks should be much the same as suggested for street
planting. Furthermore, the varieties best suited to this purpose, as
a rule, are those that are generally recommended for city streets.

Since the trees in the "green" are usually grown under more fa-
vorable conditions than those on the street, it is possible to select
varieties that are somewhat more exacting in their requirements.
Some of the varieties that are especially valuable for their showy
flowers or for their attractive autumn foliage may be used. A
common error in the planting of formal parks is the tendency to
scatter the trees evenly over the whole area, producing the "nur-
sery" effect. In order to show the individual beauty of the trees
and to furnish sufficient light for the growth of shrubs and herba-
ceous plants, a few open areas should be maintained.

PLANTING SUGGESTIONS FOR CITY HOMES

Types of City Homes — The main factor to be considered in the
preparation of planting plans for the city lot is the size. For
convenience in this discussion it seems advisable then to classify
city homes according to their dimensions. In the first place there
are the pretentious homes of the men of wealth where the grounds
occupy from half an acre to several acres. On such places the
planting need not be unlike that recommended for country homes.
Sometimes the owners of such homes prefer to adopt the formal
or artificial style, but in most cases the demand is for the natural
style, and in such cases the object is to imitate rural conditions and
as much as possible to exclude the urban scenery.

Secondly, there is the common suburban home with its detached
house and its small front and back yards. This is the type of
home usually found on the residential streets of the smaller cities
and in the popular suburbs of the larger cities. The people who
occupy such homes are frequently owners and are anxious to make
their homes as comfortable and attractive as possible.



90



TREES IN WINTER



The third type of city home is the one which consists of a house
in a solid row of similar units and which is so near the street that
there is no room for planting. Such homes are dependent upon
the street trees for shade. Some of them, however, have some
room in the rear where planting may be done to good advantage.

There are all gradations between these three groups and there
are probably many other types of city homes that cannot well be
classified. The planting for the first group of homes has been



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ir3



J> ' ) ' ;L'ia ' ' ' i



jU



12. Fed-



Fig-. 33. Sug-g-estive planting plan for a city back yard after Kirkegaard.
PLANTING LIST FOR PLAN NUMBER THREE



Wistaria tnultijuga. Loose-clustered Wistaria.
Tecoma radicans. Trumpet Honeysuckle.
Junijjerus communis var. hihernica. Irish Juniper.
Berberis Thunbergii. Japanese Barberry.
Ligustrum ovalifolium. California Privets.
Phlox paniculata. In variety. Perennial Phlox.
Rhododendron catawbiense hybridum. Hybrid Rhododen-
drons.
Euonymus europaeus. Strawberry Tree.
Forsythia suspensa var. fortunei. Fortune's Golden Bell.
Coreopsis lanceolata. Tickseed.
Iris germanica. German Iris in variety.
Rosa rugosa. Japanese Rose.
Kalmia latifolia. Mountain Laurel.
Viburnum opulus. Mountain Cranberry,
Symphoricarpos racemosus. Snowberry.
Paecnia officinalis. In variety. Garden Paeonies.
Kerria japonica. Globe-flower.
Popxilus nigra var. italica. Lombardy Poplar.



List


No. of


No.


Plants.


1


1


2


1


3


2


4


3


5


4


6


6


7


3


8


3


9


3


10


6


11


15


12


3


13


3


14


3


15
16
17
18


4
5
3
4



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES 95

or other plants are grown, the number of trees in the back yard
sometimes may be increased, but they should not be planted so
closely that they will interfere with one another's natural develop-
ment and prevent the growth of grass.



96 TREES IN WINTER

CHAPTER V
THE SELECTION OF TREES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES.

As has been shown in previous chapters, there are many factors
that determine the choice of species. The fundamental question
to be decided is whether a particular type of tree is suited to the
purpose from the esthetic standpoint. Usually the choice of species
for the production of a given effect is subject to a wide range. Af-
ter considering all of the forms that seem to answer the purpose
in an ornamental way, it is wtII in the final selection to choose those
having few objectionable features.

Some species are better adapted to a certain set of conditions
than others, and certain conditions beyond our control often restrict
the selection of species to a very narrow range. Some trees wdll not
grow on dry soil, others fail to thrive on wet soil. Some fail to
develop properly unless there is an abundance of lime in the soil,
and others fail on calcarous soils. Some cannot stand the smoke
and gas common to city streets. Some require plenty of sun while
others, to reach their highest degree of perfection, must be some-
what protected from the hot rays of the sun. Some w^ill not stand
the seashore climate and others will fail at high altitudes.

The relative susceptibility of species to insect and fungus attack
is a subject too often overlooked. Certain species, like the White
or American Elm, are well adapted to ornamental planting, for
both city and country, but cannot be recommended except for
places w^here they are likely to be taken care of. And again there
are some species that have many desirable qualities and yet are ob-
jectionable in one or more respects. The Horse-chestnut, for
example, is an attractive and eifective shade tree, but it is objec-
tionable on account of the litter it produces on the ground. The
Silver Maple is attractive, graceful, and quick-growing, but it is
short-lived and easily broken by wind and ice. The sex of trees is
an important consideration in some cases. For example, the
pistilate or female Carolina Poplar is very objectionale on account
of its cottony seeds that literally fill the surrounding atmosphere and
attach themselves to buildings, to other trees, and to people's cloth-
ing. The male trees of the Ailanthus, also, are exceedingly objec-
tionable on account of the odor produced by the staminate flowers.



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES



97



The following lists are furnished with the hope that they may he
of service in the selection of species for special purposes and condi-
tions. They have heen modified after Rehder\ and Fernow^
They are not intended to be complete, but are fairly reliable for
northeastern conditions. The common names are used, but their
corresponding botanic name generally may be obtained by referring

to Part II.

TREES WITH SHOWY FLOWERS.
BLOOMING BEFORE OR WITH THE LEAVES,

Apple (fls. white or pinkish).
Cherries, several species (fls. white).
Flowering Dogwood (fls. white).
Peach (fls. pinl^).
Plums, several species (fls. white).
Eed Bud (fls. rosy pink).
Red Maple (fls. blood red) .
Shad Bush (fls. white).
AYillow (fls. yellow).

BLOOMING AFTER THE LEAVES.

Basswood (fls. white).

Catalpa (fls. white or yellow).

Chestnut (fls. white or yellowish, blooms in July).

Common Locust (fls. white or light pink).

Cucumber Tree (fls. yellow) and other Magnolias.

Hawthorn (fls. white).

Horse-chestnut (fls. white or red).

Mountain Ash (fls. white).

Tulip Tree (fls. yellow).

Yellow Wood (fls. white).

TREES WITH SHOWY FRUITS.

Apple (fr. red or yellow).
Ailanthus var. erythrocarpa (fr. red).
Cherries (fr. red, black or yellow).
Flowering Dogwood (fr. scarlet).
Hawthorns (fr. red or yellow).
Holly (fr. red).
IMountain Ash (fr. red).

l_Rehder. Alfred, in Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, IV.
pp. 1835-6, 1906. ^ ^^, -_- ,„,.

2 Fernow, B. E., The Care of Trees, pp. 364-373, 1911.



98 TREES IN WINTER

Plums (fr. red, dark blue, or yellow).
Hed Maple (fr. red in May and June).
Sassafras (fr. dark blue).
Magnolias (fr. pink).

TREES WITH STRIKINGLY COLORED FOLIAGE.

Beech, var. purpurea (Ivs. purple).

Blue Spruce (Ivs. silvery or bluish white).

Box Elder, var. argenteo-variegahwi (Ivs. white and green).

Carolina Poplar, va. aurea (Ivs. yellow).

Norway Maple (Ivs. light or yellowish green in early spring) var.
Reitenbachi (Ivs. becoming dark red in summer) ; var. Scliwed-
leri (Ivs. bright red in spring).

Silver Poplar, (Ivs. white beneath) var. nivea (especially conspicu-
ous.

Sycamore Maple, var. Worleei (Ivs. yellowish).

White Birch (Ivs. light green) ; var. purpurea (Ivs. purple).

White Fir, Ahies concolor (Ivs. silvery or bluish-white).

White Willow, var. argentea (Ivs. silvery white).

TREES WITH BRILLIANT AUTUMNAL TINTS.

Black Oak (scarlet).

Flowering Dogwood (scarlet).

Ginkgo (yellow).

Hawthorn (scarlet and orange).

Pin Oak (scarlet).

Red Oak (dull red).

Red Maple (scarlet).

Sassafras (red and yellow).

Scarlet Oak (scarlet).

Shad Bush (red).

Sugar Maple (scarlet and orange).

Sumachs (bright scarlet).

Sweet Gum (red).

Tupelo (scarlet).

White Ash (yellow and purple).

White Birch (yellow).

White Oak (purplish).

DECIDUOUS TREES VALUED FOR THEIR WINTER EFFECTS.

Beech (steel-gray bark; frequently retains its leaves).
Box Elder (light green and purplish branches).



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES

Bur Oak (corky branches).

Cork Elm (corky branches).

Gray Birch (grayish white bark).

Hawthorn (Crategus viridis and some others, red fruit),

Kentucky Coffee Tree (picturesque, nude branches).

Liquidambar (corky branches).

Mountain Ash (scarlet fruit).

Bed Birch (flaky reddish-brown bark).

Sassafras (green twigs).

Striped Maple (striped bark).

Sumachs' (scarlet fruit).

White Birch (silvery-white bark).

White Oak (retains its dead leaves).

Yellow Birch (silvery-yellow flaky bark).

Yellow Willow (yellow branches).

VERY TALL TREES.

Bald Cypress. Pin Oak.

Black Oak. Bed Oak

Black Walnut. Sycamore.

Carolina Poplar. Tulip Tree.

Common Locust. White Elm

Honey Locust. White Pine.
Norway Spruce.

COLUMNAR OR NARROW PYRAMIDAL TREES.

Arl)or Vitae.

Bald Cypress.

Black Maple, var. monumcntale.

Coast White Cedar.

Firs (most species).

Juniper, var. Suecica and pijramidalis.

Larch.

Lombardy Poplar.

Bed Cedar.

Silver Poplar, var. Bolleana.

Spruces (most species).

Tulip Tree, var. pyramidalis.

WEEPING TREES.

Ash (Fraxiniis Excelsior^ var. pendula).
Basswood (Tilia petiolaris).



100 TREES IN WINTER

Beech (Fagus sijlvatica, var. pendula).
Cherry {Prunus serotina, var. pendula).
Elm (Uhnus scabra, var. pendula).
Maple {Acer saccliarinum, var. TFien).
Oak {Quercus pedunculata, var. pendida).
Plum (Primus pendida).
White Birch (Betula alba, var. pendula).
Willow {Salix Babylonica) .

TREES RESISTANT TO SMOKE.

Ailanthus. Horse-Chestnut.

American Hornbeam. Linden

Balsam Poplar. Maples (most species),

Carolina Poplar. Shad Bush.

Flowering Dogwood. Sycamore.

Hawthorns. AYhite Oak.

Honey Locust. White Elm.

DESIRABLE SHADE AND AVENUE TREES.

Black Oak. Red Oak.

Black Walnut. Scarlet Oak.

Chestnut. Silver Maple.

Chestnut Oak. Sweet Gum.

Ginkgo. Sycamore.

Honey Locust. Sycamore Maple.

Horse-chestnut. Tulip Tree.

Linden. White Elm.

Norway Maple. AVhite Oak
Pin Oak.

TREES FOR SEASIDE PLANTING

Arbor Vitae. Sassafras.

Ailanthus. Scotch Pine.

Austrian Pine. Small-toothed Aspen.

Carolina Poplar. Tupelo.

Common Juniper. White Spruce.

Pitch Pine. Yellow Willow.
Eed Oak.

TREES FOR DRY SITUATIONS AND DRY CLIMATES.

Black Oak. Scarlet Oak.

Chestnut Oak. ' Scotch Pine.

Common Juniper, Shad Bush.



PLANTING AND CARE OF TREES. 101

Pitch Pine Smooth Alder.

Red Cedar. White Birch.

Red Oak.

TREES BEST ADAPTED TO WET SOILS.

Aklers. Red Birch.

Bald Cypress. Red Oak.

Balsam Fir. Red Maple.

Black Oak. Silver Maple.

Black Spruce. Swamp White Oak.

Coast White Cedar. Sweet Gum.

Larch. Sycamore.

Linden. Tupelo.

Pin Oak. White Birch.

Pitch Pine. White Spruce.

Poplars (most species). Willows (most species).

TREES BEST SUITED TO CALCAREOUS OR LIMESTONE SOILS.

Austrian Pine. Larch.

Beech. Plums.

Coast White Cedar. Poplars (most species).

Flowering Dogwood. Scotch Pine.

Hawthorns. Shad Bush.

Juniper.

VARIETIES OF FRUIT TREES FOR HOME PLANTING.

Apples: — Yellow Transparent^ Red Astrachan, Williams, Olden-
berg, Gravenstein, Chenango, Wealthy, Mcintosh, Fameuse,
Fall Pippin, Wagener, Jonathan, Sutton, Tolman, Grimes,
King, Hubbardston, Northern Spy, Red Canada, Golden
Russet, Delicious, Ontario, Roxbury, Baldwin.

Pears: — Summer Doyenne, Giffard, Bartlett, Flemish Beauty,
Sheldon, Seckel, Bosc, Anjou, Lawrence, Winter Nelis.

Quinces : — Orange, Champion.

Peaches: — Rivers, Greensboro, St. John, Carmen, "^^ountain Rose,
Early Crawford, Crosby, Champion, Late Crawford, Elberta,
Stevens, Smock.



Online LibraryAlbert Francis BlakesleeTrees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification → online text (page 8 of 31)